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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Offenders are more likely to be relatives or acquaintances of their victim than strangers. The percentage of incidents of sexual abuse by female perpetrators that come to the attention of the legal system is usually reported to be between 1% and 4%. Studies of sexual misconduct in US schools female sex offenders have showed mixed results with rates between 4% to 43% of female offenders. In U.S. schools, educators who offend range in age from "21 to 75 years old, with an average age of 28" with teachers, coaches, substitute teachers, bus drivers and teacher's aids (in that order) totaling 69% of the offenders.
Typologies for child sex offenders have been used since the 1970s. Male offenders are typically classified by their motivation, which is usually assessed by reviewing their offense's characteristics. Phallometric tests may also be used to determine the abuser's level of pedophilic interest. Groth et al. proposed a simple, dichotomous system in 1982 which classed offenders as either "regressed" or "fixated."
Regressed offenders are primarily attracted to their own age group but are passively aroused by minors.
- The sexual attraction in minors is not manifested until adulthood.
- Their sexual conduct until adulthood is aligned with that of their own age group.
- Their interest in minors is either not cognitively realized until well into adulthood or it was recognized early on and simply suppressed due to social taboo.
Other scenarios may include:
- Not associating their attractions as pedosexual in nature due to cultural differences.
- Age of consent laws were raised in their jurisdiction but mainstream views toward sex with that age group remained the same, were acted upon, then they were charged with a crime.
- The person's passive interest in children is manifested temporarily upon the consumption of alcohol and acted upon while inhibitions were low.
Fixated offenders are most often adult pedophiles who are maladaptive to accepted social norms. The etiology of pedophilia is not well-understood. The sexual acts are typically preconceived and are not alcohol or drug related.
Maletzky (1993) found that, of his sample of 4,402 convicted pedophilic offenders, 0.4% were female.
References & BibliographyEdit
- ↑ Fergusson, D. M., Lynskey, M. T., and Horwood L. J. (1996). "Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: Prevalence of sexual abuse and factors associated with sexual abuse," Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(10), 1355-64.
- ↑ Denov, M, S. (2003) The myth of innocence: sexual scripts and the recognition of child sexual abuse by female perpetrators. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol, 40, No, 3, 2003: pp. 303-314.
- ↑ Shakeshaft, C, "Educator Sexual Misconduct: A Synthesis of the Literature", U.S. Department of Education, 2004, p25.
- ↑ Shakeshaft, C, "Educator Sexual Misconduct: A Synthesis of the Literature", U.S. Department of Education, 2004, p24-25.
- ↑ Terry, Karen J., and Tallon, Jennifer. "Child Sexual Abuse: A Review of the Literature."
- ↑ Groth, A.N., Hobson, W.F. and Gary, T.S. (1982). "The child molester: clinical observations." In Journal of Social Work and Child Sexual Abuse, 1(1/2), 129-144.
- ↑ Maletzky, B.M. (1993). "Factors associated with success and failure in the behavioral and cognitive treatment of sexual offenders," Annals of Sex Research, 6, 241-258.
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