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Brain: Occipital lobe
[[Image:{{{Image}}}|250px|center|]]
{{{Caption}}}
Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. (cuneus and lingual gyrus are at left.)
Latin lobus occipitalis
Gray's subject #189 823
Part of cerebrum
Components
Artery posterior cerebral artery
Vein
BrainInfo/UW hier-122
MeSH A08.186.211.730.885.213.571

The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex.[1] The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1 (visual one). Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine sulcus; the full extent of V1 often continues onto the posterior pole of the occipital lobe. V1 is often also called striate cortex because it can be identified by a large stripe of myelin, the Stria of Gennari. Visually driven regions outside V1 are called extrastriate cortex. There are many extrastriate regions, and these are specialized for different visual tasks, such as visuospatial processing, color discrimination and motion perception.

AnatomyEdit

The occipital lobes are the smallest of four lobes in the human cerebral cortex. Located in the rearmost portion of the skull, the occipital lobes are part of the forebrain. It should be noted that the cortical lobes are not defined by any internal structural features, but rather by the bones of the skull that overlie them. Therefore, the occipital lobe is defined as the part of the cerebral cortex that lies beneath the occipital bone. (See the human brain article for more information.)

The lobes rest on the tentorium cerebelli, a process of dura mater that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum. They are structurally isolated in their respective cerebral hemispheres by the separation of the cerebral fissure. At the front edge of the occipital are several lateral occipital gyri, which are separated by lateral occipital sulcus.

The occipital aspects along the inside face of each hemisphere are divided by the calcarine sulcus. Above the medial, Y-shaped sulcus lies the cuneus, and the area below the sulcus is the lingual gyrus.

FunctionEdit

The most important functional aspect of the occipital lobe is that it contains the primary visual cortex.

Retinal sensors convey stimuli through the optic tracts to the lateral geniculate bodies, where optic radiations continue to the visual cortex. Each visual cortex receives raw sensory information from the outside half of the retina on the same side of the head and from the inside half of the retina on the other side of the head.

The cuneus (Brodmann's area 17) receives visual information from the contralateral superior retina representing the inferior visual field. The lingula receives information from the contralateral inferior retina representing the superior visual field. The retinal inputs pass through a "way station" in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus before projecting to the cortex.

Cells on the posterior aspect of the occipital lobes' gray matter are arranged as a spatial map of the retinal field. Functional neuroimaging reveals similar patterns of response in cortical tissue of the lobes when the retinal fields are exposed to a strong pattern.

If one occipital lobe is damaged, the result can be homonomous vision loss from similarly positioned "field cuts" in each eye. Occipital lesions can cause visual hallucinations. Lesions in the parietal-temporal-occipital association area are associated with color agnosia, movement agnosia, and agraphia.

Functional anatomyEdit

The occipital lobe is divided into several functional visual areas. Each visual area contains a full map of the visual world. Although there are no anatomical markers distinguishing these areas (except for the prominent striations in the striate cortex), physiologists have used electrode recordings to divide the cortex into different functional regions.

The first functional area is the primary visual cortex. It contains a low-level description of the local orientation, spatial-frequency and color properties within small receptive fields. Primary visual cortex projects to the occipital areas of the ventral stream (visual area V2 and visual area V4), and the occipital areas of the dorsal stream - visual area V3, visual area MT (V5), and the dorsomedial area (DM).

Human studiesEdit

Neuroimaging studiesEdit

Animal studiesEdit

Additional imagesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Further readingEdit

Key textsEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

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Additional materialEdit

BooksEdit

  • Austin, G., Hayward, W., & Rouhe, S. (1974). A note on the problem of conscious man and cerebral disconnection by hemispherectomy. Oxford, England: Charles C Thomas.
  • Hoff, H., & Potzl, O. (1988). Disorders of depth perception in cerebral metamorphopsia. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Hollander, B. (1901). Materials for future localisation. London, Great Britain: Grant Richards
  • Milner, A. D., & Dyde, R. T. (2003). Orientation and disorientation: Illusory perception and the real world. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

PapersEdit

DissertationsEdit

  • Achim, A. (1980). Interhemispheric relationships in the processing of visual shape and position: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Atencio, F. W. (1974). The effects of occipital, temporal and parietal lesions on visual discriminations in a prosimian primate, Galago senegalensis: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brubaker, K. W. (1990). The measurement of brain waves during relaxation with progressive relaxation as the independent variable: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Davis, M. E. (1973). The occiptal alpha rhythm: An index to auditory evoked response variability: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Goldman, J. M. (1983). The effects of early damage to the occipital cortex upon development of the regional ganglioside content in the rat: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hirshkowitz, M. (1978). Neuroelectrical correlates of interhemispheric activity and the development of hemispheric specialization: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kable, J. W. (2004). Moving thoughts: Conceptual representations of action in lateral occipitotemporal cortex. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kenshalo, D. R. (1977). Influences of occipital and superior colliculus lesions, singly and in combination, on the rat's absolute visual threshold: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kress, G. (1974). Area-intensity effects and the human visual evoked brain response recorded at the vertex and occiput: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lawson, D. W. (1986). Electroencephalographic and electromyographic biofeedback training of occipital lobe theta rhythm: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Letsch, B. A. (1976). Changes in occipital alpha in normal human subjects following the ingestion of ethyl alcohol: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Luevano, L. F. (1998). Cerebral morphometry in monozygotic and dizygotic twins: A study of heritability. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Mullikin, W. H. (1983). Receptive field organization and laminar distribution of simple cells in cat area 17: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Raczkowski, D. (1979). An anatomical study of the tecto-pulvinar path in the prosimian Galago senegalensis: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rudrud, E. H. (1978). Eight to twelve Hertz occipital EEG training with moderate and severely retarded epileptic individuals: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sica, A. L. (1982). Pulvinar influences on geniculo-cortical activity in the cat: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Smith, L. T. (1987). Serially staged cognitive processes and event related potential component latencies: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Woodruff, C. C. (2004). Object- and space-based attention differentially influence the contingent magnetic variation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.


Telencephalon (cerebrum, cerebral cortex, cerebral hemispheres) - edit

primary sulci/fissures: medial longitudinal, lateral, central, parietoöccipital, calcarine, cingulate

frontal lobe: precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex, 4), precentral sulcus, superior frontal gyrus (6, 8), middle frontal gyrus (46), inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area, 44-pars opercularis, 45-pars triangularis), prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal cortex, 9, 10, 11, 12, 47)

parietal lobe: postcentral sulcus, postcentral gyrus (1, 2, 3, 43), superior parietal lobule (5), inferior parietal lobule (39-angular gyrus, 40), precuneus (7), intraparietal sulcus

occipital lobe: primary visual cortex (17), cuneus, lingual gyrus, 18, 19 (18 and 19 span whole lobe)

temporal lobe: transverse temporal gyrus (41-42-primary auditory cortex), superior temporal gyrus (38, 22-Wernicke's area), middle temporal gyrus (21), inferior temporal gyrus (20), fusiform gyrus (36, 37)

limbic lobe/fornicate gyrus: cingulate cortex/cingulate gyrus, anterior cingulate (24, 32, 33), posterior cingulate (23, 31),
isthmus (26, 29, 30), parahippocampal gyrus (piriform cortex, 25, 27, 35), entorhinal cortex (28, 34)

subcortical/insular cortex: rhinencephalon, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, lateral ventricles, septum pellucidum, ependyma, internal capsule, corona radiata, external capsule

hippocampal formation: dentate gyrus, hippocampus, subiculum

basal ganglia: striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen), lentiform nucleus (putamen, globus pallidus), claustrum, extreme capsule, amygdala, nucleus accumbens

Some categorizations are approximations, and some Brodmann areas span gyri.

[[Category:Occipital lobe
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