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Anankastic personality disorder
ICD-10 F60.5
ICD-9 301.4
OMIM {{{OMIM}}}
DiseasesDB {{{DiseasesDB}}}
MedlinePlus {{{MedlinePlus}}}
eMedicine {{{eMedicineSubj}}}/{{{eMedicineTopic}}}
MeSH {{{MeshNumber}}}


Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), or anankastic personality disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a general psychological inflexibility, rigid conformity to rules and procedures, perfectionism, moral code, and/or excessive orderliness.

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is often confused with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD is ego-dystonic where OCPD is ego-syntonic. This is to say, those with OCD know their behavior is problematic where the symptoms of OCPD are part of a person's personality and are generally unaware of problematic behaviors.

Those who are suffering from OCPD do not generally feel the need to repeatedly perform ritualistic actions (such as excessive hand-washing), while this is a common symptom of OCD. Instead, people with OCPD tend to stress perfectionism above all else, and feel anxious when they perceive that things are not "right."

People with OCPD may hoard money for future use, keep their home perfectly organized, or be anxious about delegating tasks for fear that they won't be completed correctly. There are four primary areas that cause anxiety for OCPD personalities: time, relationship, dirt (uncleanliness) and money. There are few moral gray areas for a person with OCPD; actions and beliefs are either completely right, or absolutely wrong. As might be expected, interpersonal relationships are difficult because of the excessive demands placed on friends, romantic partners, and children.

Diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV-TR)Edit

The DSM-IV-TR, a widely used manual for diagnosing mental disorders, defines that for a patient to be diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, they must exhibit at least four of the following traits:

  • Preoccupation with details, rules, lists, order, organization, bodily functions, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost
  • Showing perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g., is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met)
  • Excessive devotion to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity)
  • Being overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification)
  • Inability to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value
  • Reluctance to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things
  • Adopting a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes
  • Showing rigidity and stubbornness
  • Urge to perfect every little thing

It is important to note that while a person may exhibit any or all of the characteristics of a personality disorder, it is not diagnosed as a disorder unless the person has trouble leading a normal life due to these issues.

MnemonicEdit

A mnemonic that can be used to remember the criteria for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is LAW FIRMS.

  • L – Loses point of activity (due to preoccupation with detail)
  • A – Ability to complete tasks (compromised by perfectionism)
  • W – Worthless objects (unable to discard)
  • F – Friendships (and leisure activities) excluded (due to a preoccupation with work)
  • I – Inflexible, overconscientious (on ethics, values, or morality, not accounted for by religion or culture)
  • R – Reluctant to delegate (unless others submit to exact guidelines)
  • M – Miserly (toward self and others)
  • S – Stubbornness (and rigidity)

HistoryEdit

Sigmund Freud first characterized what is now known as obsessive-compulsive or anankastic personality disorder as the anal character. This fixation fit into his theory of psychosexual development.

TreatmentEdit

Treatment for OCPD normally involves psychotherapy and self help. Medication is generally not indicated for this personality disorder in isolation, but Prozac has been prescribed with success. Anti-anxiety medication will reduce the feeling of fear and SSRI's can replace the chronic frustration with a sense of well-being, as well as reducing stubbornness and negative rumination. A mild tranquilizer can reduce alcohol dependence, if present. ADD medication can improve task completion by improving mental focus, which will provide visible success and improve outlook for recovery. Caffeine allergy may be an exacerbating factor. Keep in mind, though, that most people with OCPD will try to deny that anything is mentally wrong with them, so they usually won't ever buy into getting any psychological or medical treatment for the whole irrational mental state, and always while living in denial about it being a mental problem will choose to live without therapy and continue to suffer with it, and let it overpower them.

PsychotherapyEdit

  • Behavior therapy — Talking with a psychotherapist about ways to change compulsions into healthier, productive actions.
  • Psychotherapy — Talking with a trained counselor or psychotherapist who understands the condition.
  • Pharmacotherapy - will require an appointment with a psychiatrist who can prescribe medications which can make self-management and participation in other therapies possible and productive.

MedicationEdit

All drugs can be grouped together by how they work (i.e., their specific mode of action). Approved drugs include:

Other treatmentsEdit

  • Electroconvulsive Therapy — Involves the administration of brief electrical impulses to the head while under general anesthesia, which may help to reduce obsessive and compulsive behavior (for the severely ill).
  • Neurosurgery — In special cases, surgery on the specific part of the brain that is involved with OCPD may help to alleviate the obsessions and compulsions (for severe, intractable OCPD).

Self helpEdit

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  • Educating family and friends about the condition will help them to manage behavioral problems more sympathetically, and to watch out for the warning signs.
  • Support groups may also be helpful in accepting and changing Obsessive-Compulsive behaviors.
  • Relaxation, meditation, physical exercise, regular sleep, and a balanced diet are all important factors in maintaining this focus.
  • Consult your healthcare provider if you are having difficulty sleeping and/or you are experiencing problems that prevent you from taking regular exercise.
  • Keeping a diary may help the individual to identify those stressful situations that help to trigger compulsive reactions, enabling them to focus on more constructive activities.
  • Retained items, the result of hoarding, should be released, simultaneously reducing the shame associated with hoarding. Hiring an assistant to cull hoarded, collected, and stored items will facilitate the process, just as a therapist facilitates the work of releasing psychological baggage.



Anankastic PD: History of the disorder

  • historical sources
  • famous clinicans


Obsessive-compulsive PD: Epidemiology

Obsessive-compulsive PD: Risk factors

Obsessive-compulsive PD: Etiology

Obsessive-compulsive PD: Diagnosis & evaluation

Obsessive-compulsive PD: Treatment


Anankastic PD: For people with this difficulty


Obsessive-compulsive PD: For their carers

Instructions_for_archiving_academic_and_professional_materials Obsessive-compulsive PD: Academic support materials

Obsessive-compulsive PD: Anonymous fictional case studies for training

See also Edit

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External linksEdit

Personality Disorder
Personality disorder | Psychopathy 

DSM-IV Personality Disorders

Cluster A (Odd) - Schizotypal, Schizoid, Paranoid
Cluster B (Dramatic) - Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic
Cluster C (Anxious) - Dependent, Obsessive-Compulsive, Avoidant
Personality disorder not otherwise specified
Assessing Personality Disorder
MCMI | MMPI | Functional assessment
Treating Personality Disorder
DBT | CBT | Psychotherapy |Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy
Prominent workers in Personality Disorder
Millon | Linehan

DSM-IV Personality Disorders edit

Cluster A (Odd) - Schizotypal, Schizoid, Paranoid
Cluster B (Dramatic) - Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic
Cluster C (Anxious) - Dependent, Obsessive-Compulsive, Avoidant


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