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Nursing models are conceptual models, constructed of theories and concepts. They are used to help nurses assess, plan, and implement patient care by providing a framework within which to work. They also help nurses achieve uniformity and seamless care.
History of nursing modelsEdit
There is no specific date and place nursing theory took place. The evolution of nursing is not a new process, it has been in occurrence since the most basic of medical interventions started to be practiced. Within the western model of nursing there is a clear progression of nursing from mothers, to nuns, to doctor "assistants", to finally being recognized as a separate, complementary role in the medical team. Presently nurses have more autonomy than ever, and on going theory development and an exploration of professional borders are essential for the continued growth of the professional.
Major nursing theoristsEdit
- Helen Erickson
- Virginia Henderson
- Imogene King
- Madeleine Leininger
- Betty Neuman
- Dorothea Orem
- Ida Jean Orlando (Pelletier)
- Hildegard Peplau
- Rosemarie Rizzo-Parse
- Isabel Hampton Robb
- Martha E. Rogers
- Callista Roy
- Katharine Kolcaba
- Katie Eriksson
- Dr. Jean Watson
- Paterson & Zderad
- Boykin & Schoenhofer
Purposely omitted from this list is that most famous of all nurses, Florence Nightingale. Nightingale never actually formulated a theory of nursing science but was posthumously accredited with same by others who categorized her personal journaling and communications into a theoretical framework.
Also not included are the many nurses who improved on these theorists' ideas without developing their own theoretical vision.
Examples of nursing modelsEdit
The models used vary greatly between institutions and countries. However, different branches of nursing have different "preferred" nursing models. These are summarized below:
prenatal nursing Edit
- Ramona T Mercer maternal role attainment
Community and rehabilitation nursingEdit
Critical care nursing Edit
- Rogers: Science of Unitary Human Beings
- McGill Model of Nursing
- Parse: Human Becoming
- Erickson, Tomlin & Swain: Modeling and Role-Modeling
- [[Newman: Health as Expanding Consciohttp://www.nursingtheory.net/gt_nursingcaring.html</ref>
Future of nursing modelsEdit
Nursing models have been criticized for failing to provide holistic care, and preventing nurses from thinking "outside of the box". This has been compounded by many hospitals who have developed "pre-printed" care plans that have been misused by nurses who have failed to customize these generic care plans to the patient. An example of this would be using a standard care plan for appendectomy for an elderly patient with multiple pathology (for instance diabetes, angina pectoris and a history of myocardial infarction). Evidently, the patient's care needs would be very different from a fit-and-healthy 20 year old male with no previous medical history who neither smokes nor drinks. It is up to the professional to tailor the care plan to suit the individual patient.
Models of nursing have always been accused of being "out of touch" with the harsh reality of patient care, and creating yet more unnecessary paperwork for nurses to complete.
Technological advances may produce client specific nursing models.
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