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File:Nonne im Kreuzgang, 1930.jpg

A Nun is a woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life. [1] She may be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. The term "nun" is applicable to the Catholics (both eastern and western traditions), Eastern Orthodox, Anglicans, Lutherans, Jains, Buddhists, and Taoists, for example. While in common usage the terms nun and sister are often used interchangeably, properly speaking a nun is a female religious who lives a contemplative life of prayer and meditation within a monastery while a sister (in the Christian religions) lives an active vocation of service to the needy, sick, poor, and uneducated.[2]


Psychologists have studied nuns from a variety of viewpoints:

Attitudes and values of nunsEdit

Background factors in the decision to become a nunEdit

Mental health of nunsEdit

Personality of nunsEdit

Patterns of illness amongst nunsEdit

Nuns and sexualityEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

BooksEdit

  • Clark, S. P. (1989). Real-ideal residence environment: Perceptions of older women religious. New York, NY, England: Praeger Publishers.
  • Cole, A. (2006). Buddhism. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Danner, D. D., Friesen, W. V., & Collier, S. M. (2008). Personal narratives, positive emotions, and long lives: The Nun Study. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Diaz, M. (2007). The indigenous nuns of Corpus Christi: Race and spirituality. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Herman, N. (1999). Sister Mary: A story of a healing relationship. Philadelphia, PA: Whurr Publishers.
  • Kehoe, N. C., & Gutheil, T. G. (1993). Ministry or therapy: The role of transference and countertransference in a religious therapist. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

PapersEdit

  • Aggarwal, N. T., Wilson, R. S., Beck, T. L., Bienias, J. L., & Bennett, D. A. (2005). Mild cognitive impairment in different functional domains and incident Alzheimer's disease: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry.
  • Arias, E. A. (2005). Convents as Homes: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community.
  • Barros de Oliveira, J. H. (2001). Happiness: Concept and evaluation: Psicologia Educacao Cultura.
  • Blau, G., & Ryan, J. (1997). On measuring work ethic: A neglected work commitment facet: Journal of Vocational Behavior.
  • Brandthill, S. L., Duczeminski, J. E., Surak, E. A., Erdly, A. M., Bayer, S. J., & Holm, M. B. (2001). Coping strategies that elicit psychological well-being and happiness among older Catholic nuns with physical impairments and disabilities: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics.
  • Bryant, S. A. (2003). Physical, Psychological and Social Adaptation of African American Nuns to Their Religious Communities as They Age: Implications for Aging in Place: Journal of Religious Gerontology.
  • Burkart, J. (1992). Sanction and sanctity: A girls' training school: Residential Treatment for Children & Youth.
  • Butler, S. M., Ashford, J. W., & Snowdon, D. A. (1996). Age, education, and changes in the Mini-Mental State Exam scores of older women: Findings from the nun study: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
  • Danner, D. D., Snowdon, D. A., & Friesen, W. V. (2001). Positive emotions in early life and longevity: Findings from the nun study: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Darter, S. (1982). Bringing career development to religious communities: Personnel & Guidance Journal.
  • Dayringer, R., & Paiva, R. E. (1986). CPE methods for the education of interdisciplinary professionals: Journal of Pastoral Care.
  • D'Cruz, J., & Kanekar, S. (1992). Attribution of fault to a rape victim as a function of the attributor's celibate or married lifestyle: Irish Journal of Psychology.
  • de Courcelles, D. (2009). The blood, love and death of the nuns of Port-Royal renouncing the flesh as crying out for desire. Topique: Revue Freudienne.
  • Dennis, W., & Uras, A. (1965). The religious content of human figure drawings made by nuns. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied.
  • Donathy, R., & Wilcox, D. (2008). Review of Sexual abuse and the culture of Catholicism: How priests and nuns become perpetrators: Journal of Sexual Aggression.
  • Ebaugh, H. R. (1993). The growth and decline of Catholic religious orders of women worldwide: The impact of women's opportunity structures: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion.
  • Eisikovits, R. (1983). Socialization behind convent gates: Religious Education.
  • Elsass, P. (2003). Spiritual attachment: Examples of immaterial attachment and non-attachment: Psyke & Logos.
  • Erber, J. T. (1974). Age differences in recognition memory: Journal of Gerontology.
  • Falcioni, R. M., & Scharfetter, C. (1993). Psychopathology in female monastic congregations: Schweizer Archiv fur Neurologie und Psychiatrie.
  • Fitzpatrick, T. R. (2003). Participation in a computer training program and well-being among religious sisters in a retirement community: Journal of Religious Gerontology.
  • Florell, J. L. (1986). "CPE methods for the education of interdisciplinary professionals": A critical comment: Journal of Pastoral Care.
  • Fuchsberg, R. (1993). Transference and countertransference in the spiritual and religious realm: Pratt Institute Creative Arts Therapy Review.
  • Gardiner, H. W. (1972). Philosophies of human nature among Roman Catholic sisters: Psychological Reports.
  • Gardiner, H. W. (1973). Catholic sisters and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied.
  • Geddes, J. W., Tekirian, T. L., Soultanian, N. S., Ashford, J. W., Davis, D. G., & Markesbery, W. R. (1997). Comparison of neuropathologic criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: Neurobiology of Aging.
  • Geroldi, C., Galluzzi, S., Zanetti, O., Bianchetti, A., Trabucchi, M., & Frisoni, G. B. (2001). An old nun with diabetes who should not have been moved from her nunnery: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
  • Gilberg, A. L. (1974). Asceticism and the analysis of a nun: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association.
  • Goring, P. (1980). A personality comparison of evangelical seminarians, Catholic nuns, and university graduates in a Colombian setting: Journal of Psychology & Theology.
  • Gosling, D. L. (1998). Thai monks and lay nuns (mae chii) in urban health care: Anthropology & Medicine.
  • Granier, F., Carrere, G., Jacomini, V., Girard, M., & et al. (1989). Dance and religion: Joint expressions of individual suffering and cultural experience: Psychologie Medicale.
  • Greiner, P. A., Snowdon, D. A., & Greiner, L. H. (1999). Self-rated function, self-rated health, and postmortem evidence of brain infarcts: Findings from the Nun Study. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences.
  • Greiner, P. A., Snowdon, D. A., & Greiner, L. H. (1996). The relationship of self-rated function and self-rated health to concurrent functional ability, functional decline, and mortality: Findings from the Nun Study. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences.
  • Greiner, P. A., Snowdon, D. A., & Schmitt, F. A. (1996). The loss of independence in activities of daily living: The role of low normal cognitive function in elderly nuns: American Journal of Public Health.
  • Griffin-Shelley, E., & Wendel, S. (1988). Group psychotherapy with long-term inpatients: Application of a model: Small Group Behavior.
  • Guisado, J. A., Vaz, F. J., Guisado, J., Torres, M. I., Peral, D., & Fernandez-Fil, M. A. (2003). Body mass index and some psychopathological symptoms in open community nuns: Eating and Weight Disorders.
  • Hagerty, B. M. K., & Patusky, K. (1995). Developing a measure of sense of belonging: Nursing Research.
  • Halstead, M. M., & Halstead, L. S. (1978). A sexual intimacy survey of former nuns and priests: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy.
  • Handal, P. J., Rankin, C., & Gilner, F. H. (2004). Emmaus community: Efficacy of a treatment program for women religious: Journal of Psychology & Theology.
  • Hart, G., Ames, K. A., & Sawyer, R. N. (1974). Philosophical positions of nuns and former nuns: A discriminant analysis: Psychological Reports.
  • Hoch, C. C., Reynolds, C. F., Kupfer, D. J., Houck, P. R., & et al. (1987). The superior sleep of healthy elderly nuns: International Journal of Aging & Human Development.
  • Holtz, T. H. (1998). Refugee trauma versus torture trauma: A retrospective controlled cohort study of Tibetan refugees: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.
  • Huck, D. M., & Armer, J. M. (1995). Affectivity and mental health among elderly religious: Issues in Mental Health Nursing.
  • Huck, D. M., & Armer, J. M. (1996). Health perceptions and health-promoting behaviors among elderly Catholic nuns: Family & Community Health.
  • Johnson, A. J., & Holtz, J. E. (2009). Risk: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 54(29), 2009.
  • Johnson, R. A. (1996). The meaning of relocation among elderly religious sisters: Western Journal of Nursing Research.
  • Kairouz, S., & Dube, L. (2000). Abstinence and well-being among members of Alcoholics Anonymous: Personal experience and social perceptions: The Journal of Social Psychology.
  • Kemper, S., Greiner, L. H., Marquis, J. G., Prenovost, K., & Mitzner, T. L. (2001). Language decline across the life span: Findings from the nun study: Psychology and Aging.
  • Kroll, J., & de Ganck, R. (1986). The adolescence of a thirteenth-century visionary nun: Psychological Medicine.
  • Lavoie, D. (1971). The phenomenological transformation of the self-concept towards self-actualization through Sensitivity Training Laboratory (Philippines): Interpersonal Development.
  • Lessing, E. E., Barbera, L., & Arnold, B. (1976). Teaching nuns' perceptions of White and Black pupils as a function of authoritarianism and other factors: Community Mental Health Journal.
  • Lester, R. J. (2008). Anxious bliss: A case study of dissociation in a Mexican nun: Transcultural Psychiatry.
  • Lietaer, H., & Corveleyn, J. (1995). Psychoanalytical interpretation of the demoniacal possession and the mystical development of Sister Jeanne des Anges from Loudun (1605-2665): International Journal for the Psychology of Religion.
  • Long, L. N., & Long, T. J. (1976). Influence of religious status and religious attire on interviewees: Psychological Reports.
  • Long, T. J. (1978). Influence of uniform and religious status on interviewees: Journal of Counseling Psychology.
  • Lui, L., & Standing, L. G. (1989). Communicator credibility: Trustworthiness defeats expertness: Social Behavior and Personality.
  • Macias, J. A. G., & Leal, F. J. V. (2003). Eating behaviour: Social influences in open community nuns: European Eating Disorders Review.
  • Magalhaes, A. (1983). Death scripts: Transactional Analysis Journal.
  • Maloney, M. J. (1985). Statistical finding on ex-nuns: For the active practitioner: Women & Therapy.
  • Marron, D. J. (1984). The relationship between religious-mindedness and ego strength in Roman Catholic sisters: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Mayer, S. (1993). "Mostly prophecy": Family background and its influence on attitudes to authority and obedience in contemporary women religious in initial stages of membership: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McGarrahan, J. F. (1992). Family of origin antecedents of religious vocation, community experience, and life satisfaction of active and contemplative religious women: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McKechnie, J., & Hill, E. M. (2009). Alcoholism in older women religious: Substance Abuse.
  • Meiring, T. E. (1985). Stress among women religious: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Melia, S. P. (1999). Continuity in the lives of elder Catholic women religious: International Journal of Aging & Human Development.
  • Melia, S. P. (2001). Solitude and prayer in the late lives of elder Catholic women religious: Activity, withdrawal, or transcendence? : Journal of Religious Gerontology.
  • Melia, S. P. (2002). Themes of continuity and change in the spiritual reminiscence of elder Catholic women religious. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Mendonca, D., Oakes, K. E., Ciarrocchi, J. W., Sneck, W. J., & Gillespie, K. (2007). Spirituality and God-attachment as predictors of subjective well-being for seminarians and nuns in India: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion.
  • Mercado, C. C. (2009). Review of Sexual abuse and the culture of Catholicism: How priests and nuns become perpetrators: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation.
  • Mercier, J. M., Shelley, M. C., II, & Powers, E. A. (1996). Religious commitment and social relationships: Their relative contributions to self-esteem of Catholic sisters in later life. New York, NY, England: Harrington Park Press/Haworth Press.
  • Merrigan, D. M. (1983). Pastoral gatekeeper participation in community alcohol abuse prevention: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Meurer, J., McDermott, R. J., & Malloy, M. J. (1990). An exploratory study of health practices of American Catholic nuns. Health Values: Health Behavior, Education & Promotion.
  • Misiak, H., & Staudt, V. M. (1954). Sister Marie Hilda. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Monroe, T. M. (2002). No escaping authority: Boundary management in work groups in a collaborative organization. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Moore, M. E. (1976). The relationship between ego and moral development in adult lay and religious women: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Mortimer, J. A., Snowdon, D. A., & Markesbery, W. R. (2007). Brain reserve and risk of dementia: Findings from the nun study. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.
  • Morujao, I. (2003). In the spiritual desert: Between the cross and the grate: Revista Portuguesa de Psicanalise.
  • Muecke, M. (2004). Female sexuality in Thai discourses about Maechii( 'lay nuns'): Culture, Health & Sexuality.
  • Munick, J. (1978). Unforeseen retirement: A community of nuns in transition: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Munno, D., Macario, P. F., de Francesco, A., & Sterpone, S. C. M. (2005). A liaison psychiatry case: A factitious disorder: Minerva Psichiatrica.
  • Murphy, S. (1986). Counseling lesbian women religious: Women & Therapy.
  • Nacke, M. D. (1980). Life after the workshop: Effects of the Survey of Resources for the Development in Ministry Workshop: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Naftulin, D. H., Donnelly, F. A., & Wolkon, G. H. (1974). Selections of nuns for training as mental health counselors: Journal of Community Psychology.
  • Neal, M. A. (1984). Social consciousness and spiritual formation: Prophetic ministry, risk of life: Studies in Formative Spirituality.
  • Neto, F., & Barros, J. (2003). Predictors of loneliness among students and nuns in Angola and Portugal. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied.
  • Newberg, A., Pourdehnad, M., Alavi, A., & D'Aquili, E. G. (2003). Cerebral Blood Flow During Meditative Prayer: Preliminary Findings And Methodological Issues: Perceptual and Motor Skills.
  • Nixon, L. (1996). Factors predispositional of creativity and mysticism: A comparative study of Charles Dariwn and Therese of Lisieux: Advanced Development.
  • O'Kane, J. M. (1996). A comparison of continuity of life issues, spiritual well-being, perceived social support and life satisfaction in two groups of nursing home residents: Catholic sisters and middle class lay women. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Ongenae, S. (1989). Terese of Lisieux: or A case of organ miopragia: Psychologie Medicale.
  • Orgiazzi, I. (2003). Cloisters and psychic functioning: Psychologie Clinique et Projective.
  • Pagliari, R. (1987). Measuring values to predict communication apprehension: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Palmer, M. R. (1987). An educational design for consciousness-raising in social justice education for the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word: Paulo Freire's philosophy and methodology applied to the congregational ministry for/with the economically poor: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pla, M. B. (2007). Encounters between God and melancholy: The advices of Teresa de Avila about how to deal with the melancholic nuns of her "foundations." Revista de Historia de la Psicologia.
  • Plummer, D. L. (1990). Perceived and measured characteristics of adjustment of Catholic sisters: A profile study of contemporary women religious: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Pookayaporn, J. (2002). Wisdom and compassion in action: Theravada Buddhist nuns as facilitators of healing. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Porot, M., & Pascalis, J. G. (1988). Psychiatrists, priests and monks or nuns: Psychologie Medicale.
  • Rawe, L. R. (1992). Decision-making in religious communities of women: A case study of the Sisters of Loretto: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Rayburn, C. A. (1991). Counseling depressed female religious professionals: Nuns and clergywomen: Counseling and Values.
  • Rayburn, C. A., Richmond, L. J., & Rogers, L. (1986). Men, women, and religion: Stress within leadership roles: Journal of Clinical Psychology.
  • Reinert, D. F., & Stifler, K. R. (1993). Hood's mysticism scale revisited: A factor-analytic replication: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion.
  • Repka, F. M. (1987). The effects of an experiential group treatment on the life satisfaction of female religious retirees: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Riley, K., Snowdon, D. A., & Markesbery, W. R. (2002). Alzheimer's neurofibrillary pathology and the spectrum of cognitive function: Findings from the Nun Study: Annals of Neurology.
  • Rooney, C. (1975). Religious and political radicalism: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ryan, S. A. (2006). Under the veil: What is the experience of leaving my mother's house at midlife? the voices and choices of former nuns. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Samuels, P. A., & Lester, D. (1985). A preliminary investigation of emotions experienced toward God by Catholic nuns and priests: Psychological Reports.
  • SanGiovanni, L. (1978). Ex-nuns: A study of emergent role passage. Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing.
  • Schultz, D. J. (1983). The experience of self-reclamation of former Catholic religious women: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Serlin, I. (1990). Therapy with a borderline nun. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training.
  • Sheridan, K., & et al. (1973). A training program for small-group leaders: I. Overview: Journal of Community Psychology.
  • Simmons, M. E. (1988). Religious orientation and conversion experience: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Sinnott, M. A. (1994). Dream content differences between Roman Catholic women religious (nuns) and married women during menopausal transition. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Snowdon, D. A. (1997). Aging and Alzheimer's disease: Lessons from the Nun Study: The Gerontologist.
  • Snowdon, D. A., & Riley, K. P. (1998). "Aging and Alzheimer's disease: Lessons from the nun study": Reply: The Gerontologist.
  • Soucek, L. A. (1995). Life satisfaction in elderly Roman Catholic sisters: A comparative study. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Spiegel, V. M. (1989). Characteristics of alcoholism among Catholic sisters: Results of a national survey: Counseling and Values.
  • Spiegel, V. M. (1990). A comparison of family dynamics between non-alcoholic and recovering alcoholic Catholic Sisters: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Stalp, M. C. (1998). Review of Sisters in Arms: Catholic Nuns Through Two Millennia: Women's Studies International Forum.
  • Steibe, S. C., Boulet, D. B., & Lee, D. C. (1979). Trainee trait empathy, age, trainer functioning, client age and training time as discriminators of successful empathy training: Canadian Counsellor.
  • Thomas, J. A., & Stock, W. A. (1988). The concept of happiness: A multidimensional scaling investigation: International Journal of Aging & Human Development.
  • Timio, M., Saronio, P., Verdura, C., Schiaroli, M., Timio, F., & Monarca, C. (2001). A link between psychosocial factors and blood pressure trend in women: Physiology & Behavior.
  • Tolor, A. (1978). Women's attitudes toward forcible rape: Community Mental Health Journal.
  • Toole, E. M. (1992). Study of stress influences on women religious children of alcoholics: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Torrano, M. C. (1977). Perception of self and others as it relates to sex, state of life (lay, priesthood/sisterhood), liberal-conservative orientation, and religious dress: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Tsung, S.-k. F. (1978). Moms, nuns and hookers: Extrafamilial alternatives for village women in Taiwan: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • van der Hart, O., Lierens, R., & Goodwin, J. (1996). Jeanne Fery: A sixteenth-century case of dissociative identity disorder: The Journal of Psychohistory.
  • van der Hart, O., Lierens, R., & Goodwin, J. (1997). "Jeanne Fery: A sixteenth-century case of dissociative identity disorder": Erratum: The Journal of Psychohistory.
  • Very, P. S., Goldblatt, R. B., & Monacelli, V. (1973). Birth order, personality development, and vocational choice of becoming a Carmelite nun. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied.
  • Vitz, P. C., & Lynch, C. P. (2007). Therese of Lisieux from the perspective of attachment theory and separation anxiety: International Journal for the Psychology of Religion.
  • Watson, P. L. (1986). Persistence factors in vocational choice: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Weiner, M. F., Cullum, C. M., Rosenberg, R. N., & Honig, L. S. (1998). "Aging and Alzheimer's disease: Lessons from the nun study": Comment: The Gerontologist.
  • Werthmann, A. (1993). Hildegard von Bingen: Narcissistic withdrawal in a grandiose world of images: Jahrbuch der Psychoanalyse.
  • Wilson, R. S., Bienias, J. L., Evans, D. A., & Bennett, D. A. (2004). Religious orders study: Overview and change in cognitive and motor speed: Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition.
  • Wintermyer, C. A. (1992). Loneliness as related to spiritual well-being and social support: A study of women belonging to religious congregations within the Roman Catholic tradition: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wittberg, P. (1993). Residence stability and decline in Roman Catholic religious orders of women: A preliminary investigation: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion.
  • Wittekind, M. O. (1975). Relationships between self-esteem, sex-type, and perceived competency of male and female authors: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wodak, A., Symonds, A., & Richmond, R. (2003). The role of civil disobedience in drug policy reform: How an illegal "safer injection room" led to a sanctioned, "medically supervised injection center": Journal of Drug Issues.
  • Wolf, M. A. (1990). The call to vocation: Life histories of elderly women religious: International Journal of Aging & Human Development.
  • Wurtz, P. J., Holmes, C. B., Milton, G. C., & Wurtz, A. C. (1986). Validity of the Barksdale Personal Stress Evaluation: Perceptual and Motor Skills.
  • Zax, M., Cowen, E. L., & Peter, M. (1963). A comparative study of novice nuns and college females using the response set approach: The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology.



DissertationsEdit

  • Alvarez, J. (1979). Psychological androgyny among Catholic sisters: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Battaglia, L. J. (2009). Women who have gone forth: Gender and religious identity among Buddhist nuns in Thailand. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Behrman, G. (2008). Exploring the effects of early life sexual abuse in later life among Catholic women religious (nuns). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Billard, A. (2001). The impact of spiritual transcendence on the well-being of aging Catholic sisters. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Boser, M. L. (1986). Self-perceptions of sex-role and androgyny in Catholic sisters and secular women: A cross-sectional, comparative study in adult development: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brennan, L. M. (1974). The correlation of self-actualization, selected background variables and involvement in social organizations and activities of women in three national Catholic organizations: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Campbell, V. M. (1986). Responses on three personality inventories by women religious and former religious as a function of different situational contexts: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cannon, N. (1982). Psychological androgyny: A study of its relationship to self-esteem, achievement motivation, age, and group membership in women religious and women college students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cantwell, Z. M. (1991). Manifest needs of prospective counselors: A comparative study. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied.
  • Casey, C. E. (1977). A descriptive study of the isolate sister-teacher and the quality of community life among Roman Catholic teaching sisters: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Castro, J. G. (1976). A Guttman facet designed multidimensional attitude-behavior scale analysis of internal-external locus of control of Mexican Americans and Mexican nationals: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Celmer, V. (1987). The personality and occupational profiles of Roman Catholic priests and women who seek to become Roman Catholic priests: A test of the Holland Model of Vocational Choice: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Centanni, C. (1991). Psychological test variables as predictors of women staying in or leaving religious communities: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Chavez, A. J. (1986). The religious call in early adult development: Seven life studies of Mexican-American sisters: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cordova, J. M. (2008). Mexico's crowned virgins: Visual strategies and colonial discourse in New Spain's portraits of "crowned nuns". Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Costello, C. M. (1981). Differences in burnout between Roman Catholic religious administrators and teachers in California: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Curtis, L. K. (1992). Life satisfaction of older Catholic sisters: A study of four communities: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Dunn, S. R. (1993). The phenomenon of psychological emptiness in the lives of women religious between the ages of forty through sixty-five: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Eshbach, A.-M. (1991). Selfhood and former members of religious communities: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Fitzgerald, M. C. (1982). Correlates of alcoholism among Roman Catholic nuns: Psychological and attitudinal variables: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Flynn, D. J. (1993). Dead end or crossroads? The midlife stories of four Roman Catholic sisters: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Forti, T. J. (1980). Effect of organizational change on well being indices of a Louisiana Marianite community in response to consultation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gafford, J. S. (2001). Variations in psychological functioning among Roman Catholic religious professionals. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gallivan, K. A. (1994). Perceived influences of living within a religious community on the adult identity of Roman Catholic women religious. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gideon, Z. M. (1985). Emergent status passage: A case study of transition, change and adult learning in a religious order of women in the Catholic church: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Giordano, C. (2007). Translating the other: An ethnography of migrant encounters with the police, nuns, and ethno-psychiatrists in contemporary Italy. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Gonsalves, H. J. (1996). The experience of Catholic religious women following the organizational changes of Vatican Council II. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Gonsalvez, H. E. (1979). The theology and psychology of glossolalia: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Goodman, R. M. (1980). The relationship between meaning in life and sense of belonging to self-actualization and open-mindedness among members of a value-based organization: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gottfried, G. M. (1993). Qualitative analysis of child-caring experiences of religious sisters: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Haire, P. A. (1981). An investigation of psychological differences among Roman Catholic sisters with respect to life styles, years in religious service, and degree of commitment to religious life: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Harmer, C. M. (1974). Change in religious communities of women: An analysis of some variables involved: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Howard, M. P. (1982). Intimacy and power: Their relationship as perceived by Catholic nuns: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Huffhines Kelly, L. D. (1981). Family of origin and differentiation of self of selected Catholic women: A case study: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hunyady, M. K. (2005). The navigation of sexual orientation issues by Roman Catholic Women in religious orders: A study of the lives and psychologies of Lesbian Nuns. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kelley, N. L. (1978). Socialization for body transcendence: A study of elderly religious women: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kessler, E. H. (1974). Change and receptivity to change in a religious congregation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kugelmann, R. (2005). An encounter between psychology and religion: Humanistic psychology and the immaculate heart of Mary nuns: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences.
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