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Nucleoside

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Nitrogenous base Nucleoside Deoxynucleoside
Adenine chemical structure
Adenine
A chemical structure
Adenosine
A
DA chemical structure
Deoxyadenosine
dA
Guanine chemical structure
Guanine
G chemical structure
Guanosine
G
DG chemical structure
Deoxyguanosine
dG
Thymine chemical structure
Thymine
M5U chemical structure
5-Methyluridine
m5U
DT chemical structure
Deoxythymidine
dT
Uracil chemical structure
Uracil
U chemical structure
Uridine
U
DU chemical structure
Deoxyuridine
dU
Cytosine chemical structure
Cytosine
C chemical structure
Cytidine
C
DC chemical structure
Deoxycytidine
dC

Nucleosides are glycosylamines made by attaching a nucleobase (often referred to simply as bases) to a ribose or deoxyribose ring. Examples of these include cytidine, uridine, adenosine, guanosine, thymidine and inosine. In short, a nucleoside is a base linked to sugar.

Nucleosides can be phosphorylated by specific kinases in the cell, producing nucleotides, which are the molecular building blocks of DNA ( a base linked to sugar and one or more phospate) and RNA (A category title for viruses, Ribonucleic acid).

Nucleosides are produced as the second step in nucleic acid digestion, whereby nucleotidases break down nucleotides (such as the thymine nucleotide) into nucleosides (such as thymidine) and phosphate. The nucleosides, in turn, are subsequently broken down:

- in the lumen of the digestive system by nucleosidases into nitrogenous bases and ribose (or deoxyribose).
- inside the cell by nucleoside phosphorylases into nitrogenous bases, and ribose-1-phosphate (or deoxyribose-1-phosphate).

Nucleosides differ from nucleotides by having a hydroxyl group attached to carbon number 5 (the one that isn't in the ring) of the ribose, rather than one or more phosphate groups.


See also Edit


Note: Nucleosides can be produced by combining nucleobases with deoxyribose rings as well.

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