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DNAbasePairing2

Chemical structure of base pair bonding. Thymine (T) bonds with adenine (A), and cytosine (C) bonds with guanine (G).

Nucleobases are the parts of RNA and DNA that may be involved in pairing (see also base pairs). These include cytosine, guanine, adenine, thymine (DNA), uracil (RNA) and xanthine and hypoxanthine (mutated forms of guanine and adenine, respectively). These are abbreviated as C, G, A, T, U, X and HX respectively. They are usually simply called bases in genetics. Because A, G, C and T appear in the DNA, these molecules are called DNA-bases; A, G, C and U are called RNA-bases, respectively.

Hypoxanthine and xanthine are created through mutagen presence, through deamination (replacement of the amine-group with a hydroxyl-group). Hypoxanthine is produced from adenine, xanthine from guanine and uracil from cytosine.

Uracil replaces thymine in RNA. These two bases are identical except that uracil lacks the 5' methyl group. Adenine and guanine belong to the double-ringed class of molecules called purines (abbreviated as R). Cytosine, thymine, and uracil are all pyrimidines (abbreviated as Y).

A base covalently bound to the 1' carbon of a ribose or deoxyribose is called a nucleoside, and a nucleoside with one or more phosphate groups attached at the 5' carbon is called a nucleotide.

Structure

  • The "skeleton" of adenine, guanin, hypoxanthine and xanthine is purine, hence the name purine-bases.
  • The "skeleton" of cytosine, uracil and thymine is pyrimidine, hence pyrimidine-bases.

Purines

Nucleobase Nucleoside
Adenine chemical structure
Adenine
A chemical structure
Adenosine
A
Guanine chemical structure
Guanine
G chemical structure
Guanosine
G
Hypoxanthine chemical structure
Hypoxanthine
HX chemical structure
Hypoxanthinosine
HX
Xanthine chemical structure
Xanthine
X chemical structure
Xanthinosine
X

Pyrimidines

Nucleobase Nucleoside
Thymine chemical structure
Thymine
T chemical structure
Thymidine
T
Cytosine chemical structure
Cytosine
C chemical structure
Cytidine
C
Uracil chemical structure
Uracil
U chemical structure
Uridine
U

See also

External links

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