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{{BioPsy}}
 
{{BioPsy}}
[[Image:Neus1.jpg|right|thumb|Human nose in profile]]
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{{for|the article about noses in humans|human nose}}
[[Image:Nose.JPG|right|thumb|A typical bulbous human nose, here used to support a pair of glasses.]]
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<!-- Image with unknown copyright status removed: [[Image:Sidenose.JPG|right|thumb|Human nose from side|{{deletable image-caption|1=Thursday, 13 November 2008}}]] -->
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{{Infobox Anatomy
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|Name = Nose
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|Latin = nause
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|GraySubject =
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|GrayPage =
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|Image = Head_olfactory_nerve.jpg
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|Caption = Section throuch human nose with olfactory nerve
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|Image2 = Canine-nose.jpg
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|Caption2 = [[Dog]]s have very sensitive noses
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|Precursor =
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|System =
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|Artery =
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|Vein =
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|Nerve =
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|Lymph =
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|MeshName =
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|MeshNumber =
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|DorlandsPre =
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|DorlandsSuf =
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}}
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Anatomically, a '''nose''' is a protuberance in [[vertebrate]]s that houses the [[nostril]]s, or nares, which admit and expel air for [[Respiration (physiology)|respiration]] in conjunction with the [[mouth]].
  +
Behind the nose is the [[olfactory mucosa]] and the [[Paranasal sinus|sinuses]]. Behind the [[nasal cavity]], air next passes through the [[pharynx]], shared with the digestive system, and then into the rest of the [[respiratory system]]. In humans, the nose is located centrally on the face; on most other [[mammal]]s, it is on the upper tip of the [[snout]].
   
Anatomically, a '''nose''' is a protuberance in [[vertebrate]]s that houses the [[nostril]]s, or nares, which admit and expel air for [[Respiration (physiology)|respiration]].
+
==Air conditioning==
  +
As an interface between the body and the external world, the nose and associated structures frequently perform additional functions concerned with conditioning entering air (for instance, by warming and/or humidifying it, also for flicking if moving and by mostly reclaiming moisture from the air before it is exhaled (as occurs most efficiently in [[camel]]s). The nose hairs are able to stop unwanted particles from entering the lungs.
   
== Function ==
+
==Sense of direction==
=== In mammals ===
+
The [[rhinarium|wet nose]] of dogs is useful for the perception of direction. The sensitive cold receptors in the skin detect the place where the nose is cooled the most and this is the direction a particular smell that the animal just picked up comes from.<ref>Dijkgraaf S.;Vergelijkende dierfysiologie;Bohn, Scheltema en Holkema, 1978, ISBN 90 313 0322 4</ref>
In most mammals, it also houses the nosehairs, which catch airborne particles and prevent them from reaching the lungs. Within and behind the nose is the [[olfactory mucosa]] and the [[sinus]]es. Behind the [[nasal cavity]], air next passes through the [[pharynx]], shared with the digestive system, and then into the rest of the [[respiratory system]]. In humans, the nose is located centrally on the face; on most other mammals, it is on the upper tip of the snout.
 
   
As an interface between the body and the external world, the nose and associated structures frequently perform additional functions concerned with conditioning entering air (for instance, by warming and/or humidifying it) and by mostly reclaiming moisture from the air before it is exhaled (as occurs most efficiently in [[camel]]s).
+
==Structure in air-breathing forms==
  +
[[Image:Malayan Tapir Profile.jpg|thumb|right|178px|The nose of a tapir.]]
  +
In [[amphibian]]s and [[lungfish]], the nostrils open into small sacs that, in turn, open into the forward roof of the mouth through the [[choana]]e. These sacs contain a small amount of olfactory epithelium, which, in the case of [[caecilian]]s, also lines a number of neighbouring tentacles. Despite the general similarity in structure to those of amphibians, the nostrils of lungfish are not used in respiration, since these animals breathe through their mouths. Amphibians also have a [[vomeronasal organ]], lined by olfactory epithelium, but, unlike those of [[amniote]]s, this is generally a simple sac that, except in [[salamander]]s, has little connection with the rest of the nasal system.<ref name=VB>{{cite book |author=Romer, Alfred Sherwood|author2=Parsons, Thomas S.|year=1977 |title=The Vertebrate Body |publisher=Holt-Saunders International |location= Philadelphia, PA|pages= 453-458|isbn= 0-03-910284-X}}</ref>
   
In most mammals, the nose is the primary organ for [[olfaction|smelling]]. As the animal sniffs, the air flows through the nose and over structures called [[turbinate]]s in the [[nasal cavity]]. The turbulence caused by this disruption slows the air and directs it toward the [[olfactory epithelium]]. At the surface of the olfactory epithelium, [[odor]] molecules carried by the air contact [[olfactory receptor neuron]]s which transduce the features of the molecule into electrical impulses in the [[brain]].
+
In [[reptile]]s, the nasal chamber is generally larger, with the choanae being located much further back in the roof of the mouth. In [[crocodilian]]s, the chamber is exceptionally long, helping the animal to breathe while partially submerged. The reptilian nasal chamber is divided into three parts: an anterior ''vestibule'', the main olfactory chamber, and a posterior [[nasopharynx]]. The olfactory chamber is lined by olfactory epithelium on its upper surface and possesses a number of [[turbinate]]s to increase the sensory area. The vomeronasal organ is well-developed in lizards and snakes, in which it no longer connects with the nasal cavity, opening directly into the roof of the mouth. It is smaller in turtles, in which it retains its original nasal connection, and is absent in adult crocodilians.<ref name=VB/>
   
In cetaceans, the nose has been reduced to the nostrils, which have migrated to the top of the head, producing a more streamlined body shape and the ability to breathe while mostly submerged. Conversely, the elephant's nose has become elaborated into a long, muscular, manipulative organ called the ''trunk''.
+
[[Bird]]s have a similar nose to reptiles, with the nostrils being located at the upper rear part of the [[beak]]. Since they generally have a poor sense of smell, the olfactory chamber is small, although it does contain three turbinates, which sometimes have a complex structure similar to that of [[mammal]]s. In many birds, including [[dove]]s and [[fowl]]s, the nostrils are covered by a horny protective shield. The vomeronasal organ of birds is either under-developed or altogether absent, depending on the species.<ref name=VB/>
   
  +
[[Image:Lightmatter elephanttrunk.jpg|thumb|right|[[Elephant]]s have [[prehensile]] noses]]
  +
The nasal cavities are exceptionally large in most mammals, typically occupying up to half the length of the skull. In some groups, however, including [[primate]]s, [[bat]]s, and [[cetaceans]], the nose has been secondarily reduced, and these animals consequently have a relatively poor sense of smell. The nasal cavity of mammals has been enlarged, in part, by the development of a [[palate]] cutting off the entire upper surface of the original [[oral cavity]], which consequently becomes part of the nose, leaving the palate as the new roof of the mouth. The enlarged nasal cavity contains complex turbinates forming coiled scroll-like shapes that help to warm the air before it reaches the lungs. The cavity also extends into neighbouring skull bones, forming additional air cavities known as [[paranasal sinus]]es.<ref name=VB/>
   
==Human nose==
+
In [[cetacean]]s, the nose has been reduced to the nostrils, which have migrated to the top of the head, producing a more streamlined body shape and the ability to breathe while mostly submerged. Conversely, the [[elephant]]'s nose has elaborated into a long, muscular, manipulative organ called the trunk.
The visible part of the human nose is the protruding part of the [[face]] that bears the [[nostril]]s. The shape of the nose is determined by the [[ethmoid bone]] and the [[nasal septum]], which consists mostly of [[cartilage]] and which separates the nostrils.
 
   
== Associated health risks==
+
The [[vomeronasal organ]] of mammals is generally similar to that of reptiles. In most species, it is located in the floor of the nasal cavity, and opens into the mouth via two ''nasopalatine ducts'' running through the palate, but it opens directly into the nose in many [[rodent]]s. It is, however, lost in bats, and in many primates, including humans.<ref name=VB/>
   
Because of the special nature of the blood supply to the human nose and surrounding area, it is possible for retrograde infections from the nasal area to spread to the brain. For this reason, the area from the corners of the mouth to the bridge of the nose, including the nose and [[maxilla]], is known to doctors as the [[danger triangle of the face]].
+
==In fish==
+
Fish generally have a weak sense of smell, which is generally less important than taste in an aquatic environment. They do, however, possess a nose, although, unlike that of tetrapods, it has no connection with the mouth, nor any role in respiration. Instead, it generally consists of a pair of small pouches located behind the nostrils at the front or sides of the head. In many cases, each of the nostrils is divided into two by a fold of skin, allowing water to flow into the nose through one side and out through the other.<ref name=VB/>
==Shapes of the human nose==
 
 
 
Human noses can take many different shapes; every individual has in fact a uniquely shaped nose. Several attempts have been made towards a classification of noses. The following examples are from ''Nasology'' by Eden Warwick (pseudonym of George Jabet). This 19th century tract associated nose shapes with character traits in a way akin to [[phrenology]], in a somewhat ironical way, as the booklet was intended to mock the popular but highly controversial subject of phrenology.
 
 
*Class I: The [[Ancient Rome|Roman]], or [[eagle|Aquiline]] nose, which is rather convex, but undulating as its name aquiline imports. (''See:'' [[Hooknose]])
 
*Class II: The [[Greeks|Greek]] or Straight nose, which is perfectly straight
 
*Class III: The African, or Wide-nostrilled nose, wide at the end, thick and broad, gradually widening from below the bridge. The other noses are seen in profile, but this one in full face.
 
*Class IV: The [[Hawk]] nose, which is very convex, and preserves its convexity like a bow. It is thin and sharp
 
*Class V: The [[Snub]] nose
 
*Class VI: The Turn-up or Celestial nose, with a continuous concavity from the eyes to the tip
 
<gallery>
 
Image:Class_I_nose.jpg|Class I
 
Image:Class_II_nose.jpg|Class II
 
Image:Class_III_nose.jpg|Class III
 
Image:Class_IV_nose.jpg|Class IV
 
Image:Class_V_nose.jpg|Class V
 
Image:Class_VI_nose.jpg|Class VI
 
</gallery>
 
 
==Culture==
 
 
Some people choose to get [[rhinoplasty]] to change the aesthetic appearance of their nose.
 
 
[[Nose piercing]]s are also common, such as nostril, septum or bridge.
 
 
In [[New Zealand]], nose pressing ("[[hongi]]") is a traditional [[greeting]].
 
   
  +
The pouches are lined by olfactory epithelium, and commonly include a series of internal folds to increase the surface area. In some [[teleost]]s, the pouches branch off into additional sinus-like cavities, while in [[coelacanth]]s, they form a series of tubes. Unlike tetrapods, the nasal epithelium of fishes does not include any [[mucus]]-secreting cells, since it is already naturally moist.<ref name=VB/>
   
  +
In the most primitive living vertebrates, the [[lamprey]]s and [[hagfish]], there is only a single nostril and olfactory pouch. Indeed, the nostril also opens into the [[pituitary gland|hypophysis]]. This is not necessarily, however, a primitive trait, but one that may have arisen later in the evolution of these particular groups. For example, the fossil [[heterostracan]]s had paired nostrils, and these were also a very early vertebrate group.<ref name=VB/>
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
*[[Photic sneeze reflex]]
+
* [[Human nose]]
*[[Nose-picking]]
+
* [[Nasal mucosa]]
*[[Nosebleed]]
+
* [[Nasal administration]]
*[[Little's area]]
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* [[Rhinarium]]—the wet, naked surface around the nostrils in most mammals, absent in [[Haplorrhini|haplorrhine]] primates such as humans
*[[Olfactory system]]
+
* [[Musculoskeletal system]]
*[[Rhinoplasty]]
 
*[[Wilhelm Fliess]]
 
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
 
==Further reading==
 
*Physical Manual: [http://www.utm.edu/departments/ed/cece/cesme/PSAM/PSAM/psam33.pdf Univ. of Tennessee at Martin]
 
*Eden Warwick (pseudonym of George Jabet), ''Nasology, or hints towards a classification of Noses'', London, Richard Bentley, 1848
 
*''Encyclopedia Britannica'' Micropedia, 1982
 
 
 
 
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
{{wiktionary}}
+
*{{commons-inline|nose}}
*[http://www.webmd.com/content/article/7/1680_51928.htm WebMD: The Sinuses and The Nose]
 
*[http://www.entnet.org/healthinfo/nose/Nose.cfm Your Nose: The Guardian Of Your Lungs]
 
*[http://kennethomura.tripod.com/asian_noses/ Asian Noses] This website discusses the differences in Asian noses.
 
   
  +
[[Category:Nose| ]]
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[[Category:Respiratory system]]
   
[[Category:Sensory organs]]
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<!--
[[Category:Olfaction]]
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[[af:Neus]]
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[[ar:أنف]]
 
[[an:Naso]]
 
[[an:Naso]]
[[ar:أنف]]
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[[arc:ܢܚܝܪܐ]]
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[[ay:Nasa]]
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[[bs:Nos]]
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[[br:Fri]]
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[[bg:Нос]]
 
[[ca:Nas]]
 
[[ca:Nas]]
 
[[cs:Nos]]
 
[[cs:Nos]]
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[[co:Nasu]]
 
[[cy:Trwyn]]
 
[[cy:Trwyn]]
 
[[da:Næse]]
 
[[da:Næse]]
[[de:Nase (Organ)]]
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[[de:Nase]]
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[[dv:ނޭފަތް]]
 
[[et:Nina]]
 
[[et:Nina]]
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[[el:Μύτη]]
 
[[es:Nariz]]
 
[[es:Nariz]]
 
[[eo:Nazo]]
 
[[eo:Nazo]]
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[[eu:Sudur]]
 
[[fa:بینی]]
 
[[fa:بینی]]
 
[[fr:Nez]]
 
[[fr:Nez]]
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[[gd:Sròn]]
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[[gl:Nariz]]
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[[gan:鼻公]]
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[[hak:Phi]]
 
[[ko:코]]
 
[[ko:코]]
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[[hi:नाक]]
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[[hr:Nos]]
 
[[io:Nazo]]
 
[[io:Nazo]]
[[it:Naso (anatomia)]]
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[[id:Hidung]]
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[[iu:ᕿᖓᖅ/qingaq]]
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[[is:Nef]]
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[[it:Naso]]
 
[[he:אף]]
 
[[he:אף]]
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[[jv:Irung]]
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[[pam:Arung]]
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[[sw:Pua]]
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[[ku:Poz]]
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[[la:Nasus]]
 
[[lv:Deguns]]
 
[[lv:Deguns]]
 
[[lt:Nosis]]
 
[[lt:Nosis]]
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[[jbo:nazbi]]
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[[lmo:Nas]]
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[[hu:Orr]]
 
[[mk:Нос]]
 
[[mk:Нос]]
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[[ml:മൂക്ക്]]
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[[mr:नाक]]
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[[arz:مناخير]]
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[[ms:Hidung]]
 
[[nl:Neus]]
 
[[nl:Neus]]
 
[[ja:鼻]]
 
[[ja:鼻]]
 
[[no:Nese]]
 
[[no:Nese]]
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[[nn:Nase]]
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[[oc:Nas]]
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[[pag:Eleng]]
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[[pnb:نک]]
 
[[pl:Nos]]
 
[[pl:Nos]]
 
[[pt:Nariz]]
 
[[pt:Nariz]]
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[[ksh:Nahß]]
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[[ro:Nas]]
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[[qu:Sinqa]]
 
[[ru:Нос]]
 
[[ru:Нос]]
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[[sco:Neb]]
 
[[sq:Hunda]]
 
[[sq:Hunda]]
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[[scn:Nasu (anatumìa)]]
 
[[simple:Nose]]
 
[[simple:Nose]]
 
[[sk:Nos]]
 
[[sk:Nos]]
 
[[sl:Nos]]
 
[[sl:Nos]]
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[[szl:Sznupa]]
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[[sr:Нос]]
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[[sh:Nos]]
 
[[fi:Nenä]]
 
[[fi:Nenä]]
 
[[sv:Näsa]]
 
[[sv:Näsa]]
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[[tl:Ilong]]
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[[ta:மூக்கு]]
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[[th:จมูก]]
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[[tg:Бинӣ]]
 
[[tr:Burun (organ)]]
 
[[tr:Burun (organ)]]
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[[uk:Ніс]]
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[[fiu-vro:Nõna]]
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[[wa:Nez]]
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[[war:Irong]]
 
[[yi:נאז]]
 
[[yi:נאז]]
 
[[zh-yue:鼻]]
 
[[zh-yue:鼻]]
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[[diq:Pırnıke]]
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[[bat-smg:Nuosis]]
 
[[zh:鼻]]
 
[[zh:鼻]]
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-->
 
{{enWP|Nose}}
 
{{enWP|Nose}}

Latest revision as of 01:08, December 4, 2009

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For the article about noses in humans, see human nose.
Nose
Section throuch human nose with olfactory nerve
Latin nause
Gray's subject #
System
MeSH [1]
Dogs have very sensitive noses

Anatomically, a nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which admit and expel air for respiration in conjunction with the mouth. Behind the nose is the olfactory mucosa and the sinuses. Behind the nasal cavity, air next passes through the pharynx, shared with the digestive system, and then into the rest of the respiratory system. In humans, the nose is located centrally on the face; on most other mammals, it is on the upper tip of the snout.

Air conditioningEdit

As an interface between the body and the external world, the nose and associated structures frequently perform additional functions concerned with conditioning entering air (for instance, by warming and/or humidifying it, also for flicking if moving and by mostly reclaiming moisture from the air before it is exhaled (as occurs most efficiently in camels). The nose hairs are able to stop unwanted particles from entering the lungs.

Sense of directionEdit

The wet nose of dogs is useful for the perception of direction. The sensitive cold receptors in the skin detect the place where the nose is cooled the most and this is the direction a particular smell that the animal just picked up comes from.[1]

Structure in air-breathing formsEdit

File:Malayan Tapir Profile.jpg
The nose of a tapir.

In amphibians and lungfish, the nostrils open into small sacs that, in turn, open into the forward roof of the mouth through the choanae. These sacs contain a small amount of olfactory epithelium, which, in the case of caecilians, also lines a number of neighbouring tentacles. Despite the general similarity in structure to those of amphibians, the nostrils of lungfish are not used in respiration, since these animals breathe through their mouths. Amphibians also have a vomeronasal organ, lined by olfactory epithelium, but, unlike those of amniotes, this is generally a simple sac that, except in salamanders, has little connection with the rest of the nasal system.[2]

In reptiles, the nasal chamber is generally larger, with the choanae being located much further back in the roof of the mouth. In crocodilians, the chamber is exceptionally long, helping the animal to breathe while partially submerged. The reptilian nasal chamber is divided into three parts: an anterior vestibule, the main olfactory chamber, and a posterior nasopharynx. The olfactory chamber is lined by olfactory epithelium on its upper surface and possesses a number of turbinates to increase the sensory area. The vomeronasal organ is well-developed in lizards and snakes, in which it no longer connects with the nasal cavity, opening directly into the roof of the mouth. It is smaller in turtles, in which it retains its original nasal connection, and is absent in adult crocodilians.[2]

Birds have a similar nose to reptiles, with the nostrils being located at the upper rear part of the beak. Since they generally have a poor sense of smell, the olfactory chamber is small, although it does contain three turbinates, which sometimes have a complex structure similar to that of mammals. In many birds, including doves and fowls, the nostrils are covered by a horny protective shield. The vomeronasal organ of birds is either under-developed or altogether absent, depending on the species.[2]

File:Lightmatter elephanttrunk.jpg
Elephants have prehensile noses

The nasal cavities are exceptionally large in most mammals, typically occupying up to half the length of the skull. In some groups, however, including primates, bats, and cetaceans, the nose has been secondarily reduced, and these animals consequently have a relatively poor sense of smell. The nasal cavity of mammals has been enlarged, in part, by the development of a palate cutting off the entire upper surface of the original oral cavity, which consequently becomes part of the nose, leaving the palate as the new roof of the mouth. The enlarged nasal cavity contains complex turbinates forming coiled scroll-like shapes that help to warm the air before it reaches the lungs. The cavity also extends into neighbouring skull bones, forming additional air cavities known as paranasal sinuses.[2]

In cetaceans, the nose has been reduced to the nostrils, which have migrated to the top of the head, producing a more streamlined body shape and the ability to breathe while mostly submerged. Conversely, the elephant's nose has elaborated into a long, muscular, manipulative organ called the trunk.

The vomeronasal organ of mammals is generally similar to that of reptiles. In most species, it is located in the floor of the nasal cavity, and opens into the mouth via two nasopalatine ducts running through the palate, but it opens directly into the nose in many rodents. It is, however, lost in bats, and in many primates, including humans.[2]

In fishEdit

Fish generally have a weak sense of smell, which is generally less important than taste in an aquatic environment. They do, however, possess a nose, although, unlike that of tetrapods, it has no connection with the mouth, nor any role in respiration. Instead, it generally consists of a pair of small pouches located behind the nostrils at the front or sides of the head. In many cases, each of the nostrils is divided into two by a fold of skin, allowing water to flow into the nose through one side and out through the other.[2]

The pouches are lined by olfactory epithelium, and commonly include a series of internal folds to increase the surface area. In some teleosts, the pouches branch off into additional sinus-like cavities, while in coelacanths, they form a series of tubes. Unlike tetrapods, the nasal epithelium of fishes does not include any mucus-secreting cells, since it is already naturally moist.[2]

In the most primitive living vertebrates, the lampreys and hagfish, there is only a single nostril and olfactory pouch. Indeed, the nostril also opens into the hypophysis. This is not necessarily, however, a primitive trait, but one that may have arisen later in the evolution of these particular groups. For example, the fossil heterostracans had paired nostrils, and these were also a very early vertebrate group.[2]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Dijkgraaf S.;Vergelijkende dierfysiologie;Bohn, Scheltema en Holkema, 1978, ISBN 90 313 0322 4
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Romer, Alfred Sherwood (1977). The Vertebrate Body, 453-458, Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International.

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