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Latest revision as of 20:20, November 6, 2008

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Nomifensine chemical structure
Nomifensine

1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-phenylisoquinolin-8-amine
IUPAC name
CAS number
24526-64-5
ATC code

N06AX04

PubChem
4528
DrugBank
[1]
Chemical formula {{{chemical_formula}}}
Molecular weight 238.328
Bioavailability
Metabolism
Elimination half-life
Excretion
Pregnancy category
Legal status
Routes of administration

Nomifensine maleate (Merital) is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor[1] test-marketed in the United States by Hoechst AG (now Novartis) that increases the amount of synaptic dopamine available to receptors by blocking dopamine's re-uptake transporter. This is a mechanism of action shared by drugs of abuse like cocaine (which tend also to cause dopamine release) and antidepressants such as bupropion (Wellbutrin/Zyban).

Merital was investigated for use as an antidepressant in the 1970s, and was found to be a useful antidepressant at doses of 50-225mg per day, both motivating and anxiolytic. There were relatively few adverse effects (mainly dry mouth, headache, nausea), the drug was not sedating, did not interact significantly with alcohol and lacked anticholinergic effects. No withdrawal symptoms were seen after 6 months treatment. The drug was however considered not suitable for agitated patients as it presumably made agitation worse.

Later studies in the 1980s concluded that there was potential for dependence and abuse of nomifensine, typically in patients with a history of stimulant addiction, or when the drug was used in very high doses (400-600mg per day). Nomifensine is now only rarely used as an antidepressant due to concerns about causing haemolytic anaemia, and problems with overstimulation and hyperthermia in overdose. It has been investigated for use in treating ADHD and animal models of Parkinson's disease with some success. However, it has not proved of benefit to human patients suffering from advanced Parkinsonism. [2] [3] [4]

Nomifensine was withdrawn from mainstream medical use for a variety of reasons, abuse potential being a concern, but also problems with kidney and liver toxicity and haemolytic anaemia were cited, and some deaths were linked to the use of this compound although the mechanism remains unclear. A likely cause of nomifensine toxicity is the aromatic amine group, as compounds containing this chemical substructure are notorious for producing toxic metabolites.[5]

Nomifensine is now mainly used in scientific research, particularly in studies involving dopamine release in response to addiction. This is because typically different areas of the brain have different amounts of dopamine transporter, but when Nomifensine is administered, a sufficient basal dopamine level is reached to allow comparison of dopamine release from drugs of abuse in different areas of the brain without the results being skewed by re-uptake speed variation.

See alsoEdit


ReferencesEdit

  1. Nomifensine: A review of its pharmacological prope...[Drugs. 1979] - PubMed Result
  2. Shekim WO, Masterson A, Cantrell DP, Hanna GL, McCracken JT. Nomifensine maleate in adult attention deficit disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1989 May;177(5):296-9.
  3. McKinley ET, Baranowski TC, Blavo DO, Cato C, Doan TN, Rubinstein AL. Neuroprotection of MPTP-induced toxicity in zebrafish dopaminergic neurons. Neuroprotection of MPTP-induced toxicity in zebrafish dopaminergic neurons.Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005 Nov 30;141(2):128-37. PMID: 16209898
  4. Bedard P, Parkes JD, Marsden CD. Nomifensine in Parkinson's disease. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1977;4Suppl 2:187S-190S. PMID: 334223
  5. Galbaud du Fort G. Hematologic toxicity of antidepressive agents. (French). L'Encephale. 1988 Jul-Aug;14(4):307-18.


Antidepressants (ATC N06A) edit
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) Harmaline, Iproclozide, Iproniazid, Isocarboxazid, Nialamide, Phenelzine, Selegiline, Toloxatone, Tranylcypromine
Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) Brofaromine, Moclobemide
Dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DARI) Amineptine, Phenmetrazine, Vanoxerine, Modafinil
Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors Bupropion
Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) or (NARI) Atomoxetine, Maprotiline, Reboxetine, Viloxazine
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) Duloxetine, Milnacipran, Venlafaxine
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Alaproclate, Etoperidone, Citalopram, Escitalopram, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Paroxetine, Sertraline, Zimelidine
Selective serotonin reuptake enhancer (SSRE) Tianeptine
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Butriptyline, Clomipramine, Desipramine, Dibenzepin, Dothiepin, Doxepin, Imipramine, Iprindole, Lofepramine, Melitracen, Nortriptyline, Opipramol, Protriptyline, Trimipramine
Tetracyclic antidepressants Maprotiline, Mianserin, Nefazodone, Trazodone
Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) Mirtazapine


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