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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

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Professional Psychology: Debating Chamber · Psychology Journals · Psychologists


List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day.

Year Name Topics
1901 Emil Adolf von Behring "for his serum therapy to treat diphtheria"
1902 Ronald Ross "for research on malaria"
1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen "for his light treatment of lupus vulgaris"
1904 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov "for work on the physiology of the digestive system"
1905 Robert Koch "for discovering the cause of tuberculosis"
1906 Camillo Golgi, Santiago Ramón y Cajal "for research on the nervous system"
1907 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran "for research into protozoa causing disease"
1908 Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, Paul Ehrlich "for study of the immune system"
1909 Emil Theodor Kocher "for work on the thyroid gland"
1910 Albrecht Kossel "for research in cell biology, especially proteins and nucleic acids"
1911 Allvar Gullstrand "for research on the image formation by the lens of the eye"
1912 Alexis Carrel "for work on suture of blood vessels and transplantation"
1913 Charles Robert Richet "for the discovery of anaphylaxis"
1914 Robert Bárány "for research on the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear"
1919 Jules Bordet "for discovery of the complement in the immune system"
1920 Schack August Steenberg Krogh "for showing that the gas exchange in the lungs is ordinary diffusion"
1922 Archibald Vivian Hill, Otto Fritz Meyerhof "for research on muscles, especially their generation of heat and the relationship between oxygen consumption and lactic acid metabolism "
1923 Frederick Grant Banting, John James Richard Macleod "for the discovery of insulin"
1924 Willem Einthoven "for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"
1926 Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger "for elucidating Spiroptera carcinoma and artificially inducing cancer in an animal."
1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg "for healing general paralysis by infection with malaria"
1928 Charles Jules Henri Nicolle "for work on typhus"
1929 Christiaan Eijkman, Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins "for discovery of various vitamins"
1930 Karl Landsteiner "for discovery of human blood types"
1931 Otto Heinrich Warburg "for research on cytochromes in cellular respiration"
1932 Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, Edgar Douglas Adrian "for work on the function of neurons, including the fact that stronger stimuli result in a higher frequency of nerve impulses"
1933 Thomas Hunt Morgan "for discovering the role of chromosomes in heredity"
1934 George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot, William Parry Murphy "for discovering liver therapy for anemia"
1935 Hans Spemann "for the discovery of organizing centers in the early development of organisms"
1936 Sir Henry Hallett Dale, Otto Loewi "for work on transmission of nerve impulses via neurotransmitters"
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt "for the description of vitamin C and the discovery that oxygen combines with hydrogen in cellular respiration"
1938 Corneille Jean François Heymans "for showing how blood pressure and oxygen content of the blood are measured by the body and transmitted to the brain"
1939 Gerhard Domagk "for the discovery of the sulphonamide Prontosil, the first drug effective against bacterial infections"
1943 Carl Peter Henrik Dam, Edward Adelbert Doisy "for the discovery of vitamin K and its chemical structure"
1944 Joseph Erlanger, Herbert Spencer Gasser "for the discovery of different types of nerve fibers"
1945 Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain, Sir Howard Walter Florey "for the discovery of penicillin and its properties in the cure of infectious diseases"
1946 Hermann Joseph Muller "for the discovery that mutations can be induced by x-rays"
1947 Carl Ferdinand Cori, Gerty Theresa Cori (née Radnitz) "for the discovery on how glycogen is converted to glucose in the body, and for the effects of hypophysis hormones on sugar metabolism"
Bernardo Alberto Houssay "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"
1948 Paul Hermann Müller "for the discovery of the insecticide DDT"
1949 Walter Rudolf Hess, Antonio Caetano De Abreu Freire Egas Moniz "Hess for mapping the various functions of the midbrain; Moniz for discovering the therapeutic effect of lobotomy"
1950 Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein, Philip Showalter Hench "for the discovery of the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and function"
1951 Max Theiler "for developing a vaccine for yellow fever"
1952 Selman Abraham Waksman "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"
1953 Hans Adolf Krebs "for the discovery of the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration"
Fritz Albert Lipmann "for discovery and research on coenzyme A"
1954 John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, Frederick Chapman Robbins "for showing how to cultivate poliomyelitis viruses in the test tube"
1955 Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell "for research on enzymes and their actions, especially oxydizing enzymes"
1956 André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann, Dickinson W. Richards "for showing how to insert a catheter into the heart and studying various heart diseases"
1957 Daniel Bovet "for discovering synthetic drugs such as antihistamines that block the action of biological amines"
1958 George Wells Beadle, Edward Lawrie Tatum, Joshua Lederberg "for showing that genes control individual steps in metabolism"
1959 Severo Ochoa, Arthur Kornberg "for the synthesis of the nucleic acids RNA and DNA"
1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Peter Brian Medawar "for the discovery that the immune system of the fetus learns how to distinguish between self and non-self"
1961 Georg von Békésy "for elucidating the cochlea of the ear"
1962 Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson, Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"[1]
1963 Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Andrew Fielding Huxley "for describing the electric transmission of impulses along nerves"
1964 Konrad Bloch, Feodor Lynen "for research on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"
1965 François Jacob, André Lwoff, Jacques Monod "for discovering messenger RNA, ribosomes, and the genes controlling the expression of other genes"
1966 Peyton Rous "for the discovery of viruses that induce tumours"
Charles B. Huggins "for the discovery of the treatment of prostate cancer with hormones"
1967 Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline, George Wald "for describing the different types of light-sensitive cells in the eye and how light interacts with them"
1968 Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana, Marshall W. Nirenberg "for describing the genetic code and how it operates in protein synthesis"
1969 Max Delbrück, Alfred Hershey, Salvador E. Luria "for work on the replication mechanism and genetics of viruses"
1970 Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler, Julius Axelrod "for work on neurotransmitters"
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. "for discovery of the action of hormones, especially epinephrine, via second messengers"
1972 Gerald M. Edelman, Rodney R. Porter "for discovering the chemical structure of antibodies"
1973 Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen "for the study of social animal behavior, especially the explanation of the "dance language" of bees and how young birds become fixated on their mother"
1974 Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, George E. Palade "for describing the structure and function of organelles in biological cells"
1975 David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco, Howard Martin Temin "for describing how tumor viruses act on the genetic material of the cell"
1976 Baruch S. Blumberg "for the discovery of hepatitis B virus"
D. Carleton Gajdusek "for describing the disease kuru caused by cannibalism "
1977 Roger Guillemin, Andrew Wiktor Schally "for work on peptide hormones produced in the brain"
Rosalyn Yalow "for creating the Yalow-Berson method to measure minute amounts of peptide hormones using antibodies"
1978 Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, Hamilton O. Smith "for the discovery of restriction enzymes which are instrumental in molecular biology"
1979 Allan M. Cormack, Godfrey N. Hounsfield "for developing computer assisted tomography"
1980 Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset, George D. Snell "for discovery of the Major histocompatibility complex genes which encode cell surface molecules important for the immune system's distinction between self and non-self"
1981 Roger W. Sperry "for research on the cerebral hemispheres"
David H. Hubel, Torsten N. Wiesel "for work on the processing of visual information in the brain"
1982 Sune Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson, John R. Vane "for the discovery of prostaglandins"
1983 Barbara McClintock "for discovery of mobile genetic elements or transposons in maize"
1984 Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler, César Milstein "for work on the immune system and the production of monoclonal antibodies"
1985 Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein "for describing the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"
1986 Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini "for discovering growth factors"
1987 Susumu Tonegawa "for discovering how the large diversity of antibodies is produced genetically"
1988 Sir James W. Black,Gertrude B. Elion,George H. Hitchings "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"
1989 J. Michael Bishop, Harold E. Varmus "for discovering the cellular origins of retroviral oncogenes"
1990 Joseph E. Murray, E. Donnall Thomas "for work on organ and cell transplantation"
1991 Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann "for developing techniques which show that ion channels exist in the cell membrane and which allow to study their properties"
1992 Edmond H. Fischer, Edwin G. Krebs "for discovering how phosphorylation of proteins is used to regulate biological processes"
1993 Richard J. Roberts, Phillip A. Sharp "for the discovery that genes in eukaryotes are not contiguous strings but contain introns, and that the splicing of messenger RNA to delete those introns can occur in different ways, yielding different proteins from the same DNA sequence"
1994 Alfred G. Gilman, Martin Rodbell "for the discovery of G proteins and their role in signal transduction in cells"
1995 Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric F. Wieschaus "for the discovery of the genes involved in the developmental program of the fruit fly, the homeobox genes"
1996 Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel "for describing how MHC molecules are used by white blood cells to detect and kill virus-infected cells."
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner "for the discovery of prions, infectious protein particles"
1998 Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad "for discovery of the signalling properties of nitric oxide"
1999 Günter Blobel "for the discovery that newly synthesized proteins contain "address tags" which direct them to the proper location within the cell"
2000 Arvid Carlsson "for proving that dopamine is a neurotransmitter in the brain whose depletion leads to symptoms of Parkinson's disease"
Paul Greengard "for showing how neurotransmitters act on the cell and can activate a central molecule known as DARPP-32"
Eric R. Kandel "for describing how short-term and long-term memory is formed on the molecular level"
2001 Leland H. Hartwell, R. Timothy Hunt, Sir Paul M. Nurse "for the discovery of cyclin and cyclin dependent kinase, central molecules in the regulation of the cell cycle"
2002 Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz, John E. Sulston "for establishing the precise order in which cells in the worm C. elegans divide and die, and for elucidating the process of programmed cell death or apoptosis"
2003 Paul Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"
2004 Linda B. Buck and Richard Axel "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"
2005 Barry J. Marshall and Robin Warren "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"
2006 Andrew Fire and Craig C. Mello "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

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