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Johann Heinrich Füssli 053

The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli, 1802 (Frankfurter Goethe-Museum, Frankfurt)

In common current usage, the term nightmare refers to dreams of particular intensity, with content that the sleeper finds disturbing, related either to physiological causes, such as a high fever, or to psychological ones, such as unusual trauma or stress in the sleeper's life. The occasional body movements seen in nightmares may have a use in awakening the sleeper, thus helping to avoid the frightening dream-situation.

Occasional nightmares are commonplace, but recurrent nightmares can interfere with sleep and may cause people to seek psychological help.

  • When considered a disease, nightmares are classified as follows:
    • ICD-10 code = F51.5
    • ICD-9 code = 307.47

Nightmares in childrenEdit

Nightmares in adultsEdit

AssessmentEdit

TreatmentEdit

A recently proposed treatment consists of imagery rehearsal (PMID 15984916). This approach appears to reduce the effects of nightmares and other symptoms in acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder[1].


Nightmares and psychological traumaEdit

Nightmares and mental disordersEdit

Nightmares in psychoanalysisEdit

Neuroscience of nightmaresEdit

Many studies have confirmed a high prevalence of nightmares and some have correlated them with high stress levels.[1] Multiple models of nightmare production have been proposed including neo-Freudian models as well as other models such as image contextualization model, boundary thickness model, threat simulation model etc.[2] Neurotransmitter imbalance has been proposed as a cause of nightmares, as also affective network dysfunction- a model which claims that nightmare is a product of dysfunction of circuitry normally involved in dreaming.[3][4] As with dreaming, none of the models have yielded conclusive results and studies continue about these questions.

Historic use of term Edit

Johann Heinrich Füssli 052

The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli, 1781 (The Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit)

Nightmare was the original term for the state later known as waking dream and more currently as sleep paralysis, associated with rapid eye movement (REM) periods of sleep. The original definition was codified by Dr Johnson in his A Dictionary of the English Language and was thus understood, among others by Erasmus Darwin and Henry Fuseli, to include a "morbid oppression in the night, resembling the pressure of weight upon the breast."

Such nightmares were widely considered to be the work of demons, which were thought to sit on the chests of sleepers. In Old English, the being in question was called a mare or mære (from a proto-Germanic *marōn, related to Old High German and Old Norse mara), whence comes the mare part in nightmare.

This type of waking dream is called mareridt in Danish, cauchemar in French, pesadilla in Spanish, Alpdruck or Alptraum in German, incubo in Italian, pesadelo in Portuguese and kanashibari in Japanese.

Medical investigationEdit

Studies of dreams have found that about three quarters of dream content or emotions are negative.[5]

One definition of "nightmare" is a dream which causes one to wake up in the middle of the sleep cycle and experience a negative emotion, such as fear. This type of event occurs on average once per month. They are not common in children under 5, more common in young children (25% experiencing a nightmare at least once per week), most common in adolescents, and less common in adults (dropping in frequency about one-third from age 25 to 55).[5]

Fearfulness in waking life is correlated with the incidence of nightmares.[5]


See alsoEdit


NotesEdit

  • Max Eastman visited Sigmund Freud's apartment in Vienna, in 1926. He saw a print of Fuseli's The Nightmare, next to Rembrandt's The Anatomy Lesson. Ernest Jones chose another version of Fuseli's painting as the frontispiece of his book On the Nightmare, however neither Freud nor Jones mentioned those paintings in their writings about the classic nightmare.


ReferencesEdit

BooksEdit

  • Adams, E. M. (1987). The neuropsychology of nightmares. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Anch, A.M., & Browman, C.P., & Mitler, M.M., & Walsh, J.K. (1988). Sleep: A scientific perspective. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  • Jones, Ernest (1951). On the Nightmare (ISBN: 0871409127) (pbk, 1971; ISBN: 0871402483).
  • Simons, Ronald C and Hughes, Charles C (eds.)(1985). Culture-Bound Syndromes. Springer, 536pp.
  • Sagan, Carl (1997). The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark .

PapersEdit

  • Harris J.C. (2004). Arch Gen Psychiatry. May;61(5):439-40. The Nightmare. (PMID 15123487)
  • Forbes, D. et al. (2001) Brief Report: Treatment of Combat-Related Nightmares Using Imagery Rehearsal: A Pilot Study, Journal of Traumatic Stress 14 (2): 433-442

Further readingEdit

BooksEdit

  • Agargun, M. Y. (2007). Nightmares and suicidality. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Baumann, C., Lentzsch, F., Regard, M., & Bassetti, C. (2007). The hallucinating art of Heinrich Fussli. Basel, Switzerland: Karger.
  • Buirski, P. (1987). The nightmare in psychoanalysis. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Bulkeley, K. (2003). Dreams of healing: Transforming nightmares into visions of hope. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press.
  • Carranza, C. R., & Dill, J. R. (2004). Banishing night terrors and nightmares: A breakthrough program to heal the traumas that shatter peaceful sleep. New York, NY: Kensington Books.
  • Cernovsky, Z. Z. (1997). Traumatization in refugees. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, Inc.
  • Clemens, E. V., Shipp, A. E., Williamson, L. L., & Lowe, I. N. (2007). "There's a monster under my bed!": Sleep problems. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Cushway, D., & Sewell, R. (1992). Counselling with dreams and nightmares. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Davies, M. J. (1987). Nightmares and psychopathology. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Davis, J. L. (2009). Treating post-trauma nightmares: A cognitive behavioral approach. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Devera, M. V. (1997). Sleep disturbances. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Durand, V. M. (2006). Sleep Terrors. New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.
  • Encel, J. S., & Dohnt, H. K. (2007). Cognitive-behavioural treatment of trauma-related nightmares in children: A developmental adaptation of imagery rehearsal therapy. Bowen Hills, QLD, Australia: Australian Academic Press.
  • Galvin, F., & Hartmann, E. (1990). Nightmares: Terrors of the night. Los Angeles, CA, England: Jeremy P Tarcher, Inc.
  • Gray, A. A. (1987). Nightmares, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Hanlon, J. (1987). The nightmare and intrapsychic conflict. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Hartmann, E. (1996). Who develops PTSD nightmares and who doesn't. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Hartmann, E. (1998). Dreams and nightmares: The new theory on the origin and meaning of dreams. New York, NY: Plenum Trade.
  • Heaton, K. J. (2004). Working with nightmares. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Hickey, D. A. (2001). The nightmare box: Empowering children through dreamwork. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
  • Jones, E. (1971). On the nightmare. Oxford, England: Liveright.
  • Juda, D. P. (1987). Personality characteristics of nightmare sufferers and some speculations on the meaning of the nightmare. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Kaminer, H., & Lavie, P. (1993). Sleep and dreams in well-adjusted and less adjusted Holocaust survivors. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kavaler, S. (1987). Nightmares and object relations theory. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Kellerman, H. (1987). The nightmare: Psychological and biological foundations. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Kellerman, H. (1987). Nightmares and the structure of personality: Conclusion and compilation of postulates. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Kellerman, H. (1987). Nightmares and the structure of personality: I. Psychoanalytic dream theory and an introduction to a structural theory of nightmares. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Kellerman, H. (1987). Nightmares and the structure of personality: II. The basic nightmare themes and their relation to personality. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Kellerman, H. (1987). Nightmares and the structure of personality: III. The intrapsychic function of defense mechanisms. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Kellerman, H. (1987). Nightmares and the structure of personality: IV. Cognitive and psychosomatic structures. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Krakow, B. (2004). Imagery Rehearsal Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Nightmares: A Mind's Eye View. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
  • Kramer, M. (1990). Nightmares (dream disturbances) in posttraumatic stress disorder: Implications for a theory of dreaming. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Lansky, M. R., & Bley, C. R. (1995). Posttraumatic nightmares: Psychodynamic explorations. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Analytic Press, Inc.
  • Lobby, T., & Dixon, T. (1990). Jessica and the wolf: A story for children who have bad dreams. Washington, DC: Magination Press/American Psychological Association.
  • Mack, J. E. (1974). Nightmares & human conflict. Oxford, England: Houghton Mifflin.
  • McNamara, P. (2008). Nightmares: The science and solution of those frightening visions during sleep. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
  • Moss, C. S. (1975). Treatment of recurrent nightmares in a drug abuser by hypnosymbolism. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
  • Nielsen, T., & Lara-Carrasco, J. (2007). Nightmares, dreaming, and emotion regulation: A review. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Raddock, F. D. (1987). Nightmares, problem sleep, and peculiar bedtime behavior in children. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Roig, J. (2005). Nightsweats. Charleston, SC: BookSurge.
  • Safer, J. M. (1987). Psychoanalytic theory of the nightmare in the light of recent physiological research. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Siegler, A. L. (1987). The nightmare and child development: Some observations from a psychoanalytic perspective. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Stern, M. M., & Stern, L. B. (1988). Repetition and trauma: Toward a teleonomic theory of psychoanalysis. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Analytic Press, Inc.
  • Stoddard, F. J., Chedekel, D. S., & Shakun, L. (1996). Dreams and nightmares of burned children. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Van Liempt, S., Vermetten, E., Geuze, E., & Westenberg, H. (2006). Pharmacotherapeutic Treatment of Nightmares and Insomnia in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Overview of the Literature. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Wilmer, H. A. (1996). The healing nightmare: War dreams of Vietnam veterans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

PapersEdit

Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2006). Nightmares: Prevalence, Age and Gender Differences among Kuwaiti Children and Adolescents: Sleep and Hypnosis Vol 8(1) 2006, 33-40.

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  • Agargun, M. Y., Besiroglu, L., Cilli, A. S., Gulec, M., Aydin, A., Inci, R., et al. (2007). Nightmares, suicide attempts, and melancholic features in patients with unipolar major depression: Journal of Affective Disorders Vol 98(3) Mar 2007, 267-270.
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DissertationsEdit

  • Adler, S. R. (1992). The role of the Nightmare in Hmong sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome: A folkloristic study of belief and health: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Aron, A. (1996). The collective nightmare of Central American refugees. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Belicki, D. A. (1984). The relationship of nightmares to psychopathology, stress and reactivity to stress: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Blitz, R. G. (1983). Nightmares and the self: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Bryant, L. S. (1994). Signal and annihilation anxieties in dreams and nightmares: An exploration. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Conoscenti, L. M. (2008). Weaving a terrible dream: A web of personality and psychopathological traits associated with frequent nightmares. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Cook, C. L. (1987). Vietnam veterans: Waking and nonwaking cognitive responses to life-threatening stressors: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Corbit, I. E. (1986). Veterans' nightmares: Trauma, treatment, truce: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Fahr, D. R. (2004). Development and psychometric evaluation of the nightmare scale. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Gaines, W. M. (1995). Wish-fulfillment: A psychophysiological investigation of Freudian theory. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Galvin, F. J. (1993). The effects of lucid dream training upon the frequency and severity of nightmares: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Germain, A. (2002). Sleep pathophysiology and cognitive-behavioral treatment of posttraumatic and idiopathic nightmares. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Greene, K. C. (1984). Investigation of amelioration of recurrent nightmares using structured written expression as a short-term approach: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Greenstein, D. S. (1995). Relationship between frequent nightmares, psychopathology and boundaries among incarcerated, male inmates. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Heaton, K. J. (2003). An investigation of nightmare-focused treatment using the hill cognitive-experiential method of dream work. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kinney, L. (1984). A laboratory investigation of the changes in the sleep physiology of the dream-disturbed: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kwassman, J. L. (2007). A comparative investigation of sleep disturbances, nightmare prevalence, and nightmare distress in individuals with panic disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Levin, R. (1987). Ego boundary impairment and thought disorder in frequent nightmare sufferers: Evidence for a proposed pathognomonic relationship to schizophrenia: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Nafpaktitis, M. (1999). Hallucinations in children and adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Oliver, D. C. (2003). A personal construct investigation of posttraumatic stress and the healing nightmare phenomenon in military veterans. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Price, R. F. (1992). Frequent nightmare experience; relation to psychopathology and creativity: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Purvey, M. H. (2001). Nightmare distress, psychiatric symptoms and gender. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Putnam, T. C. (1990). The abyss complex: A Jungian perspective on a repetitive nightmare and the phenomena of the abyss image: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Seidman, K. (2008). Mas' is desire: The erotic, grotesque and visionary in Trinidad Carnival. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Witte, B. S. (1989). Posttraumatic stress disorder and nightmares in combat and non-combat Vietnam-era veterans: Dissertation Abstracts International.


External linksEdit

  • Siegel, A. (2003) A mini-course for clinicians and trauma workers on posttraumatic nightmares.
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