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Individual differences |
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Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2"||Nicotinamide|
|style="background: #F8EABA; text-align: center;" colspan="2"|| Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide and nicotinic acid amide, is the amide of nicotinic acid (vitamin B(3)). Nicotinamide is a water-soluble vitamin and is part of the vitamin B group. Collectively, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are called niacin. In cells, niacin is incorporated into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), although the pathways for nicotinamide and nicotinic acid are very similar. NAD+ and NADP+ are coenzymes in a wide variety of enzymatic oxidation-reduction reactions.
Use in medicineEdit
Nicotinamide has demonstrated anti-inflammatory actions which may be of benefit in patients with inflammatory skin conditions. These conditions include acne vulgaris, and the compound can suppress antigen induced-lymphocytic transformation and inhibit of 3'-5' cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. Nicotinamide has demonstrated the ability to block the inflammatory actions of iodides known to precipitate or exacerbate inflammatory acne. Animal studies show that nicotinamide has anti-anxiety (anxiolytic) properties. It may work in a way similar to benzodiazepines.
Nicotinamide lacks the vasodilator, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and hypolipemic actions of nicotinic acid or niacin. As such nicotinamide has not been shown to produce the flushing, itching and burning sensations of the skin as is commonly seen when large doses of niootinic acid are administered orally. However, nicotinamide can produce liver toxicity at high doses. In overall, it rarely causes side effects, and is considered generally safe as a food additive, component in cosmetics and medication.
- ↑ Henderson LM (1983). Niacin. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 3: 289–307.
- ↑ Belenky P, Bogan KL, Brenner C (2007). NAD+ metabolism in health and disease. Trends Biochem. Sci. 32 (1): 12–9.
- ↑ Niren NM (2006). Pharmacologic doses of nicotinamide in the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions: a review. Cutis 77 (1 Suppl): 11–6.
- ↑ Tallman JF, Paul SM, Skolnick P, Gallager DW (1980). Receptors for the age of anxiety: pharmacology of the benzodiazepines. Science 207 (4428): 274–81.
- ↑ Knip M, Douek IF, Moore WP, et al (2000). Safety of high-dose nicotinamide: a review. Diabetologia 43 (11): 1337–45.
- ↑ (2005) Final report of the safety assessment of niacinamide and niacin. Int. J. Toxicol. 24 Suppl 5: 1–31.
|All B vitamins | All D vitamins|
| Retinol (A) | Thiamine (B1) | Riboflavin (B2) | Niacin (B3) | Pantothenic acid (B5) | Pyridoxine (B6) | Biotin (B7) | Folic acid (B9) | Cyanocobalamin (B12) | Ascorbic acid (C) | Ergocalciferol (D2) | Cholecalciferol (D3) | Tocopherol (E) | Naphthoquinone (K)|
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