Ad blocker interference detected!
Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers
Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.
Neurasthenia is a psycho-pathological term first used by George Miller Beard in 1869 to denote a condition with symptoms of fatigue, anxiety, headache, impotence, neuralgia and depressed mood. It is currently a diagnosis in the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Diseases, and in the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders under the translation 'shenjing shuairuo'.
Americans were supposed to be particularly prone to neurasthenia, which resulted in the nickname "Americanitis" (popularized by William James). However, it is no longer included as a diagnosis in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders although there is a category of Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorders.
It was explained as being a result of exhaustion of the central nervous system's energy reserves, which Beard attributed to modern civilization. Physicians in the Beard school of thought associated neurasthenia with the stresses of urbanization and the pressures placed on the intellectual class by the increasingly competitive business environment. Typically, it was associated with upper class individuals in sedentary employment.
Freud included a variety of physical symptoms in this category, including fatigue, dyspepsia with flatulence, and indications of intra-cranial pressure and spinal irritation.. In common with many people at that time, he believed this condition to be due to "excessive masturbation" or to arise "spontaneously from frequent emissions". Eventually he separated it from anxiety neurosis though he believed that a combination of the two conditions coexisted in many cases.
Beard, with his partner A.D. Rockwell, advocated first electrotherapy and then increasingly experimental treatments for people with neurasthenia, a position that was controversial. An 1868 review posited that Beard's and Rockwell's grasp of the scientific method was suspect and did not believe their claims to be warranted.
William James was diagnosed with neurasthenia, and was quoted as saying, "I take it that no man is educated who has never dallied with the thought of suicide." (Townsend, 1996).
In the late 1800s, neurasthenia became a "popular" diagnosis, expanding to include such symptoms as weakness, dizziness and fainting, and a common treatment was the rest cure, especially for women, who were the gender primarily diagnosed with this condition at that time. Virginia Woolf was known to have been forced to undergo rest cures, which she describes in her book On Being Ill. Charlotte Perkins Gilman's protagonist in The Yellow Wallpaper also suffers under the auspices of rest cure doctors, much like Gilman herself. Marcel Proust was said to suffer from neurasthenia. To capitalize on this epidemic, the Rexall drug company introduced a medication called 'Americanitis Elixir' which claimed to be a soother for any bouts related to Neurasthenia.
In 1895, Sigmund Freud reviewed electrotherapy and declared it a "pretense treatment." He highlighted the example of Elizabeth von R's note that "the stronger these were the more they seemed to push her own pains into the background." [See also placebo effect.]
Nevertheless, neurasthenia was a common diagnosis in World War I - for example, every one of the approximately 1700 officers processed through the Craiglockhart War Hospital was diagnosed with neurasthenia - but its use declined a decade later.
Despite being dropped by the American Psychological Association's DSM in 1980, the neurasthenia is listed in an appendix as the culture-bound syndrome shenjing shuairuo [神经衰弱] as well as appearing in the ICD-10. The condition is thought to persist primarily in Asia as a culturally acceptable diagnosis that avoids the social stigma of a diagnosis of mental disorder. In Japan the condition is known as shinkeisuijaku, which translates as "nervousness or nervous disposition", and is treated with Morita therapy involving mandatory rest and isolation followed by progressively harder work and a resumption of a previous social role. The diagnosis is now being used as a cover for serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. In China the condition is known as shenjingshuairuo (written with the same characters as shinkeisuijaku in Japanese), translated as "weakness of nerves", and is believed caused by a depletion of qi and is classified as a mental disorder diagnosed with three of five "'weakness' symptoms,'emotional' symptoms, 'excitement' symptoms, tension-induced pain, and sleep disturbances" not caused by other conditions.
- ↑ The term had been used at least as early as 1829 to label an actual mechanical weakness of the actual nerves, rather than the more metaphorical "nerves" referred to, by Beard, in 1869.
- ↑ Sandler et al., Freud's Models of the Mind, 1997, ISBN 1 85575 167 4, p.52
- ↑ cf D.M. Friedman "A Mind of Its Own: A Cultural History of the Penis"
- ↑ Sandler et al., loc. cit.
- ↑ loc.cit.
- ↑ Fogoros, R A family of misunderstood disorders. About.com. URL accessed on 2008-09-11.
- ↑ Schwartz PY (September 2002). Why is neurasthenia important in Asian cultures?. West. J. Med. 176 (4): 257–8.
- Beard, G (1869). Neurasthenia, or nervous exhaustion. The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal: 217-221.
- Weir Mitchell, S (1884), Fat and Blood: an essay on the treatment of certain types of Neurasthenia and hysteria, Philadelphia: J. D. Lippincott & Co., http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16230/16230-h/16230-h.htm, retrieved on 2008-09-11
- includeonly>Marcus, G. "One Step Back; Where Are the Elixirs of Yesteryear When We Hurt?", The New York Times, 1998-01-26. Retrieved on 2008-09-11.
- White, Charlotte; Kimble, Gregory A.; Wertheimer, Michael (1991). Portraits of pioneers in psychology, 13–25, Washington: American Psychological Association.
- Schultz, Sydney Ellen; Schultz, Duane P. (2004). A history of modern psychology, 178–179, Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
- Townsend, Kim (1996). Manhood at Harvard: William James and others, New York: W.W. Norton.
- Gijswijt-Hofstra, Marijke (2001). Cultures of Neurasthenia: From Beard to the First World War (Clio Medica 63) (Clio Medica), Rodopi Bv Editions.
- Brown, EM An American Treatment for the 'American Nervousness'. American Association of the History of Medicine. URL accessed on 2008-09-11.
- Farmer A, Jones I, Hillier J, Llewelyn M, Borysiewicz L, Smith A (October 1995). Neuraesthenia revisited: ICD-10 and DSM-III-R psychiatric syndromes in chronic fatigue patients and comparison subjects. Br J Psychiatry 167 (4): 503–6.
- Bailly, L. (2002). Chronic fatigue syndrome or neurasthenia? : British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 181(4) Oct 2002, 350-351.
- Ballet, G., & Smith, P. C. (1908). Neurasthenia, 3rd ed. London, England: Henry Kimpton.
- Ballet, G., & Smith, P. C. (1908). Part I. Definition and nature of neurasthenia. London, England: Henry Kimpton.
- Ballet, G., & Smith, P. C. (1908). Part II. The causes of neurasthenia. Why and how one becomes neurasthenic. London, England: Henry Kimpton.
- Ballet, G., & Smith, P. C. (1908). Part III. Symptoms and clinical forms of neurasthenia. London, England: Henry Kimpton.
- Ballet, G., & Smith, P. C. (1908). Part IV. Etiology. London, England: Henry Kimpton.
- Ballet, G., & Smith, P. C. (1908). Part V. Prophylaxis. London, England: Henry Kimpton.
- Ballet, G., & Smith, P. C. (1908). Part VI. Treatment. London, England: Henry Kimpton.
- Ballet, G., & Smith, P. C. (1908). Part VII. Treatment of some clinical forms of neurasthenia. London, England: Henry Kimpton.
- Bogousslavsky, J. (2007). Marcel Proust's diseases and doctors: The neurological story of a life. Basel, Switzerland: Karger.
- Costa e Silva, J. A., & de Girolamo, G. (1990). Neurasthenia: History of a concept. Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
- Dercum, F. X. (1917). Group IV--The neurasthenic-neuropathic disorders (psychasthenia). Philadelphia, PA: W B Saunders Co.
- Greenberg, D. B. (1997). Beyond neurasthenia and chronic fatigue. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
- Kleinman, A. M., & Kleinman, J. (1997). Moral transformations of health and suffering in Chinese society. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.
- Sharpe, M. C., & Wessely, S. (2005). Chronic Fatigue and Neurasthenia: A Review. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- Walton, G. L. (1908). Neurasthenia. Philadelphia, PA: J B Lippincott Company.
- Wessely, S. (1990). Chronic fatigue and myalgia syndromes. Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
- Worcester, E., McComb, S., & Coriat, I. H. (1908). Abnormal fears. New York, NY: Moffat, Yard & Company.
- Ashkinazi, I. Y., & Ishinova, V. A. (1989). Renin-angiotensin system in neurotic (neurasthenic) normotensive and hypotensive patients: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 89(2) 1989, 70-73.
- Ashkinazi, I. Y., & Ishinova, V. A. (1990). The renin-angiotensin system in neurasthenic patients with normal and low arterial pressure: Soviet Neurology & Psychiatry Vol 23(3) Fal 1990, 32-38.
- Ashkinazi, I. Y., & Vershinina, E. A. (1999). Pain sensitivity in chronic psychoemotional stress in humans: Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology Vol 29(3) May-Jun 1999, 333-337.
- Bankier, B., Aigner, M., & Bach, M. (2001). Clinical validity of ICD-10 neurasthenia: Psychopathology Vol 34(3) May-Jun 2001, 134-139.
- Beljaew, W. N. (1974). Diagnosis and therapy of functional cardiac disorders in neurasthenic patients at sanatoriums: Psychiatrie, Neurologie und Medizinische Psychologie Vol 26(12) Dec 1974, 738-746.
- Berger, D. M. (1973). The return of neurasthenia: Comprehensive Psychiatry Vol 14(6) Nov 1973, 557-562.
- Boleloucky, Z., Plevova, J., Bartosova, O., & Nahunek, K. (1982). Experience with medazepam in neurotic patients: Activitas Nervosa Superior Vol 24(4) 1982, 246-247.
- Braganza, D., Kuruvilla, A., Jacob, K. S., & Joseph, A. (2000). Criteria for neurasthenia: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry Vol 34(2) Apr 2000, 340.
- Bridges, J. W. (1919). Neurasthenia and the anxiety neurosis. Columbus, OH: R G Adams & Co.
- Bridges, J. W. (1925). Neurasthenia and the anxiety neurosis. Columbus, OH: R G Adams & Co.
- Brown, T. M. (2006). Review of Cultures of neurasthenia: From Beard to the first world war: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences Vol 42(1) Win 2006, 87-88.
- Butcher, J. N. (1987). A Western View of Eastern Problems: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 32 (6), Jun, 1987.
- Campbell, B. (2007). The making of 'American': Race and nation in neurasthenic discourse: History of Psychiatry Vol 18(2) Jun 2007, 157-178.
- Cathebras, P. (1994). Neurasthenia, spasmophilia and chronic fatigue syndromes in France: Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review Vol 31(3) 1994, 259-270.
- Chang, W.-h. (1984). Electroacupuncture and ECT: Biological Psychiatry Vol 19(8) Aug 1984, 1271-1272.
- Chemouni, J. (2001). Somatization and the impossibility of mentalization according to Freud: Bulletin de Psychologie Vol 54(2)(452) Mar-Apr 2001, 181-187.
- Chen, W., Fang, Z., & Wang, W. (1996). Analysis of the results of 16-PF and MMPI in neurasthenics: Chinese Mental Health Journal Vol 10(6) Dec 1996, 268.
- Cheung, F., & Lin, K.-M. (1997). Neurasthenia, depression and somatoform disorder in a Chinese-Vietnamese woman migrant: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 21(2) Jun 1997, 247-258.
- Cheung, F. M. (1989). The indigenization of neurasthenia in Hong Kong: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Jun 1989, 227-241.
- Cocchi, R. (1976). Antidepressive properties of l-glutamine: Preliminary report: Acta Psychiatrica Belgica Vol 76(4) Jul-Aug 1976, 658-666.
- Costantini, M. V., de Leo, D., Ferruzza, E., & Mangini, E. (1981). Neurasthenic syndrome: Critical reflections on nosographic problem through a personality study: II: Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria e Medicina Legale delle Alienazioni Mentali Vol 105(6) Dec 1981, 1334-1348.
- Creed, F., Ratcliffe, J., Fernandes, L., Palmer, S., Rigby, C., Tomenson, B., et al. (2005). Outcome in severe irritable bowel syndrome with and without accompanying depressive, panic and neurasthenic disorders: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 186(6) Jun 2005, 507-515.
- Dalessio, D. J. (1978). Hyperventilation. The vapors. Effort syndrome. Neurasthenia: Anxiety by any other name is just as disturbing: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association Vol 239(14) Apr 1978, 1401-1402.
- di Mascio, P. (1986). The origins of the theory of neurasthenia: L'Evolution Psychiatrique Vol 51(3) Jul-Sep 1986, 625-637.
- Dimitrov, C., Wladimirova, L., & Daskalov, J. (1972). The attitude of neurotics towards methods of treatment: Schweizer Archiv fur Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie Vol 110(1) 1972, 97-107.
- Fabrega, H. (1992). Culture and the psychosomatic tradition: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 54(5) Sep-Oct 1992, 561-566.
- Fangerau, H. (2005). Politics and Neurasthenia: The Foundation of a Public Sanatorium for the Lower Middle Class in Germany Around 1900: Krankenhauspsychiatrie Vol 16(1) Mar 2005, 25-32.
- Flaskerud, J. H. (2007). Neurasthenia: Here and there, now and then: Issues in Mental Health Nursing Vol 28(6) Jun 2007, 657-659.
- Gamma, A., Angst, J., Ajdacic, V., Eich, D., & Rossler, W. (2007). The spectra of neurasthenia and depression: Course, stability and transitions: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience Vol 257(2) Mar 2007, 120-127.
- Gan, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Wang, S., & Shen, X. (2006). The coping flexibility of neurasthenia and depressive patients: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 40(5) Apr 2006, 859-871.
- Garate Martinez, I. (2002). All of the mother and of the son: Notes about Paulina Luz's history and diseases: Clinica y Analisis Grupal Vol 24(2) Aug-Dec 2002, 29-43.
- Greenberg, D. B. (1990). Neurasthenia in the 1980s: Chronic mononucleosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and anxiety and depressive disorders: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 31(2) Spr 1990, 129-137.
- Groenendijk, L. F. (1997). Masturbation and neurasthenia: Freud and Stekel in debate on the harmful effects of autoerotism: Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality Vol 9(1) 1997, 71-94.
- Hanus, H., Hubsch, T., Zapletalek, M., Kucera, V., & et al. (1986). Chlorprothixen drops in neurotic disturbances: Activitas Nervosa Superior Vol 28(1) 1986, 36.
- He-Qin, Y. (1989). The necessity of retaining the diagnostic concept of neurasthenia: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Jun 1989, 139-145.
- Hickie, I., Davenport, T., Issakidis, C., & Andrews, G. (2002). Neurasthenia: Prevalence, disability and health care characteristics in the Australian community: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 181(1) Jul 2002, 56-61.
- Hickie, I., Hadzi-Pavlovic, D., & Ricci, C. (1997). Reviving the diagnosis of neurasthenia: Psychological Medicine Vol 27(5) Sep 1997, 989-994.
- Hong, W., Chan, L., Zheng, D., & Wang, C. (1992). Neurasthenia in Chinese students at UCLA: Psychiatric Annals Vol 22(4) Apr 1992, 199-201.
- Jewell, J. S. (2002). Historical note: Weakness with co-morbid psychopathology: Feeding and rest, 1880: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 190(12) Dec 2002, 846.
- Jewell, J. S. (2003). American nervousness: Its causes and consequences. A supplement to nervous exhaustion (neurasthenia): Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 191(1) Jan 2003, 56.
- Jiang, N., Sato, T., & Takeichi, M. (1999). The current diagnosis situation of neurosis in China: Comparison with ICD-10 and DSM-IV: International Medical Journal Vol 6(3) Sep 1999, 201-203.
- Kamenskaya, V. G., Tomanov, L. V., & Slezin, V. B. (1990). The effect of normal and pathological human functioning on the formation of adequate behaviour in experimental setting: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 40(4) Jul-Aug 1990, 650-657.
- Kanas, N., Salnitskiy, V., Gushin, V., Weiss, D. S., Grund, E. M., Flynn, C., et al. (2001). Asthenia--does it exist in space? : Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 63(6) Nov-Dec 2001, 874-880.
- Katanec, N. (1976). Influence of social factors on the development of neurasthenic picture of neurosis: Socijalna Psihijatrija Vol 4(1) 1976, 19-26.
- Kendel, K. (1978). Analyses of sleep stage sequence: Quantitative evaluation of the transition between sleep stages in healthy subjects and patients with sleep disturbances: Waking & Sleeping Vol 2(3) Jul 1978, 181-185.
- King, C. R. (1989). Parallels between neurasthenia and premenstrual syndrome: Women & Health Vol 15(4) 1989, 1-23.
- Kirpichenko, A. A., & Pashkov, A. A. (1986). Neurophysiological analysis of disorders of the functional activity of the projective cerebral systems in neurotic patients: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 86(11) 1986, 1694-1698.
- Kitanishi, K., & Kondo, K. (1994). The rise and fall of neurasthenia in Japanese psychiatry: Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review Vol 31(2) 1994, 137-152.
- Kleinman, A. (1982). Neurasthenia and depression: A study of somatization and culture in China: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 6(2) Jun 1982, 117-190.
- Kleinman, A. (1993). "Several theoretical topics in neurosis research": Commentary: Integrative Psychiatry Vol 9(1) 1993, 10-12.
- Kleinman, A. (1999). The moral economy of depression and neurasthenia in China. A few comments on "Diagnosis postponed: Shenjing shuairuo and the transformation of psychiatry in post-Mao China," by Sing Lee: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 23(3) Sep 1999, 389-392.
- Knave, B., Mindus, P., & Struwe, G. (1979). Neurasthenic symptoms in workers occupationally exposed to jet fuel: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 60(1) Jul 1979, 39-49.
- Krasilnikov, A. M., & Rybakova, T. G. (1982). Experience in application of nootropes for treatment of alcoholic patients: Trudy Leningradskogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Psikhonevrologicheskogo Instituta im V M Bekhtereva Vol 101 1982, 131-135.
- Kratin, Y. G., Artemtchuk, N. L., Butorina, G. V., Velshikaev, R. H., & et al. (1992). Brain activation levels and significance of the Stage B(I) EEG parameters in neuroses: Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel'nosti Vol 42(3) May-Jun 1992, 500-508.
- Kulikovskii, V. V., & Bokovikova, A. M. (1993). Information load during intellectual activity and asthenic syndrome: Human Physiology Vol 19(1) Jan-Feb 1993, 41-45.
- Lecrubier, Y., & Weiller, E. (1994). Neurasthenia and thymasthenia: L'Encephale Vol 20(Spec Issue 3) Nov 1994, 559-562.
- Lee, S. (1994). Neurasthenia and Chinese psychiatry in the 1990s: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 38(6) Aug 1994, 487-491.
- Lee, S. (1994). The vicissitudes of neurasthenia in Chinese societies: Where will it go from the ICD-10? : Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review Vol 31(2) 1994, 153-172.
- Lee, S. (1998). Estranged bodies, simulated harmony, and misplaced cultures: Neurasthenia in contemporary Chinese society: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 60(4) Jul-Aug 1998, 448-457.
- Lee, S. (1999). Diagnosis postponed: Shenjing shuairuo and the transformation of psychiatry in post-Mao China: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 23(3) Sep 1999, 349-380.
- Lee, S., & Kleinman, A. (2007). Are somatoform disorders changing with time? The case of neurasthenia in China: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 69(9) Nov-Dec 2007, 846-849.
- Lee, S., & Wong, K. C. (1995). Rethinking neurasthenia: The illness concepts of Shenjing Shuairuo among Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 19(1) Mar 1995, 91-111.
- Leutin, V. P., & Nikolaeva, E. I. (1987). Functional asymmetry of perception and recall of emotiogenic verbal information in neurasthenics: Human Physiology Vol 13(2) Mar-Apr 1987, 75-80.
- Li, L., Li, W., & Yang, L. (1998). A clinical evaluation of neurotics with the Revised Chinese California Psychological Inventory (CPI-RC): Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 6(4) Nov 1998, 240-241.
- Lin, K.-M. (1999). Does crisis foster opportunity? A commentary on "Diagnosis postponed: Shenjing shuairuo and the transformation of psychiatry in post-Mao China," by Sing Lee: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 23(3) Sep 1999, 381-388.
- Lin, T.-y. (1989). Neurasthenia revisited: Its place in modern psychiatry: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Jun 1989, 105-129.
- Lin, T.-y. (1992). Neurasthenia revisited: Its place in modern psychiatry: Psychiatric Annals Vol 22(4) Apr 1992, 173-175, 177-187.
- Liu, J., Cui, Y., Meng, F., & Dong, W. (2003). Placebo effect in treatment of neurasthenia: Chinese Mental Health Journal Vol 17(4) Apr 2003, 258-260.
- Loughran, T. (2008). Hysteria and neurasthenia in pre-1914 British medical discourse and in histories of shell-shock: History of Psychiatry Vol 19(1) Mar 2008, 25-46.
- Luthra, A., & Wessely, S. (2004). Unloading the trunk: Neurasthenia, CFS and race: Social Science & Medicine Vol 58(11) Jun 2004, 2363-2369.
- Lyskov, E., Sandstrom, M., & Mild, K. H. (2001). Neurophysiological study of patients with perceived "electrical hypersensitivity." International Journal of Psychophysiology Vol 42(3) Nov 2001, 233-241.
- Machizawa, S. (1992). Neurasthenia in Japan: Psychiatric Annals Vol 22(4) Apr 1992, 190-191.
- Martin, D. (2007). Charlotte Perkins Gilman and "The yellow wallpaper." American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 164(5) May 2007, 736.
- Maruta, N. A. (1992). Emotional disorders in neurotic patients: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 92(5-12) 1992, 81-83.
- Mendelevich, V. D. (1996). Anticipation in the genesis of neurosis: Psikhologicheskiy Zhurnal Vol 17(4) Jul-Aug 1996, 107-115.
- Mendelvich, V. D. (1986). Climacteric mask of endogenous depressions: Soviet Neurology & Psychiatry Vol 19(3) Fal 1986, 39-45.
- Merikangas, K., & Angst, J. (1994). Neurasthenia in a longitudinal cohort study of young adults: Psychological Medicine Vol 24(4) Nov 1994, 1013-1024.
- Mgaloblishvili, B. I., & Chirkova, S. K. (1988). The nature of neurohormonal shifts in neurotic patients: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 88(11) 1988, 87-92.
- Miao, D., & Ji, X. (1996). Comparisons of higher nervous activity features between insomniacs and neurasthenics: Chinese Mental Health Journal Vol 10(6) Dec 1996, 265-267.
- Micouin, G. (1988). From nostalgia to neurasthenia: An epistemological rupture: Bulletin de Psychologie Vol 42(389) Jan-Apr 1988-1989, 322-327.
- Ming-Yuan, Z. (1989). The diagnosis and phenomenology of neurasthenia: A Shanghai study: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Jun 1989, 147-161.
- Misbach, J., & Stam, H. J. (2006). Medicalizing melancholia: Exploring profiles of psychiatric professionalization: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences Vol 42(1) Win 2006, 41-59.
- Mojarro Praxedes, M. D., & Benjumea Pino, P. (1999). Chronic fatigue and neurasthenia in the student population: Actas Espanolas de Psiquiatria Vol 27(1) Jan-Feb 1999, 14-21.
- Munakata, T. (1989). The socio-cultural significance of the diagnostic label "neurasthenia" in Japan's mental health care system: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Jun 1989, 203-213.
- Nica-Udangiu, S., & Nica-Udangiu, L. (1981). The role of family traumata in the etiology of neuroses in the elderly: Romanian Journal of Gerontology & Geriatrics Vol 2(2) 1981, 229-235.
- Nystrom, S., & Lindegard, B. (1975). Predisposition for mental syndromes: A study comparing predisposition for depression, neurasthenia and anxiety state: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 51(2) Feb 1975, 69-76.
- Pancheri, P., & Piperno, R. (1973). A contribution towards the study of the nosography of neurasthenia: Rivista di Psichiatria Vol 8(4) Jul 1973, 462-479.
- Pankova, O. F., & Keshokov, A. A. (1982). Some problems pertaining to vegetative-humoral regulation in patients with neuroses and neurotic development of personality: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 82(11) 1982, 1678-1684.
- Paralikar, V., Sarmukaddam, S., Agashe, M., & Weiss, M. G. (2007). Diagnostic concordance of neurasthenia spectrum disorders in Pune, India: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology Vol 42(7) Jul 2007, 561-572.
- Parmley, L. F. (1972). The heart, the psyche, and neurosis: Psychiatric Forum Vol 3(1) Win 1972, 16-20.
- Peruzzi, P. (1985). Notes on the pharmacological treatment of nervous exhaustion: Psichiatria Generale e dell'Eta Evolutiva Vol 23(1) 1985, 91-104.
- Pieschl, D., Angersbach, P., Kolbe, M., & Toman, M. (1983). Double-blind collaborative trial of centrophenoxin versus placebo for patients with neurasthenic syndromes: Nervenarzt Vol 54(1) Jan 1983, 48-53.
- Plevova, J., Boleloucky, Z., Ticha, H., & Bartosova, O. (1982). Medazepam response in neurotic women and Cattell's personality factors: Activitas Nervosa Superior Vol 24(4) 1982, 240-242.
- Podkorytov, V. S. (1984). The causes and conditions of the development of protracted neuroses: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 84(11) 1984, 1670-1674.
- Predescu, V., Sen, A., Prelipceanu, Tudose, C., & et al. (1984). Psychopathological aspects in adolescents and young adults: Revista de Medicina Interna, Neurologie, Psihiatrie, Neurochirurgie, Dermato-Venerologie Vol 29(3) Jul-Sep 1984, 213-222.
- Qin, Y. H. (1992). Neurasthenia in China: Psychiatric Annals Vol 22(4) Apr 1992, 188-189.
- Rin, H., & Huang, M.-g. (1989). Neurasthenia as nosological dilemma: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Jun 1989, 215-226.
- Roelcke, V. (1997). Biologizing social facts: An early 20th century debate on Kraepelin's concepts of culture, neurasthenia, and degeneration: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 21(4) Dec 1997, 383-403.
- Rollin, H. (2004). One hundred years ago. 'Neurasthenia': British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 184(6) Jun 2004, 545.
- Samolyubover, E. G. (1988). Neuromental disturbances in patients with functional dysphonias: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 88(3) 1988, 104-108.
- Schroter, M. (1988). A scientific dialog between Freud and Fliess: The neurasthenia project of 1893: Jahrbuch der Psychoanalyse Vol 22 1988, 141-183.
- Semke, V. Y., & Nokhrina, L. Y. (1986). Time course of the main forms of neuroses: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 86(11) 1986, 1662-1667.
- Shen, Q. (1999). A commentary on "Diagnosis postponed: Shenjing shuairuo and the transformation of psychiatry in post-Mao China," by Sing Lee: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 23(3) Sep 1999, 397-399.
- Shixie, L. (1989). Neurasthenia in China: Modern and traditional criteria for its diagnosis: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Jun 1989, 163-186.
- Shogam, I. I., & Rechitsky, I. Z. (1981). Clinico-pathophysiological characteristics of general sensitivity disturbances in patients with neurasthenia and hysterical neurosis: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 81(12) 1981, 1842-1847.
- Skapinakis, P., Lewis, G., & Mavreas, V. (2004). Temporal Relations Between Unexplained Fatigue and Depression: Longitudinal Data From an International Study in Primary Care: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 66(3) May-Jun 2004, 330-335.
- Skultans, V. (1997). A historical disorder: Neurasthenia and the testimony of lives in Latvia: Anthropology & Medicine Vol 4(1) Apr 1997, 7-24.
- Slezin, V. B., Kamenskaya, V. G., Tomanov, L. V., & Schukina, N. V. (1988). Slow brain potentials in normal subjects and patients with various neuroses: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 88(12) 1988, 28-31.
- Solms, M. (1989). Three previously-untranslated reviews by Freud from the Neue Freie Presse: International Journal of Psycho-Analysis Vol 70(3) 1989, 397-403.
- Starcevic, V. (1991). Neurasthenia: A paradigm of social psychopathology in a transitional society: American Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 45(4) Oct 1991, 544-553.
- Starcevic, V. (1994). Neurasthenia in European psychiatric literature: Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review Vol 31(2) 1994, 125-136.
- Starcevic, V. (1999). Neurasthenia: Cross-cultural and conceptual issues in relation to chronic fatigue syndrome: General Hospital Psychiatry Vol 21(4) Jul-Aug 1999, 249-255.
- Starcevic, V., Kelin, K., & Munjiza, M. (1996). Characteristics of neurasthenia: Examination and cross-cultural applicability of ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research: European Psychiatry Vol 11(6) 1996, 289-297.
- Stea, J., & Fried, W. (1993). Remedies for a society's debilities: Medicines for neurasthenia in Victorian America: New York State Journal of Medicine Vol 93(2) Feb 1993, 120-127.
- Stubhaug, B., Lie, S. A., Ursin, H., & Eriksen, H. R. (2008). Cognitive-behavioural therapy v. mirtazapine for chronic fatigue and neurasthenia: Randomised placebo-controlled trial: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 192(3) Mar 2008, 217-223.
- Stubhaug, B., Tveito, T. H., Eriksen, H. R., & Ursin, H. (2005). Neurasthenia, subjective health complaints and sensitization: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 30(10) Nov 2005, 1003-1009.
- Suzuki, T. (1989). The concept of neurasthenia and its treatment in Japan: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Jun 1989, 187-202.
- Svyatogor, I. A., Vereshchagina, A. A., Butorina, G. V., Nikiforova, T. E., & et al. (1987). The nature of cortico-subcortical interrelations in neurotic patients (according to EEG findings): Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 87(6) 1987, 877-880.
- Takahashi, T. (1978). Onset ages of neuroses (1st report): Journal of Mental Health No 25 Mar 1978, 75-79.
- Takeuchi, D. T., Chun, C.-A., Gong, F., & Shen, H. (2002). Cultural expressions of distress: Health: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine Vol 6(2) Apr 2002, 221-235.
- Tashlykov, V. A. (1988). Specificity of dynamics of self-perception in neuroses during group psychotherapy: Trudy Leningradskogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Psikhonevrologicheskogo Instituta im V M Bekhtereva Vol 121 1988, 83-88.
- Taylor, R. E. (2001). Death of neurasthenia and its psychological reincarnation: A study of neurasthenia at the National Hospital for the Relief and Cure of the Parlysed and Epileptic, Queen Square, London, 1870-1932: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 179(6) Dec 2001, 550-557.
- Verhaest, S., & Pierloot, R. (1980). An attempt at an empirical delimitation of neurasthenic neurosis and its relation with some character traits: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Vol 62(2) Aug 1980, 166-176.
- Verhaest, S., & Pierloot, R. (1981). From neurasthenia to asthenic neurosis: History of a concept: L'Evolution Psychiatrique Vol 46(1) Jan-Mar 1981, 183-199.
- Verhaest, S., & Pierloot, R. (1981). Psychodynamic factors in neurasthenia or neurasthenic neurosis: A survey of the literature: Psychologica Belgica Vol 21(2) 1981, 181-194.
- Voskresensky, M. F. (1991). The psychological causes of variations in suggestibility: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 91(3) 1991, 86-90.
- Ware, N. C., & Kleinman, A. (1992). Culture and somatic experience: The social course of illness in neurasthenia and chronic fatigue syndrome: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 54(5) Sep-Oct 1992, 546-560.
- Ware, N. C., & Kleinman, A. (1992). Depression in neurasthenia and chronic fatigue syndrome: Psychiatric Annals Vol 22(4) Apr 1992, 202-208.
- Ware, N. C., & Weiss, M. G. (1994). Neurasthenia and the social construction of psychiatric knowledge: Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review Vol 31(2) 1994, 101-124.
- Wesnes, K. A., Faleni, R. A., Hefting, N. R., Hoogsteen, G., Houben, J. J. G., Jenkins, E., et al. (1997). The cognitive, subjective, and physical effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination in healthy volunteers with neurasthenic complaints: Psychopharmacology Bulletin Vol 33(4) 1997, 677-683.
- Wessely, S. (1990). Old wine in new bottles: Neurasthenia and "ME." Psychological Medicine Vol 20(1) Feb 1990, 35-53.
- Wessely, S. (1994). Neurasthenia and chronic fatigue: Theory and practice in Britain and America: Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review Vol 31(2) 1994, 173-209.
- Wessely, S., & Lutz, T. (1995). Neurasthenia and fatigue syndromes. New York, NY: New York University Press.
- Wilson, D. J. (1984). Neurasthenia and vocational crisis in post-Civil War America: Psychohistory Review Vol 12(4) Spr 1984, 31-38.
- Xiao, S., & Yan, H. (1995). Neurasthenia in primary care: A cross-cultural study: Chinese Mental Health Journal Vol 9(3) 1995, 118-120.
- Yamamoto, J. (1992). Psychiatric diagnoses and neurasthenia: Psychiatric Annals Vol 22(4) Apr 1992, 171-172.
- Yan, W. (1999). A commentary on "Diagnosis postponed: Shenjing shuairuo and the transformation of psychiatry in post-Mao China, by Sing Lee." Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 23(3) Sep 1999, 393-396.
- Yeh, E.-K. (1992). Neurasthenia in Taiwan: A diagnostic entity or destigmatized paradigm of mental disorders? : Psychiatric Annals Vol 22(4) Apr 1992, 192-193.
- Young, D. (1989). Neurasthenia and related problems: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 13(2) Jun 1989, 131-138.
- Young, D., & Xiao, S. (1993). Several theoretical topics in neurosis research: Integrative Psychiatry Vol 9(1) 1993, 5-9.
- Zakharzhevsky, V. B. (1988). The neurosis and hypertensive disease: Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal SSSR im I M Sechenova Vol 74(11) Nov 1988, 1645-1653.
- Zapletalek, M., & et al. (1981). Meclophenoxate and diazepam infusions in neurotic disorders: Activitas Nervosa Superior Vol 23(3) Sep 1981, 194.
- Zhang, A. Y., Yu, L. C., Zhang, J., Tang, D., & Draguns, J. G. (2001). Anthropophobia: Its meaning and concomitant experiences: International Journal of Social Psychiatry Vol 47(4) Win 2001, 56-70.
- Zhang, W., Lee, L.-C., Connor, K. M., Chang, C.-M., Lai, T.-J., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2007). Symptoms of neurasthenia following earthquake trauma: Re-examination of a discarded syndrome: Psychiatry Research Vol 153(2) Oct 2007, 171-177.
- Zheng, Y., Lin, K.-m., Yamamoto, J., Zheng, D., & et al. (1992). Neurasthenia in Chinese students and visiting scholars in the United States: Psychiatric Annals Vol 22(4) Apr 1992, 194-198.
- Zheng, Y.-P., Lin, K.-M., Takeuchi, D., Kurasaki, K. S., Wang, Y., & Cheung, F. (1997). An epidemiological study of neurasthenia in Chinese-Americans in Los Angeles: Comprehensive Psychiatry Vol 38(5) Sep-Oct 1997, 249-259.
- Zinkovsky, A. K. (1989). Work fitness in patients with neurasthenia: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 89(11) 1989, 75-78.
- Aultman, J. M. (2003). Framing the clinical and philosophical dimensions of mental disease. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Seiden, D. Y. (1999). Cross-cultural behavioral case formulation with Chinese neurasthenia patients. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Zhang, Y. A. (1996). Anthropophobia among Chinese young adults. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.