Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Neuralgia or neuropathic pain can be defined most simply as non-nociceptive pain. Neuralgia is pain produced by a change in neurological structure or function. Unlike nociceptive pain, Neuralgia exists with no continuous nociceptive input. Neuralgia falls into two categories: central Neuralgia and peripheral Neuralgia. This unusual pain is thought to be linked to four possible mechanisms: ion gate malfunctions; the nerve becomes mechanically sensitive and creates an ectopic signal; cross signals between large and small fibers; and malfunction due to damage in the central processor.
Neuralgia was first recognized by Weir Mitchell, a Civil War surgeon, who noticed hyperalgesia and chronic pain in patients who had nerve lesions in the extremities and also some cases where no lesion was observed. Mitchell termed the condition “causalgia” which has since become known as “Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 and Type 2” (CRPS). CRPS Type 1 describes the condition when no clear nerve injury is present, and Type 2 describes a case when nerve damage is clear.
Neuralgia is often difficult to diagnose, and most treatments show little or no effectiveness. Diagnosis typically involves locating the damaged nerve by identifying missing sensory or motor function. This may involve tests such as an EMG test or a nerve conduction test. Neuralgia is more difficult to treat than other types of pain because it does not respond well to normal pain medications. Special medications have become more specific to Neuralgia and typically fall under the category of membrane stabilizing drugs or antidepressants such as Cymbalta, Lyrica, and Neurontin. While patients do not typically respond well to surgical treatments, some neural augmentative surgeries have shown some success.
Under the general heading of neuralgia are trigeminal neuralgia (TN), atypical trigeminal neuralgia (ATN), and postherpetic neuralgia (caused by shingles or herpes). Neuralgia is also involved in disorders such as sciatica and brachial plexopathy with neuropathia. Neuralgias that do not involve the trigeminal nerve are occipital neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia.
In the case of trigeminal neuralgia the affected nerves are responsible for sensing touch, temperature sensation and pressure sensation in the facial area from the jaw to the forehead. The disorder generally causes short episodes of excruciating pain, usually for less than two minutes and usually only one side of the face. The pain can be described in a variety of ways such as "stabbing," "sharp," "like lightning," "burning," and even "itchy". In the atypical form of TN, the pain presents itself as severe constant aching along the nerve. The pain associated with TN is recognized as one of the most excruciating pains that can be experienced.
Simple stimuli such as eating, talking, making facial expressions, washing the face, or any light touch or sensation can trigger an attack (even the sensation of a cool breeze). The attacks can occur in clusters, as an isolated attack, or be completely constant. Some patients will have a muscle spasm which led to the original term for TN of "tic douloureux" ("tic", meaning 'spasm', and "douloureux", meaning 'painful', in French).
Neuralgia is a form of chronic pain and can be extremely difficult to diagnose. Postherpetic neuralgia is the easiest to diagnose because it follows an obvious cause (shingles). Neuralgia is a rare disease. Women are more likely to be affected than men, and those over 50 are at the greatest risk. In some cases, multiple sclerosis is related to nerve damage, causing the pain, so doctors will likely ask about family history to help diagnose. Nothing unusual can be seen in brain scans, so diagnosis is usually based on the description of the symptoms and the response to the medication or procedures.
By understanding the neuroplastic changes following nerve damage, researchers may be able to better understand the mechanism of hyperexcitability in the nervous system that is believed to cause neuropathic pain.
Peripheral nerve injuryEdit
A neuron’s response to trauma can often be determined by the severity of the injury, classified by Seddon's classification. In Seddon’s Classification, nerve injury is described as either Neurapraxia, axonotmesis, or neurotmesis. Following trauma to the nerve, a short onset of afferent impulses, termed “injury discharge”, occurs. While lasting only minutes, this occurrence has been linked to the onset of neuropathic pain.
When an axon is severed, the segment of the axon distal to the cut degenerates and is absorbed by Schwann cells. The proximal segment fuses, retracts, and swells, forming a “retraction bulb.” The synaptic terminal function is lost, as axoplasmic transport ceases and no neurotransmitters are created. The nucleus of the damaged axon undergoes chromatolysis in preparation for axon regeneration. Schwann cells in the distal stump of the nerve and basal lamina components secreted by Schwann cells guide and help stimulate regeneration. The regenerating axon must make connections with the appropriate receptors in order to make an effective regeneration. If proper connections to the appropriate receptors are not established, aberrant reinnervation may occur. If the regenerating axon is halted by damaged tissue, neurofibrils may create a mass known as a neuroma.
In the event that an injured neuron degenerates or does not regenerate properly, the neuron loses its function or may not function properly. Neuron trauma is not an isolated event and may cause degenerative changes in surrounding neurons. When one or more neurons lose their function or begin to malfunction, abnormal signals sent to the brain may be translated as painful signals.
Central neuronal injuryEdit
Neuronal injury in the central nervous system (CNS) typically leads to local degeneration of the nerve axon and myelin sheath. Axonal debris in the CNS is eliminated by macrophages. Trauma to neurons in the CNS also causes a proliferation of glial cells that form a glial scar. This excess of glial cells blocks new axonal formation and regeneration of central neural connections. The damaged nerve terminal begins to swell and glial cells push the defective terminal away from connections to other neurons.
Diagnosis of neuralgia is difficult, and misdiagnosis is common. Diagnosis typically involves locating the damaged nerve by stimulation of the specific damaged pathway or by identifying missing sensory function. The most common test for neuralgia is a nerve conduction study, such as using microneurography in which a peripheral nerve is stimulated and recordings are taken from a purely-sensory portion of the nerve.
When assessing neuralgia to find the underlying mechanism, a history of the pain, description of pain, clinical examination, and experimental examination are required. Since pain is subjective to the patient, it is important to use a pain assessment scale, such as the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Qualifying the severity of the pain is essential in diagnosis and in evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment. Clinical examinations usually involve testing responses to stimuli such as touch, temperature, and vibration. Neuralgia can be further classified by the type of stimuli that elicits a response: mechanical, thermal, or chemical. Response to the course of treatment is the final tool used to determine the mechanism of the pain. Future research must focus on the relationships between all of these categories .
Laser evoked potentialsEdit
Neuropathic pain is often the result of a lesion in spinothalamic pathways. Laser evoked potentials (LEPs) are measurements of cortical responses using lasers to selectively stimulate thermonociceptors in the skin. Lasers can emit a radiant-heat pulse stimulus to selectively activate A-delta and C free nerve endings. By specifically targeting pain and temperature pathways and measuring cortical responses, clinicians can identify even minute lesions in the spinothalamic pathways. LEP abnormalities are strongly indicative of neuropathic pain, while a normal LEP is often more ambiguous. LEPs have high sensitivity and are very reliable in assessing damage to both central and peripheral nervous systems.
Quantitative sensory testingEdit
Another method for testing the proper function of a nerve is Quantitative sensory testing (QST). QST relies on analysis of a patient’s response to external stimuli of controlled intensity. A stimulus is applied to the skin of the nerve area being tested in ascending and descending orders of magnitude. Clinicians can quantify the mechanical sensitivity of the tactile stimulus using von Frey hairs or Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. Also, weighted needles can be used to measure pin-prick sensation, and an electronic vibrameter is used to measure vibration sensitivity. Thermal stimuli are quantified by using a probe that operates on the Peltier principle.
One problem with QST is that abnormalities may be observed in non-neuralgia pains, often making it inconclusive in diagnosis. Also, QST is very time consuming and relies on expensive equipment.
Punch skin biopsyEdit
Recently, skin biopsy has been used to investigate mechanoreceptors and their myelinated afferents. Though available in only a few research centers, skin punch biopsy is an easy procedure and is minimally invasive. Punch skin biopsy is used to quantify nerve fibers C fibers and A-delta nerve fibers through measurement of the density of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (IENF). Loss of IENF has been observed in several cases of neuropathic pain.
Atypical (trigeminal) neuralgiaEdit
Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia (ATN) is a rare form of neuralgia and may also be the most misdiagnosed form. The symptoms can be mistaken for migraines, dental problems such as TMJ, musculoskeletal issues, and hypochondriasis. ATN can have a wide range of symptoms and the pain can fluctuate in intensity from mild aching to a crushing or burning sensation, and also to the extreme pain experienced with the more common trigeminal neuralgia. ATN pain can be described as heavy, aching, and burning. Sufferers have a constant migraine-like headache and experience pain in all three trigeminal nerve branches. This includes aching teeth, ear aches, feeling of fullness in sinuses, cheek pain, pain in forehead and temples, jaw pain, pain around eyes, and occasional electric shock-like stabs. Unlike typical neuralgia, this form can also cause pain in the back of the scalp and neck. Pain tends to worsen with talking, facial expressions, chewing, and certain sensations such as a cool breeze. Vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve, infections of the teeth or sinuses, physical trauma, or past viral infections are possible causes of ATN.
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia consists of recurring attacks of severe pain in the back of the throat, the area near the tonsils, the back of the tongue, and part of the ear. The pain is due to malfunction of the 9th cranial nerve (glossopharyngeal nerve), which moves the muscles of the throat and carries information from the throat, tonsils, and tongue to the brain.
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia, a rare disorder, usually begins after age 40 and occurs more often in men. Often, its cause is unknown. But sometimes glossopharyngeal neuralgia results from an abnormally positioned artery that compresses the glossopharyngeal nerve near where it exits the brain stem. Rarely, the cause is a tumor in the brain or neck.
Occipital neuralgia, also known as C2 neuralgia, or Arnold's neuralgia, is a medical condition characterized by chronic pain in the upper neck, back of the head and behind the eyes.
Treatment options include medicines, surgery, and complementary approaches.
High doses of anticonvulsant medicines—used to block nerve firing— and tricyclic antidepressants are generally effective in treating neuralgia. If medication fails to relieve pain or produces intolerable side effects, surgical treatment may be recommended.
Neural augmentative surgeries are used to stimulate the affected nerve. By stimulating the nerve the brain can be “fooled” into thinking it is receiving normal input. Electrodes are carefully placed in the dorsal root and subcutaneous nerve stimulation is used to stimulate the targeted nerve pathway. A technician can create different electrical distributions in the nerve to optimize the efficiency, and a patient controls the stimulation by passing a magnet over the unit.
Some degree of facial numbness is expected after most of these surgical procedures, and neuralgia might return despite the procedure’s initial success. Depending on the procedure, other surgical risks include hearing loss, balance problems, infection, and stroke. These surgeries include rhizotomy (where select nerve fibers are destroyed to block pain) and Microvascular decompression (where the surgeon moves the vessels that are compressing the nerve away from it and places a soft cushion between the nerve and the vessels).
Some patients choose to manage neuralgia using complementary techniques, usually in combination with drug treatment. These therapies offer varying degrees of success. Options include acupuncture, biofeedback, vitamin therapy, nutritional therapy, hot-cold compress, and electrical stimulation of the nerves.
Neuralgia usually goes undiagnosed or misdiagnosed for extended periods, leading to a great deal of pain and frustration on the part of the patient. This disease has earned the nickname "the suicide disease," due to the unfortunate and drastic steps some have taken when they have been unable to find relief. Patients exhibiting symptoms need to be persistent, and willing to try different doctors to find the help they need.
Sleep deprivation and malnutrition have also been reported as byproducts of the pain. It is possible that there are other triggers or aggravating factors that patients need to learn to recognize to help manage their health. Bright lights, sounds, stress, and poor diet are examples of additional stimuli that can contribute to the condition. The pain can cause nausea, so beyond the obvious need to treat the pain, it is important to be sure to try to get adequate rest and nutrition.
- Shankland, Dr. Wesley E. Face the Pain - The Challenge of Facial Pain, (Omega Publishing, 2001)  Dr. Shankland is a former associate editor of The Journal of Craniomandibular Practice .
- In R. C. Sherriff's play Journey's End, the character Hibbert lies about having neuralgia to his commanding officer, and demands to be sent home. 
- Cranial nerves
- Neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis
- Pudendal neuralgia
- Trigeminal neuralgis
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 L. A. Colvin. Raj's Practical Management of Pain.BJA Advance Access published on December 1, 2000, DOI 10.1093/bja/aen312.Br. J. Anaesth. 101: 119-127.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Stechison, Michael. Personal INTERVIEW. 18 November 2008.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Gilron I, Watson CPN, Cahill CM, Moulin DE. 2006. Neuropathic pain: a practical guide for the clinician. Canadian Medical Association Journal 175:265-75
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Dworkin RH, Backonja M, Rowbotham MC, Allen RR, Argoff CR, et al. 2003. Advances in neuropathic pain - Diagnosis, mechanisms, and treatment recommendations. Archives of Neurology, 60:1524-34
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Jensen TS. 2002. An improved understanding of neuropathic pain. European Journal of Pain-London, 6:3-11
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Daniel HC, Narewska J, Serpell M, Hoggart B, Johnson R, Rice ASC. 2008. Comparison of psychological and physical function in neuropathic pain and nociceptive pain: Implications for cognitive behavioral pain management programs. European Journal of Pain 12:731-41
- ↑ Garcia-Larrea L. 2008. Laser-evoked potentials in the diagnosis of central neuropathic pain. Douleur Et Analgesie 21:93-8
- ↑ Galer BS. 1995. Neuropathic pain of peripheral origin: Advances in pharmacologic treatment. Neurology 45:S17-S25
- ↑ Breivik H. 2002. Advances in treatment of neuropathic pain. European Journal of Pain-London 6:V-V
- ↑ Backonja. 2004. Defining neuropathic pain (vol 97, pg 785, 2003). Anesthesia and Analgesia 98:67
- ↑ Sherriff, Robert Cedric (1983). Journey's end, 53–58, Harmondsworth [Eng.]: Penguin.
- Max, M. (2001). Management of neuropathic pain. Carol Stream, IL: Quintessence Publishing Co.
- Schepelmann, K. (2004). Disturbances of pain perception in disorders of the peripheral nervous system. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Aguggia, M. (2005). Typical facial neuralgias: Neurological Sciences Vol 26(Suppl2) May 2005, S68-S70.
- Alper, B. S., & Lewis, P. R. (2000). Does treatment of acute herpes zoster prevent or shorten postherpetic neuralgia? A systematic review of the literature: The Journal of Family Practice Vol 49(3) Mar 2000, 255-264.
- Alper, B. S., & Lewis, P. R. (2002). "Effectiveness and safety of lidocaine patch 5%": Reply: The Journal of Family Practice Vol 51(10) Oct 2002, 868.
- Alper, B. S., & Lewis, P. R. (2002). Treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: A systematic review of the literature: The Journal of Family Practice Vol 51(2) Feb 2002, 121-128.
- Altdorff, V. (1988). Behavior therapy for cardiac neuralgia syndromes: Psychologie fur die Praxis Vol 6(3) 1988, 237-244.
- Amin, S., Buvanendran, A., Park, K. S., Kroin, J. S., & Moric, M. (2008). Peripheral nerve stimulator for the treatment of supraorbital neuralgia: A retrospective case series: Cephalalgia Vol 28(4) Apr 2008, 355-359.
- Arneth, B., & Birklein, F. (2009). High sensitivity of free lambda and free kappa light chains for detection of intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in cerebrospinal fluid: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Vol 119(1) Jan 2009, 39-44.
- Asensio-Samper, J. M., Villanueva, V. L., Perez, A. V., Lopez, M. D., Monsalve, V., Moliner, S., et al. (2008). Peripheral neurostimulation in supraorbital neuralgia refractory to conventional therapy: Pain Practice Vol 8(2) Mar 2008, 120-124.
- Attal, N., & Bouhassira, D. (1999). Mechanisms of pain in peripheral neuropathy: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Supplementum Vol 100(Suppl 173) 1999, 12-24.
- Attal, N., Rouaud, J., Brasseur, L., Chauvin, M., & Bouhassira, D. (2004). Systemic lidocaine in pain due to peripheral nerve injury and predictors of response: Neurology Vol 62(2) Jan 2004, 218-225.
- Backonja, M.-M. (2002). Use of anticonvulsants for treatment of neuropathic pain: Neurology Vol 59(5,Suppl2) Sep 2002, S14-S17.
- Baik, E., Chung, J. M., & Chung, K. (2003). Peripheral norepinephrine exacerbates neuritis-induced hyperalgesia: The Journal of Pain Vol 4(4) May 2003, 212-221.
- Baillie, J. K., & Power, I. (2005). Morphine, Gabapentin, or Their Combination for Neuropathic Pain: Commentary: New England Journal of Medicine Vol 352(25) Jun 2005, 2650.
- Baranowski, A. P., De Courcey, J., & Bonello, E. (1999). A trial of intravenous lidocaine on the pain and allodynia of postherpetic neuralgia: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Vol 17(6) Jun 1999, 429-433.
- Baron, R., Brunnmuller, U., Brasser, M., May, M., & Binder, A. (2008). Efficacy and safety of pregabalin in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy or postherpetic neuralgia: Open-label, non-comparative, flexible-dose study: European Journal of Pain Vol 12(7) Oct 2008, 850-858.
- Baron, R., & Wasner, G. (2006). Prevention and treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: Lancet Vol 367(9506) Jan 2006, 186-188.
- Barth, J. T., & Downs, E. J. (1981). Post-herpatic neuralgia: A biofeedback case study: American Journal of Clinical Biofeedback Vol 4(2) Fal-Win 1981, 104-106.
- Bennett, G. J. (1994). Hypotheses on the pathogenesis of herpes zoster-associated pain: Annals of Neurology Vol 35(Suppl) 1994, S38-S41.
- Berger, A., Dukes, E., McCarberg, B., Liss, M., & Oster, G. (2003). Change in Opioid Use After the Initiation of Gabapentin Therapy in Patients with Postherpetic Neuralgia: Clinical Therapeutics: The International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Drug Therapy Vol 25(11) Nov 2003, 2809-2821.
- Besson, M., Brook, P., Chizh, B. A., & Pickering, A. E. (2005). Tactile allodynia in patients with postherpetic neuralgia: Lack of change in skin blood flow upon dynamic stimulation: Pain Vol 117(1-2) Sep 2005, 154-161.
- Bonezzi, C., & Demartini, L. (1999). Treatment options in postherpetic neuralgia: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Supplementum Vol 100(Suppl 173) 1999, 25-35.
- Bonicalzi, V., & Canavero, S. (2002). A case of trigeminal-vagal neuralgia relieved by peripheral self-stimulation: Acta Neurologica Belgica Vol 102(4) Dec 2002, 188-190.
- Bouckoms, A. J., & Litman, R. E. (1985). Clonazepam in the treatment of neuralgic pain syndrome: Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Vol 26(12) Dec 1985, 933-936.
- Bowsher, D. (1999). The lifetime occurrence of Herpes zoster and prevalence of post-herpetic neuralgia: A retrospective survey in an elderly population: European Journal of Pain Vol 3(4) 1999, 335-342.
- Bowsher, D. (2003). Factors influencing the features of postherpeutic neuralgia and outcome when treated with tricyclics: European Journal of Pain Vol 7(1) Feb 2003, 1-7.
- Bussone, G., & Tullo, V. (2005). Reflections on the nosology of cranio-facial pain syndromes: Neurological Sciences Vol 26(Suppl2) May 2005, S61-S64.
- Canavero, S., Bonicalzi, V., De Lucchi, R., Davini, O., Podio, V., & Bisi, G. (1998). Abolition of neurogenic pain by focal cortical ischemia: Clinical Journal of Pain Vol 14(3) Sep 1998, 268-269.
- Caraceni, A., Zecca, E., Martini, C., & De Conno, F. (1999). Gabapentin as an adjuvant to opioid analgesia for neuropathic cancer pain: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Vol 17(6) Jun 1999, 441-445.
- Chaplan, S. R., Pogrel, J. W., & Yaksh, T. L. (1994). Role of voltage-dependent calcium channel subtypes in experimental tactile allodynia: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Vol 269(3) Jun 1994, 1117-1123.
- Choi, B., & Rowbotham, M. C. (1997). Effect of adrenergic receptor activation on post-herpetic neuralgia pain and sensory disturbances: Pain Vol 69(1-2) Jan 1997, 55-63.
- Choi, Y., Yoon, Y. W., Na, H. S., Kim, S. H., & et al. (1994). Behavioral signs of ongoing pain and cold allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain: Pain Vol 59(3) Dec 1994, 369-376.
- Clark, M. R., Heinberg, L. J., Haythornthwaite, J. A., Quatrano-Piacentini, A. L., Pappagallo, M., & Raja, S. N. (2000). Psychiatric symptoms and distress differ between patients with postherpetic neuralgia and peripheral vestibular disease: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 48(1) Jan 2000, 51-57.
- Cluff, R. S., & Rowbotham, M. C. (1998). Pain caused by herpes zoster infection: Neurologic Clinics Vol 16(4) Nov 1998, 813-832.
- Coen, P. G., Scott, F., Leedham-Green, M., Nia, T., Jamil, A., Johnson, R. W., et al. (2006). Predicting and preventing post-herpetic neuralgia: Are current risk factors useful in clinical practice? : European Journal of Pain Vol 10(8) Nov 2006, 695-700.
- Collins, S. L., Moore, R. A., McQuay, H. J., & Wiffen, P. (2000). Antidepressants and anticonvulsants for diabetic neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia: A quantitative systematic review: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Vol 20(6) Dec 2000, 449-458.
- Coplan, P. M., Schmader, K., Nikas, A., Chan, I. S. F., Choo, P., Levin, M. J., et al. (2004). Development of a measure of the burden of pain due to herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia for prevention trials: Adaptation of the Brief Pain Inventory: The Journal of Pain Vol 5(6) Aug 2004, 344-356.
- Couprie, W., Wijdicks, E. F. M., Rooijmans, H. G. M., & van Gijn, J. (1995). Outcome in conversion disorder: A follow-up study: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 58(6) Jun 1995, 750-752.
- Curci, P., Gozzi, M., & Mari, M. (1986). Cervicobrachial neuralgia and low-back pain: Psychological problems: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 45(2) Oct 1986, 91-96.
- Curran, M. P., & Wagstaff, A. J. (2003). Gabapentin: In Postherpetic Neuralgia: CNS Drugs Vol 17(13) 2003, 975-982.
- D'Aleo, G., Rifici, C., Sessa, E., Di Bella, P., & Bramanti, P. (2000). R3 nociceptive reflex in multiple sclerosis patients with paroxysmal symptoms treated with gabapentin: Functional Neurology Vol 15(4) Oct-Dec 2000, 205-209.
- Dane, J. R., & Rowlingson, J. C. (1988). Hypnosis in the management of postherpetic neuralgia: Three case studies: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis Vol 31(2) Oct 1988, 107-113.
- Davies, S. J., Harding, L. M., & Baranowski, A. P. (2002). A novel treatment of postherpetic neuralgia using peppermint oil: Clinical Journal of Pain Vol 18(3) May-Jun 2002, 200-202.
- de Lourdes Figuerola, M., Bruera, O., Pozzo, M. J., & Leston, J. (2009). SUNCT syndrome responding absolutely to steroids in two cases with different etiologies: The Journal of Headache and Pain Vol 10(1) Feb 2009, 55-57.
- De Simone, R., Ranieri, A., Bilo, L., Fiorillo, C., & Bonavita, V. (2008). Cranial neuralgias: From physiopathology to pharmacological treatment: Neurological Sciences Vol 29(Suppl1) May 2008, S69-S78.
- Dotevall, L., Eliasson, T., Hagberg, L., & Mannheimer, C. (2003). Pain as presenting symptom in Lyme neuroborreliosis: European Journal of Pain Vol 7(3) Jun 2003, 235-239.
- Dowd, N. P., Day, F., Timon, D., Cunningham, A. J., & Brown, L. (1999). Iontophoretic vincristine in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: A double-blind randomized, controlled trial: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Vol 17(3) Mar 1999, 175-180.
- Dworkin, R. H. (2008). Recent advances in reducing the burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: The Journal of Pain Vol 9(1, Suppl 1) Jan 2008, S1-S2.
- Dworkin, R. H., Gnann, J. W., Jr., Oaklander, A. L., Raja, S. N., Schmader, K. E., & Whitley, R. J. (2008). Diagnosis and assessment of pain associated with herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: The Journal of Pain Vol 9(1, Suppl 1) Jan 2008, S37-S44.
- Dworkin, R. H., White, R., O'Connor, A. B., Baser, O., & Hawkins, K. (2007). Healthcare costs of acute and chronic pain associated with a diagnosis of Herpes Zoster: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 55(8) Aug 2007, 1168-1175.
- Eaton, M. J., Martinez, M. A., & Karmally, S. (1999). A single intrathecal injection of GABA permanently reverses neuropathic pain after nerve injury: Brain Research Vol 835(2) Jul 1999, 334-339.
- Eide, P. K., Jorum, E., Stubhaug, A., Bremnes, J., & et al. (1994). Relief of post-herpetic neuralgia with the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist ketamine: A double-blind, cross-over comparison with morphine and placebo: Pain Vol 58(3) Sep 1994, 347-354.
- Eide, P. K., Stubhaug, A., Oye, I., & Breivik, H. (1995). Continuous subcutaneous administration of the -I N-n-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine in the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia: Pain Vol 61(2) May 1995, 221-228.
- Eisenberg, E. (2005). Response to Reuben SS: "The prevention of postsurgical neuralgia": Pain Vol 113(1-2) Jan 2005, 243-244.
- Eisenberg, E., Kleiser, A., Dortort, A., Haim, T., & Yarnitsky, D. (1998). The NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor antagonist memantine in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study: European Journal of Pain Vol 2(4) 1998, 321-327.
- Eisenberg, E., Kleiser, A., Dortort, A., Haim, T., & Yarnitsky, D. (2000). "NMDA antagonists: Unequal to the task or unequal to each other--or both?" Comment: European Journal of Pain Vol 4(2) Jun 2000, 221.
- Ellis, B. D., & Kosmorsky, G. S. (1995). Referred ocular pain relieved by suboccipital injection: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 35(2) Feb 1995, 101-103.
- Farrell, M. J., Gerontol, M., Gibson, S. J., & Helme, R. D. (1995). The effect of medical status on the activity level of older pain clinic patients: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 43(2) Feb 1995, 102-107.
- Fields, H. (1994). Pain modulation and the action of analgesic medications: Annals of Neurology Vol 35(Suppl) 1994, S42-S45.
- Filliatreau, G., Attal, N., Hassig, R., Guilbaud, G., & et al. (1994). Time-course of nociceptive disorders induced by chronic loose ligatures of the rat sciatic nerve and changes of the acetylcholinesterase transport along the ligated nerve: Pain Vol 59(3) Dec 1994, 405-413.
- Frediani, F. (2005). Pharmacological therapy of atypical facial pain: Actuality and perspective: Neurological Sciences Vol 26(Suppl2) May 2005, S92-S94.
- Frese, A., Luttmann, R. J., Husstedt, I.-W., Ringelstein, E. B., & Evers, S. (2002). Geniculate Neuralgia as a Manifestation of Neuroborreliosis: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 42(8) Sep 2002, 826-828.
- Galer, B. S. (2002). Effectiveness and safety of lidocaine patch 5%: The Journal of Family Practice Vol 51(10) Oct 2002, 867-868.
- Garry, E. M., Delaney, A., Anderson, H. A., Sirinathsinghji, E. C., Clapp, R. H., Martin, W. J., et al. (2005). Varicella zoster virus induces neuropathic changes in rat dorsal root ganglia and behavioral reflex sensitisation that is attenuated by gabapentin or sodium channel blocking drugs: Pain Vol 118(1-2) Nov 2005, 97-111.
- Garza, I. (2007). Craniocervical junction schwannoma mimicking occipital neuralgia: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 47(8) Aug 2007, 1204-1205.
- Geha, P. Y., Baliki, M. N., Chialvo, D. R., Harden, R. N., Paice, J. A., & Apkarian, A. V. (2007). Brain activity for spontaneous pain of postherpetic neuralgia and its modulation by lidocaine patch therapy: Pain Vol 128(1-2) Mar 2007, 88-100.
- Gilron, I. (2003). Gabapentin: A Viewpoint: CNS Drugs Vol 17(13) 2003, 983-984.
- Gilron, I., Bailey, J. M., Tu, D., Holden, R. R., Weaver, D. F., & Houlden, R. L. (2005). Morphine, Gabapentin, or Their Combination for Neuropathic Pain: New England Journal of Medicine Vol 352(13) Mar 2005, 1324-1334.
- Gilron, I., Booher, S. L., Rowan, J. S., Smoller, B., & Max, M. B. (2000). A randomized, controlled trial of high-dose dextromethorphan in facial neuralgias: Neurology Vol 55(7) Oct 2000, 964-971.
- Gilron, I., & Weaver, D. F. (2005). Morphine, Gabapentin, or Their Combination for Neuropathic Pain: Commentary reply: New England Journal of Medicine Vol 352(25) Jun 2005, 2651.
- Ginies, P., Chardenon, C., Fraimout, J. L., & Villain, M. (2002). Treatment with botulinum toxin of 12 patients with cluster headache and 12 patients with trigeminal neuralgia: Douleur et Analgesie Vol 15(1) 2002, 45-57.
- Gnann, J. W., Jr. (2008). Vaccination to prevent herpes zoster in older adults: The Journal of Pain Vol 9(1, Suppl 1) Jan 2008, S31-S36.
- Goadsby, P. J. (2005). Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Pathophysiology and classification: Revue Neurologique Vol 161(6-7) Jul 2005, 692-695.
- Goicochea, M. T., Romero, C., & Leston, J. A. (2008). Occipital neuralgia with cervical myelitis: Cephalalgia Vol 28(5) May 2008, 567-568.
- Gomes, R. T., de Nazareth Pedras, R. B., da Silva, J. F., & de Aguiar, M. C. F. (2007). Sympathetic nerve blocks in mandibular herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 47(5) May 2007, 728-730.
- Gore, M., Sadosky, A., Tai, K.-S., & Stacey, B. (2007). A retrospective evaluation of the use of gabapentin and pregabalin in patients with postherpetic neuralgia in usual-care settings: Clinical Therapeutics: The International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Drug Therapy Vol 29(8) Aug 2007, 1655-1670.
- Grazzi, L., Usai, S., & Rigamonti, A. (2005). Facial pain in children and adolescents: Neurological Sciences Vol 26(Suppl2) May 2005, S101-S103.
- Haanpaa, M. L., Laippala, P. A., & Nurmikko, T. J. (1999). Thermal and tactile perception thresholds in acute herpes zoster: European Journal of Pain Vol 3(4) 1999, 375-386.
- Hagen, N. A. (1993). Sharp, shooting neuropathic pain in the rectum or genitals: Pudendal neuralgia: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Vol 8(7) Oct 1993, 496-501.
- Hansson, P., & Kinnman, E. (1996). Unmasking mechanisms of peripheral neuropathic pain in a clinical perspective: Pain Reviews Vol 3(4) Dec 1996, 272-292.
- Harden, R. N. (1999). Gabapentin: A new tool in the treatment of neuropathic pain: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Supplementum Vol 100(Suppl 173) 1999, 43-47.
- Harper, R., & Moss, G. (1992). Delusional infestation associated with post-herpetic neuralgia and EEG abnormalities: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 161 Sep 1992, 411-412.
- Haythornthwaite, J. A., Clark, M. R., Pappagallo, M., & Raja, S. N. (2003). Pain coping strategies play a role in the persistence of pain in post-herpetic neuralgia: Pain Vol 106(3) Dec 2003, 453-460.
- Headley, P. M. (1999). NMDA antagonists: Unequal to the task or unequal to each other - or both? : European Journal of Pain Vol 3(3) 1999, 185-187.
- Hecht, J. S. (2004). Occipital Nerve Blocks in Postconcussive Headaches: A Retrospective Review and Report of Ten Patients: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation Vol 19(1) Jan-Feb 2004, 58-71.
- Hsieh, J.-C., Belfrage, M., Stone-Elander, S., Hansson, P., & et al. (1995). Central representation of chronic ongoing neuropathic pain studied by positron emission tomography: Pain Vol 63(2) Nov 1995, 225-236.
- Ikeda, H., Heinke, B., Ruscheweyh, R., & Sandkuhler, J. (2003). Synaptic plasticity in spinal lamina I projection neurons that mediate hyperalgesia: Science Vol 299(5610) Feb 2003, 1237-1240.
- Irimia, P., Gallego-Perez Larraya, J., & Martinez-Vila, E. (2008). Seasonal periodicity in SUNCT syndrome: Cephalalgia Vol 28(1) Jan 2008, 94-96.
- Jensen, T. S. (2002). Anticonvulsants in neuropathic pain: Rationale and clinical evidence: European Journal of Pain Vol 6(SupplA) 2002, 61-68.
- Johnson, R. W., Dworkin, R. H., & Breuer, J. (1999). Guest editorial: European Journal of Pain Vol 3(4) 1999, 297-299.
- Johnson, R. W., & Rice, A. S. C. (2007). Pain following herpes zoster: The influence of changing population characteristics and medical developments: Pain Vol 128(1-2) Mar 2007, 3-5.
- Kanai, A., Osawa, S., Suzuki, A., Ishimaru, R., & Hoka, S. (2007). Effectiveness of Prostaglandin E1 for the Treatment of Patients with Neuropathic Pain Following Herpes Zoster: Pain Medicine Vol 8(1) Jan 2007, 36-40.
- Kashikar-Zuck, S., Graham, T. B., Huenefeld, M. D., & Powers, S. W. (2000). A review of biobehavioral research in juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome: Arthritis Care & Research Vol 13(6) Dec 2000, 388-397.
- Katz, J., McDermott, M. P., Cooper, E. M., Walther, R. R., Sweeney, E. W., & Dworkin, R. H. (2005). Psychosocial risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia: A prospective study of patients with herpes zoster: The Journal of Pain Vol 6(12) Dec 2005, 782-790.
- Katz, N. P., Gammaitoni, A. R., Davis, M. W., & Dworkin, R. H. (2002). Lidocaine patch 5% reduces pain intensity and interference with quality of life in patients with postherpetic neuralgia: An effectiveness trial: Pain Medicine Vol 3(4) Dec 2002, 324-332.
- Kihara, T., & Shimohama, S. (2006). Occipital Neuralgia Evoked by Facial Herpes Zoster Infection: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 46(10) Nov-Dec 2006, 1590-1591.
- Kim, S. H., & Chung, J. M. (1992). An experimental model for peripheral neuropathy produced by segmental spinal nerve ligation in the rat: Pain Vol 50(3) Sep 1992, 355-363.
- King, R. B. (1993). Topical aspirin in chloroform and the relief of pain due to herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: Archives of Neurology Vol 50(10) Oct 1993, 1046-1053.
- Kudoh, A., Katagai, H., & Takazawa, T. (2003). Current perception thresholds of patients with long-term administration of maprotiline: Pharmacopsychiatry Vol 36(2) Mar-Apr 2003, 57-60.
- Leplow, B., Lamparter, U., Risse, A., & Wassilev, S. W. (1990). Post-herpetic neuralgia: Psychopathology and clinical predictors: Nervenarzt Vol 61(1) Jan 1990, 46-51.
- Lindberg, E. G. (2007). Is there a role for herpes zoster vaccine in chronic pain management? : Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy Vol 21(3) 2007, 99-100.
- Liu, H.-T., Tsai, S.-K., Kao, M.-C., & Hu, J. S. (2006). Botulinum Toxin A Relieved Neuropathic Pain in a Case of Post-Herpetic Neuralgia: Pain Medicine Vol 7(1) Jan 2006, 89-91.
- Maihofner, C., Neundorfer, B., Stefan, H., & Handwerker, H. O. (2003). Cortical processing of brush-evoked allodynia: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 14(6) Mar 2003, 785-789.
- Maimone-Baronello, M., Piccoli, F., & La Bella, V. (2003). Great Auricular Neuralgia: A Case Report: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 43(9) Oct 2003, 1005-1006.
- Manabe, H., Dan, K., & Higa, K. (1995). Continuous epidural infusion of local anesthetics and shorter duration of acute zoster-associated pain: Clinical Journal of Pain Vol 11(3) Sep 1995, 220-228.
- Manfredi, P. L., Raja, S. N., Haythornthwaite, J. A., & Max, M. B. (2003). Opioids versus antidepressants in postherpetic neuralgia: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial: Comment and Reply: Neurology Vol 60(6) Mar 2003, 1052-1053.
- Markus, H., Pomeranz, B., & Krushelnycky, D. (1984). Spread of saphenous somatotopic projection map in spinal cord and hypersensitivity of the foot after chronic sciatic denervation in adult rat: Brain Research Vol 296(1) Mar 1984, 27-39.
- Max, M. B. (1994). Treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia: Antidepressants: Annals of Neurology Vol 35(Suppl) 1994, S50-S53.
- Mellegers, M. A., Furlan, A. D., & Mailis, A. (2001). Gabapentin for neuropathic pain: Systematic review of controlled and uncontrolled literature: Clinical Journal of Pain Vol 17(4) Dec 2001, 284-295.
- Moretti, R., Torre, P., Antonello, R. M., Bava, A., & Cazzato, G. (2002). Gabapentin treatment of glossopharyngeal neuralgia: A follow-up of four years of a single case: European Journal of Pain Vol 6(5) Oct 2002, 403-407.
- Nash, T. P. (1999). Treatment options in painful diabetic neuropathy: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Supplementum Vol 100(Suppl 173) 1999, 36-42.
- Navani, A., Mahajan, G., Kreis, P., & Fishman, S. M. (2006). A Case of Pulsed Radiofrequency Lesioning for Occipital Neuralgia: Pain Medicine Vol 7(5) Sep 2006, 453-456.
- No authorship, i. (2005). Herpes zoster vaccine safe and effective for older adults: The Journal of Family Practice Vol 54(9) Sep 2005, 757.
- Nurmikko, T., Wells, C., & Bowsher, D. (1991). Pain and allodynia in postherpetic neuralgia: Role of somatic and sympathetic nervous systems: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Vol 84(2) Aug 1991, 146-152.
- O'Connor, A. B. (2007). Letter to the editor: The Journal of Pain Vol 8(8) Aug 2007, 674-676.
- Odrcich, M., Bailey, J. M., Cahill, C. M., & Gilron, I. (2006). Chronobiological characteristics of painful diabetic neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia: Diurnal pain variation and effects of analgesic therapy: Pain Vol 120(1-2) Jan 2006, 207-212.
- Oneal, B. J., Patterson, D. R., Soltani, M., Teeley, A., & Jensen, M. P. (2008). Virtual reality hypnosis in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain: A case report: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis Vol 56(4) Oct-Dec 2008, 451-462.
- Opstelten, W., Mauritz, J. W., de Wit, N. J., van Wijck, A. J. M., Stalman, W. A. B., & van Essen, G. A. (2002). Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: Incidence and risk indicators using a general practice research database: Family Practice Vol 19(5) Oct 2002, 471-475.
- Opstelten, W., van Wijck, A. J. M., & Stolker, R. J. (2004). Interventions to prevent postherpetic neuralgia: Cutaneous and percutaneous techniques: Pain Vol 107(3) Feb 2004, 202-206.
- Opstelten, W., Zuithoff, N. P. A., van Essen, G. A., van Loon, A. M., van Wijck, A. J. M., Kalkman, C. J., et al. (2007). Predicting postherpetic neuralgia in elderly primary care patients with herpes zoster: Prospective prognostic study: Pain Vol 132(Suppl 1) Nov 2007, S52-S59.
- Oster, G., Harding, G., Dukes, E., Edelsberg, J., & Cleary, P. D. (2005). Pain, Medication Use, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Persons With Postherpetic Neuralgia: Results From a Population-Based Survey: The Journal of Pain Vol 6(6) Jun 2005, 356-363.
- Pappagallo, M., & Campbell, J. N. (1994). Chronic opioid therapy as alternative treatment for post-herpetic neuralgia: Annals of Neurology Vol 35(Suppl) 1994, S54-S56.
- Pappagallo, M., & Haldey, E. J. (2003). Pharmacological Management of Postherpetic Neuralgia: CNS Drugs Vol 17(11) 2003, 771-780.
- Petersen, K. L., Fields, H. L., Brennum, J., Sandroni, P., & Rowbotham, M. C. (2000). Capsaicin evoked pain and allodynia in post-herpetic neuralgia: Pain Vol 88(2) Nov 2000, 125-133.
- Petersen, K. L., Rice, F. L., Suess, F., Berro, M., & Rowbotham, M. C. (2002). Relief of post-herpetic neuralgia by surgical removal of painful skin: Pain Vol 98(1-2) Jul 2002, 119-126.
- Possover, M., Baekelandt, J., & Chiantera, V. (2007). The laparoscopic approach to control intractable pelvic neuralgia: From laparoscopic pelvic neurosurgery to the LION procedure: Clinical Journal of Pain Vol 23(9) Nov-Dec 2007, 821-825.
- Pou-Serradell, A. (1975). Contribution to the clinical study of the Parsonage and Turner syndrome: 15 personal observations: Acta Neurologica Belgica Vol 75(1) Jan-Feb 1975, 15-23.
- Quinhones, M. S. (2006). Varicella Zoster - Clinical Features and Therapeutical Approach of the Post herpetic Neuralgia: Revista Brasileira de Neurologia Vol 42(1) Jan-Mar 2006, 9-18.
- Raja, S. N., Haythornthwaite, J. A., Pappagallo, M., Clark, M. R., Travison, T. G., Sabeen, S., et al. (2002). Opioids versus antidepressants in postherpetic neuralgia: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial: Neurology Vol 59(7) Oct 2002, 1015-1021.
- Rasskazoff, S., & Kaufmann, A. M. (2005). Ventrolateral partial dorsal root entry zone rhizotomy for occipital neuralgia: Pain Research & Management Vol 10(1) Spr 2005, 43-45.
- Restelli, L., Moretti, M. P., Pellerin, I., Galante, G., & et al. (1988). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and neuralgic facial pain: The Pain Clinic Vol 2(2) 1988, 97-103.
- Reuben, S. S. (2005). The prevention of post-surgical neuralgia: Pain Vol 113(1-2) Jan 2005, 242-243.
- Rodriguez, M. J., Diaz, S., Vera-Llonch, M., Dukes, E., & Rejas, J. (2007). Cost-effectiveness analysis of pregabalin versus gabapentin in the management of neuropathic pain due to diabetic polyneuropathy or post-herpetic neuralgia: Current Medical Research and Opinion Vol 23(10) Oct 2007, 2585-2596.
- Roth, C., Jeanmonod, D., Magnin, M., Morel, A., & Achermann, P. (2000). Effects of medial thalamotomy and pallido-thalamic tractotomy on sleep and waking EEG in pain and parkinsonian patients: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 111(7) Jul 2000, 1266-1275.
- Rowbotham, M., Harden, N., Stacey, B., Bernstein, P., & Magnus-Miller, L. (1998). Gabapentin for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: A randomized controlled trial: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association Vol 280(21) Dec 1998, 1837-1842.
- Rowbotham, M. C. (1994). Managing post-herpetic neuralgia with opioids and local anesthetics: Annals of Neurology Vol 35(Suppl) 1994, S46-S49.
- Rowbotham, M. C., & Fields, H. L. (1996). The relationship of pain, allodynia and thermal sensation in post-herpetic neuralgia: Brain: A Journal of Neurology Vol 119(2) Apr 1996, 347-354.
- Rowbotham, M. C., Reisner, L. A., Davies, P. S., & Fields, H. L. (2005). Treatment response in antidepressant-naive postherpetic neuralgia patients: Double-blind, randomized trial: The Journal of Pain Vol 6(11) Nov 2005, 741-746.
- Rutgers, M. J., Van Romunde, L. K., & Osman, P. O. (1988). A small randomized comparative trial of acupuncture versus transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation in postherpetic neuralgia: The Pain Clinic Vol 2(2) 1988, 87-89.
- Sabatowski, R., Galvez, R., Cherry, D. A., Jacquot, F., Vincent, E., Maisonobe, P., et al. (2004). Pregabalin reduces pain and improves sleep and mood disturbances in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial: Pain Vol 109(1-2) May 2004, 26-35.
- Sakai, T., Tomiyasu, S., Yamada, H., & Sumihawa, K. (2006). Evaluation of Allodynia and Pain Associated With Postherpetic Neuralgia Using Current Perception Threshold Testing: Clinical Journal of Pain Vol 22(4) May 2006, 359-362.
- Satterthwaite, J. R. (1989). Postherpetic neuralgia. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins Co.
- Schattschneider, J., Wasner, G., Binder, A., & Baron, R. (2004). Mechanisms of neuropathic pain: Comparison of data from experimental models of neuropathic pain and patients with postherpetic neuralgia: Nervenheilkunde: Zeitschrift fur interdisziplinaere Fortbildung Vol 23(5) 2004, 269-273.
- Semos, M. L., & Headley, P. M. (1994). The role of nitric oxide in spinal nociceptive reflexes in rats with neurogenic and non-neurogenic peripheral inflammation: Neuropharmacology Vol 33(11) Nov 1994, 1487-1497.
- Serra, J. (1999). Overview of neuropathic pain syndromes: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Supplementum Vol 100(Suppl 173) 1999, 7-11.
- Skerritt, U., Evans, N., & Pitt, B. (1995). Post-herpetic neuralgia: Use of an SSRI: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Vol 10(8) Aug 1995, 711-712.
- Smith, K. J., & Roberts, M. S. (2007). Sequential medication strategies for postherpetic neuralgia: A cost-effectiveness analysis: The Journal of Pain Vol 8(5) May 2007, 396-404.
- Solaro, C., Uccelli, M. M., Brichetto, G., Gasperini, C., & Mancardi, G. (2001). Topiramate relieves idiopathic and symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Vol 21(5) May 2001, 367-368.
- Solomon, S., & Goodrich, J. T. (1999). Supraorbital neuralgia: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 39(9) Oct 1999, 680-681.
- Stacey, B. R. (2003). Gabapentin: A viewpoint: CNS Drugs Vol 17(13) 2003, 983.
- Stacey, B. R., & Glanzman, R. L. (2003). Use of Gabapentin for Postherpetic Neuralgia: Results of Two Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Studies: Clinical Therapeutics: The International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Drug Therapy Vol 25(10) Oct 2003, 2597-2608.
- Stajcic, Z. (1992). The effects of streptomycin on autotomy: Pain Vol 48(2) Feb 1992, 257-259.
- Swerdlow, B. (1984). A rapid hypnotic technique in a case of atypical facial neuralgia: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 24(2) Mar 1984, 104-109.
- Tal, M., & Bennett, G. J. (1994). Neuropathic pain sensations are differentially sensitive to dextrorphan: Neuroreport: An International Journal for the Rapid Communication of Research in Neuroscience Vol 5(12) Jul 1994, 1438-1440.
- Tarride, J.-E., Gordon, A., Vera-Llonch, M., Dukes, E., & Rousseau, C. (2006). Cost-Effectiveness of Pregabalin for the Management of Neuropathic Pain Associated with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy and Postherpetic Nerualgia: A Canadian Perspective: Clinical Therapeutics: The International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Drug Therapy Vol 28(11) Nov 2006, 1922-1934.
- Tekaya, R., Hamdi, W., Azzouz, D., Bouaziz, M., Jaafoura, M. H., Ladeb, M. F., et al. (2008). Cervicobrachial neuralgia revealing neurosarcoma: Revue Neurologique Vol 164(1) Jan 2008, 82-86.
- Terneus, W., Jr. (2007). Pregabalin and duloxetine for the treatment of neuropathic pain disorders: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy Vol 21(1) 2007, 79-84.
- Tesfaye, S., & Selvarajah, D. (2005). Morphine, Gabapentin, or Their Combination for Neuropathic Pain: Commentary: New England Journal of Medicine Vol 352(25) Jun 2005, 2650-2651.
- Thyregod, H. G., Rowbotham, M. C., Peters, M., Possehn, J., Berro, M., & Petersen, K. L. (2007). Natural history of pain following herpes zoster: Pain Vol 128(1-2) Mar 2007, 148-156.
- Titlic, M., Jukic, I., Tonkic, A., Grani, P., & Jukic, J. (2006). Use of lamotrigine in glossopharyngeal neuralgia: A case report: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 46(1) Jan 2006, 167-169.
- Truini, A., Barbanti, P., Galeotti, F., Leandri, M., & Cruccu, G. (2006). Trigeminal sensory pathway function in patients with SUNCT: Clinical Neurophysiology Vol 117(8) Aug 2006, 1821-1825.
- Ulrich-Lai, Y. M., Xie, W., Meij, J. T. A., Dolgas, C. M., Yu, L., & Herman, J. P. (2006). Limbic and HPA axis function in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain: Physiology & Behavior Vol 88(1-2) Jun 2006, 67-76.
- van Wijck, A. J. M., Opstelten, W., Moons, K. G. M., van Essen, G. A., Stolker, R. J., Kalkman, C. J., et al. (2006). The PINE study of epidural steroids and local anaesthetics to prevent postherpetic neuralgia: A randomised controlled trial: Lancet Vol 367(9506) Jan 2006, 219-224.
- Violon, A. (1980). The onset of facial pain: A psychological study: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 34(1) 1980, 11-16.
- Virani, A., Mailis, A., Shapiro, L. E., & Shear, N. H. (1997). Drug interactions in human neuropathic pain pharmacotherapy: Pain Vol 73(1) Oct 1997, 3-13.
- Volmink, J., Lancaster, T., Gray, S., & Silagy, C. (1996). Treatments for postherpetic neuralgia--a systematic review of randomized controlled trials: Family Practice Vol 13(1) Feb 1996, 84-91.
- Wahren, L. K., Gordh, T., & Torebjork, E. (1995). Effects of regional intravenous guanethidine in patients with neuralgia in the hand: A follow-up study over a decade: Pain Vol 62(3) Sep 1995, 379-385.
- Wahren, L. K., & Torebjork, E. (1992). Quantitative sensory tests in patients with neuralgia 11 to 25 years after injury: Pain Vol 48(2) Feb 1992, 237-244.
- Wahren, L. K., Torebjork, E., & Nystrom, B. (1991). Quantitative sensory testing before and after regional guanethidine block in patients with neuralgia in the hand: Pain Vol 46(1) Jul 1991, 23-30.
- Wallas, T. R., Winterson, B. J., Ransil, B. J., & Bove, G. M. (2003). Paw withdrawal thresholds and persistent pindlimb flexion in experimental mononeuropathies: The Journal of Pain Vol 4(4) May 2003, 222-230.
- Watson, C. P., Chipman, M., Reed, K., Evans, R. J., & et al. (1992). Amitriptyline versus maprotiline in postherpetic neuralgia: A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial: Pain Vol 48(1) Jan 1992, 29-36.
- Watson, C. P., Watt, V. R., Chipman, M., Birkett, N., & et al. (1991). The prognosis with postherpetic neuralgia: Pain Vol 46(2) Aug 1991, 195-199.
- Watson, C. P. N., & Babul, N. (1998). Efficacy of oxycodone in neuropathic pain: A randomized trial in postherpetic neuralgia: Neurology Vol 50(6) Jun 1998, 1837-1841.
- Watson, C. P. N., & Oaklander, A. L. (2002). Postherpetic Neuralgia: Pain Practice Vol 2(4) Dec 2002, 295-307.
- Watson, P. N., & Evans, R. J. (1986). Postherpetic neuralgia: A review: Archives of Neurology Vol 43(8) Aug 1986, 836-840.
- Weiss, J. L., Weiss, K. L., & Benecke, S. M. (2001). Serotonin mediated cluster headache, trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and superior laryngeal neuralgia with SAD chronicity: Child Psychiatry & Human Development Vol 32(1) Fal 2001, 45-54.
- White, J. B., Atkinson, P. P., Cloft, H. J., & Atkinson, J. L. D. (2008). Vascular compression as a potential cause of occipital neuralgia: A case report: Cephalalgia Vol 28(1) Jan 2008, 78-82.
- Whitton, T. L., Johnson, R. W., & Lovell, A. T. (2005). Use of the Rydel-Seiffer graduated tuning fork in the assessment of vibration threshold in postherpetic neuralgia patients and healthy controls: European Journal of Pain Vol 9(2) Apr 2005, 167-171.
- Willenbring, S., DeLeo, J. A., & Coombs, D. W. (1994). Differential behavioral outcomes in the sciatic cryoneurolysis model of neuropathic pain in rats: Pain Vol 58(2) Aug 1994, 135-140.
- Williamson, A. (2004). A case of post-herpetic neuralgia treated with self-hypnosis and imagery: Contemporary Hypnosis Vol 21(3) 2004, 146-149.
- Wu, C. L., & Raja, S. N. (2008). An update on the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: The Journal of Pain Vol 9(1, Suppl 1) Jan 2008, S19-S30.
- Zeltser, R., Beilin, B.-Z., Zaslansky, R., & Seltzer, Z. e. (2000). Comparison of autotomy behavior induced in rats by various clinically-used neurectomy methods: Pain Vol 89(1) Dec 2000, 19-24.
- Dworkin, R. H., & Johnson, R. W. (1999). A belt of roses from hell: Acute pain in herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
- Walcutt, D. L. (2001). The efficacy of neurofeedback on migrainous neuralgia. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Good Pictures of the affected nerves
- Living with Pudendal Neuralgia Book
- Trigeminal Neuralgia Association
- Medical Information
- Information on Post herpetic Neuralgia
- Mayo Clinic on Post herpetic Neuralgia
- Mayo Clinic on Trigeminal Neuralgia
- Atypical Neuralgia
- Medical Information on Atypical Neuralgia
- Interesting website of Dr. Ramin Naraghi on neurovascular compression syndromes (NVC)
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|