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|Nerve: Nervus intermedius|
|Plan of the facial and intermediate nerves and their communication with other nerves. (N. intermedius labeled at upper left.)|
|Gray's||subject #202 901|
The nervus intermedius, or intermediate nerve, is the part of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) located between the motor component of the facial nerve and the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). It contains the sensory and parasympathetic fibers of the facial nerve. Upon reaching the facial canal, it joins with the motor root of the facial nerve at the geniculate ganglion.
The superior salivatory nucleus contains the cell bodies of parasympathetic axons within the nervus intermedius. These fibers reach the geniculate ganglion but do not synapse. Some of these preganglionic parasympathetic fibers persist within the greater petrosal nerve as they exit the geniculate ganglion and subsequently synapse with neurons in the pterygopalatine ganglion. These postganglionic neurons send axons that provide parasympathetic innervation to the lacrimal gland.
The remaining preganglionic fibers continue as the mixed facial nerve proper as it extends through the facial canal. Before the nerve exits the skull via the stylomastoid foramen and after the nerve to the stapedius muscle has branched off, the facial nerve gives off the chorda tympani nerve. This nerve exits the skull through the pterygotympanic fissure and merges with the lingual nerve, after which it synapses with neurons in the submandibular ganglion. These postganglionic neurons provide parasympathetic innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands.
The sensory component of the nervus intermedius carries input about sensation from the skin of the external auditory meatus, from the mucous membranes of the nasopharynx and nose, and taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, floor of the mouth, and the palate. The sensory information from the mucous membranes of the nasopharynx and palate is carried along the greater petrosal nerve, while the chorda tympani nerve (and lingual nerve) carries taste input from the anterior two-thirds of the tonge, floor of mouth, and palate.
The geniculate ganglion contains the cell bodies of the sensory component of the nervus intermedius.
V: trigeminal: trigeminal ganglion
V1: ophthalmic: lacrimal - frontal (supratrochlear, supraorbital) - nasociliary (long root of ciliary, long ciliary, infratrochlear, posterior ethmoidal, anterior ethmoidal) - ciliary ganglion (short ciliary)
V2: maxillary: middle meningeal - in the pterygopalatine fossa (zygomatic, zygomaticotemporal, zygomaticofacial, sphenopalatine, posterior superior alveolar)
in the infraorbital canal/infraorbital nerve (middle superior alveolar, anterior superior alveolar)
on the face (inferior palpebral, external nasal, superior labial, infraorbital plexus) - pterygopalatine ganglion (deep petrosal, nerve of pterygoid canal)
branches of distribution (palatine, nasopalatine, pharyngeal)
V3: mandibular: nervus spinosus - medial pterygoid - anterior (masseteric, deep temporal, buccal, lateral pterygoid)
posterior (auriculotemporal, lingual, inferior alveolar, mylohyoid, mental) - otic ganglion - submandibular ganglion
VII: facial: nervus intermedius - geniculate - inside facial canal (greater petrosal, nerve to the stapedius, chorda tympani)
at exit from stylomastoid foramen (posterior auricular, digastric - stylohyoid)
on face (temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical)
X: vagus: ganglia (jugular, nodose) - Alderman's nerve - in the neck (pharyngeal branch, superior laryngeal ext and int, recurrent laryngeal)
in the thorax (pulmonary branches, esophageal plexus) - in the abdomen (gastric plexuses, celiac plexus, gastric plexus)
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