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This is an concept advanced by Wilfred Bion following on from Keats. He felt it was an important state of mind that therapists ought to learn to develop.


Negative Capability is a theory of the poet John Keats, expressed in his letter to George and Thomas Keats dated Sunday, 21 December 1817.

I had not a dispute but a disquisition with Dilke, on various subjects; several things dovetailed in my mind, & at once it struck me, what quality went to form a Man of Achievement especially in literature & which Shakespeare possessed so enormously - I mean Negative Capability, that is when man is capable of being in uncertainties, Mysteries, doubts without any irritable reaching after fact & reason

Keats believed that great people (especially poets) have the ability to accept that not everything can be resolved. Keats was a Romantic and believed that the truths found in the imagination access holy authority. Such authority cannot otherwise be understood, and thus he writes of "uncertainties." This "being in uncertaint[y]" is a place between the mundane and ready reality and the multiple potentials of a more fully understood existence.

Keats expressed this idea in several of his poems

Negative capability is a state of intentional openmindedness that has many parallels in other writers' literary and philosophical stances. Much has been written about this. Walter Jackson Bate, Keats's authoritative biographer, wrote an entire book from his Harvard honors thesis on the topic. The footnote to the negative capability letter in the 1958 Harvard UP edition of the Letters of John Keats references the work of Woodhouse, Bate, C. L. Finney, Barbara Hardy, G. B. Harrison, and George Watson, all prior to the edition’s printing in 1958. Additionally, Nathan Scott (author of a book entitled Negative Capability), notes that negative capability has been compared to philosopher Martin Heidegger’s concept of Gelassenheit, “the spirit of disponibilité before What-Is which permits us simply to let things be in whatever may be their uncertainty and their mystery."

More recently, negative capability has played an important role in Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials trilogy, where it is used to describe the state in which one must be to communicate with supernatural Dust.

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