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[[Image:National health service logo.JPG|thumb|The logo of the NHS for England. The colour, "NHS Blue", is used on signs and leaflets throughout the NHS.]]
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The '''National Health Service''' ('''NHS''') is the name commonly used to refer to the four [[publicly funded healthcare]] systems of the [[United Kingdom]], collectively or individually, although only the health service in [[England]] uses the name 'National Health Service' without further qualification. The publicly-funded healthcare organisation in [[Northern Ireland]] does not use the term 'National Health Service', but is still commonly referred to as the 'NHS'.<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/903003.stm Hospital warns of 'Third World' NHS] BBC News, 30 August 200</ref>
   
The '''National Health Service''' ('''NHS''') is the [[Publicly funded medicine|publicly-funded healthcare[['''Bold text'''<nowiki>Insert non-formatted text here</nowiki> system]] of the [[United Kingdom]]. The organisation provides the majority of healthcare in the UK, from [[general practitioner]]s to [[emergency room|Accident and Emergency Department]]s, [[long-term healthcare]] and [[dentistry]].]]'''
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* {{flagicon|England}} '''[[England]]''' [[National Health Service (England)|National Health Service]]
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* {{flagicon|Scotland}} '''[[Scotland]]''' — [[NHS Scotland]]
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* {{flagicon|Wales}} '''[[Wales]]''' — [[NHS Wales]]
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* '''[[Northern Ireland]]''' — [[Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland]].
   
A feature of the NHS compared to other public healthcare systems in Continental Europe is that not only does it pay directly for health expenses (with partial exceptions like prescriptions and dentistry it is free at the point of use), it also employs the doctors and nurses that provide them, and in most cases owns and runs its hospitals and clinics. However, under the [[Private Finance Initiative]], an increasing number of hospitals have been built (or rebuilt) by private sector consortia, and have non-medical services (such as catering) provided under long-term contracts by the same consortia.
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Forming the basis of [[healthcare in the United Kingdom]], each system operates independently, and is politically accountable to the relevant devolved government of Scotland ([[Scottish Government]]), Wales ([[Welsh Assembly Government]]) and Northern Ireland ([[Northern Ireland Executive]]), and to the [[UK government]] for England.
   
==History==
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Originally, three services (for [[England and Wales]], [[Scotland]] and [[Northern Ireland]]) were established by separate pieces of legislation and began operating on 5 July 1948. The [[Department of Health (United Kingdom)|Department of Health]] had responsibility for the NHS in England and Wales, the [[Scottish Office]] had responsibility for the NHS in Scotland and the [[Executive Committee of the Privy Council of Northern Ireland|Government of Northern Ireland]] had responsibility for public health in Northern Ireland. Following the creation of a [[Welsh Office]] in 1964, responsibility for public health services in [[Wales]] was transferred to it from the [[Department of Health (United Kingdom)|Department of Health]] in 1969.<ref>[http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?pid=11595&orgid=452 1960's] www.wales.nhs.uk, accessed August 7, 2008</ref>. In turn, responsibility for NHS Wales and NHS Scotland transferred from the Welsh Office and Scottish Office to the [[Welsh Assembly Government|Welsh]] [[Department of Health and Social Services (Wales)|Department of Health and Social Services]] and the [[Scottish Executive Health Department|Scottish Government Health Department]], respectively, under devolution in 1999.
Before 1948, when the NHS was created, patients were generally required to pay for their own healthcare. Systems of [[health insurance]] were relatively undeveloped, with the exception of National Insurance. However, due to cuts during the economic troubles of the '30s, many of the poor were simply unable to obtain treatment when they became ill. Many [[charity|charities]] were established to operate local hospitals, such as the [[Royal Free Hospital]], and some [[local government in the United Kingdom|local authorities]] operated local hospitals for local ratepayers, but provision was patchy and quality of care varied greatly.
 
   
A "Panel" system was set up in [[1911]] under the aegis of [[David Lloyd George]]. (The name survives in the "Lloyd George envelopes" in which most primary care records in England are stored, although today most working records in primary care are at least partially computerised).
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There is no discrimination when a patient resident in one country of the United Kingdom requires treatment in another. The consequent financial matters and paperwork of such inter-working are dealt with between the organisations involved and there is generally no personal involvement by the patient comparable to that which might occur when a resident of one [[European Union]] member country receives treatment in another.
 
 
In the aftermath of the [[Second World War]], with a new spirit of social provision, [[Clement Attlee]]'s [[The Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] government created the NHS. The structure of the NHS in England and Wales was established by the National Health Service Act 1946 (1946 Act) and the new arrangements were launched on 5 July 1948. This was under health and housing minister [[Aneurin Bevan]], who based the NHS on a coal-miners co-operative that he had seen in operation in his home town of [[Tredegar]].
 
 
 
The same services would henceforth be provided by the same doctors and the same hospitals, but:
 
*services were provided entirely free of charge at the point of use;
 
*instead, services were financed from central taxation;
 
*everyone was eligible for care (even people temporarily resident or visiting the country).
 
The original structure of the NHS had three arms:
 
 
#'''Hospital Services''' - 14 Regional Hospital Boards were created in England and Wales to administer the great majority of hospital services. Beneath these were 400 Hospital Management Committees which directly administered their own hospitals. Teaching hospitals had different arrangements and were organised under Boards of Governors.
 
#'''Primary Care''' - [[General_practitioner|GP]]s were independent contractors (that is they were not salaried employees) and would be paid for each person on their list. Dentists, opticians and pharmacists also generally provided services as independent contractors. Executive Councils were formed and they administered contracts and payments to the contractor professions as well as maintaining lists of local practitioners and dealing with patient complaints.
 
#'''Community Services''' - [[Maternity]] and Child Welfare clinics, health visitors, [[midwive]]s, health education, [[vaccination]] and [[immunisation]] and [[ambulance]] services together with environmental health services were the responsibility of local authorities. This was a continuation of the role local government had held prior to establishment of the NHS.
 
 
This was known as the ''tripartite system'', which would continue until [[1974]]. In addition, private healthcare continued in parallel to the NHS.
 
 
By the [[1950s]], spending on the NHS far exceeded what had been expected by Parliament and the [[Treasury]]. Spiralling costs led to the introduction of a 5-[[shilling]] charge for prescriptions, and a [[£]]1 charge for dental treatment, in 1952. With updated pricing, these remain the major exceptions to the NHS being free at the point of use. The 1950s also saw the more rational planning of hospital services, dealing in part with some of the gaps and duplications that existed across England and Wales. The period also saw the growth in the number of medical staff and a more even distribution of these staff together with the development of hospital outpatient services. The [[Mental Health Act 1983|Mental Health Act]] of [[1959]] also significantly altered legislation in respect of [[mental illness]] and reduced the grounds on which someone could be compulsorily admitted and detained in a mental hospital.
 
 
The [[1960s]] has been characterised as a period of growth for the NHS. In primary care a more equitable distribution of GPs was emerging as was the concept of the [[primary healthcare]] team. The period also saw a growth in health centres. More mental health patients were discharged back into the community and [[Enoch Powell]], who was Minister of Health in the early 1960s, predicted that many of the large mental health institutions would close within ten years. Concern also continued to grow about the structure of the NHS and the difficulties of the tripartite system which separated hospital, community and primary care services. A number of papers were published and committees and commissions established in the late 1960s which put forward proposals for major changes in the structure and organisation of the NHS.
 
 
The NHS in England was reorganised in [[1974]] to bring together services provided by hospitals and services provided by local authorities under the umbrella of Regional Health Authorities, with a further restructuring in [[1982]]. The [[1970s]] also saw the end of the economic optimism which had characterised the 1960s and increasing pressures coming to bear to reduce the amount of money spent on public services and to ensure increased [[efficiency]] for the money spent.[http://www.example.com link title]
 
== Headline text ==
 
Through the 1970s and [[1980s]], it became increasingly clear that the NHS would never have the resources necessary to provide unlimited access to the latest medical treatments, especially in the context of an [[ageing population]].
 
 
The 1980s also saw the introduction of General Management to replace the previous system of consensus management. This was outlined in the Griffiths Report of 1983. This report recommended the appointment of general managers with whom individual responsibility and accountability lay at all levels of the NHS. The report also recommended that clinicians be better involved in management processes. Financial pressures continued to place significant strain on the NHS. In [[1987]], an additional £101 million was provided by the government to the NHS. In 1988 the then [[Prime Minister]], [[Margaret Thatcher]], announced a review of the NHS. From this review and in [[1989]], two [[white paper]]s ''Working for Patients'' and ''Caring for People'' were produced. These papers outlined the introduction of what was termed the "internal market", which was to shape the structure and organisation of health services for most of the next decade.
 
 
In [[1990]], the [http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1990/Ukpga_19900019_en_1.htm National Health Service & Community Care Act 1990] (in England) introduced an "internal market" into the NHS, whereby Health Authorities ceased to run hospitals directly but instead "purchased" care from their own or other authorities' hospitals. Certain GPs became "fund holders" and were able to purchase care for their patients directly. The "providers" became independent trusts, which encouraged competition but also increased differences.
 
 
==Structure==
 
Responsibility for the NHS has been [[Devolved government|devolved]] to the component parts of the UK.
 
 
===England===
 
The NHS in [[England]] is managed at the top level by the [[British Department of Health|Department of Health]], which takes political responsibility for the service. It controls 28 [[Strategic Health Authority|Strategic Health Authorities]] (SHAs), which oversee all NHS operations in a particular area.
 
 
The SHAs supervise:
 
* [[Primary Care Trust]]s (PCTs), which administer primary care and public health. There are 302 PCTs, which oversee England's 29,000 [[General practitioner|GPs]] and 18,000 NHS [[dentist]]s. In addition, they oversee such matters as primary and secondary prevention, vaccination administrat'''Bold text'''''Italic text''ion and control of epidemics.
 
* NHS Hospital Trusts. These 290 organisations administer hospitals, [[treatment centre]]s and specialist care in the about 1,600 NHS hospitals (many trusts maintain between 2 and 8 different hospital sites).
 
* [[Ambulance Trust]]s
 
* [[Care Trust]]s
 
* [[Mental Health Trust]]s
 
 
In addition, several [[Special Health Authority|Special Health Authorities]] provide a health service to the whole of England. These include NHS Blood and Transplants, the [[NHS Direct]] and the [[National Institute for Clinical Excellence|National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence]] (NICE).
 
 
===Wales===
 
[[Image:NHS_logo_in_Wales.gif|thumb|left|The logo of NHS Wales]]
 
'''NHS Wales''' is operated and managed by the Health and Social Care Department of the [[Welsh Assembly Government]]. Strategic Health Authorities in Wales are known as Local Health Boards (LHBs). A Welsh Trust will typically administer all hospitals in a region, as well as all community care and mental health functions. Most people in Wales will have access to a District General Hospital which provides a range of services on an outpatient, inpatient and day case basis. Some of these hospitals also provide specialist services such as burns and plastics and cardiac surgery. Wales has one main teaching hospital, the [[University Hospital of Wales]], based in Cardiff. The NHS also provides community services which includes district nurses, health visitors, midwives and community based [[speech therapy|speech therapists]], [[physiotherapy|physiotherapists]] and [[occupational therapy|occupational therapists]].
 
 
There are 12 regional Trusts that cover groups of local authority areas, as well as one further Trust for the Welsh Ambulance Service and another, Velindre, for the operation of nationwide agencies and services:
 
*Bro Morgannwg ([[Bridgend]] and [[Neath Port Talbot]]) [http://www.bromor-tr.wales.nhs.uk]
 
*Cardiff and Vale ([[Cardiff]] and [[Vale of Glamorgan]]) [http://www.cardiffandvale.wales.nhs.uk]
 
*[[Carmarthenshire]] [http://www.carmarthen.wales.nhs.uk]
 
*Ceredigion & Mid Wales ([[Ceredigion]] & [[Powys]]) [http://www.ceredigion-tr.wales.nhs.uk]
 
*[[Conwy]] & [[Denbighshire]] [http://www.conwy-denbighshire-nhs.org.uk/]
 
*Gwent Healthcare ([[Newport]], [[Monmouthshire]], [[Torfaen]], [[Blaenau Gwent]] and [[Caerphilly]]) [http://www.gwent-tr.wales.nhs.uk/]
 
*North East Wales ([[Wrexham]] and [[Flintshire]]) [http://www.newalesnhstrust.org.uk]
 
*North Glamorgan ([[Merthyr Tydfil]]) [http://www.nglam-tr.wales.nhs.uk]
 
*North West Wales ([[Anglesey]], [[Gwynedd]]) [http://www.northwestwales.org]
 
*[[Pembrokeshire]] and Derwen [http://www.pdt-tr.wales.nhs.uk]
 
*Pontypridd & Rhondda ([[Rhondda Cynon Taff]]) [http://www.pr-tr.wales.nhs.uk]
 
*[[Swansea]] [http://www.swansea-tr.wales.nhs.uk]
 
*Velindre (operates various wales-wide specialist services and agencies) [http://www.velindre-tr.wales.nhs.uk]
 
*Welsh Ambulance Service [http://www.was-tr.wales.nhs.uk]
 
 
Another important organisation in the structure is [http://www.wales.gov.uk/subihealthcom/index.htm Health Commission Wales]. This is an executive agency of the [[Welsh Assembly Government]] whose primary role is to centrally organise and fund all [[Tertiary care]] and other highly specialist services. It also provides advise and guidance about specialist services to other parts of NHS Wales.
 
 
===Scotland===
 
 
[[Image:NHS_Scotland_Logo.JPG|120px|left|thumb|The logo of NHS Scotland]]
 
 
The NHS in [[Scotland]] has always been a separate and distinct body from the NHS in other parts of the United Kingdom. Healthcare policy and funding is the responsibility of the [[Scottish Executive]]. The chief civil servant in the [[Scottish Executive]] [http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/sehd/about.htm Health Department] is also [[chief executive]] of NHS Scotland.
 
 
Provision of healthcare is the responsibility of 15 geographically-based NHS Boards. There are no NHS Trusts in Scotland; instead, hospitals are owned by and GPs contracted in by the local NHS Board. Provision of community and mental health care is also the responsibility of each local Board.
 
 
They are supported in this task by [[NHS National Services Scotland]] and several other special health boards, including [[NHS Health Scotland]] (Public health and health education), [[Health Protection Scotland]], [[NHS Education for Scotland]] (training and e-library), [[NHS Quality Improvement Scotland]], and the [[Scottish Ambulance Service]].
 
 
The [[State Hospital for Scotland and Northern Ireland]] at Carstairs, which provides high security services for mentally disordered offenders and others who pose a high risk to themselves or others, is the responsibility of the [http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/tsh/ State Hospitals Board for Scotland].
 
 
====Local NHS Boards====
 
 
The 15 local health boards are:
 
 
* [http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/achb/index.htm NHS Argyll and Clyde]
 
* [http://www.nhsayrshireandarran.com/ NHS Ayrshire and Arran]
 
* [http://www.nhsborders.org.uk/ NHS Borders]
 
* [http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/dghb/index.htm NHS Dumfries & Galloway]
 
* [http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/fhb/index.htm NHS Fife]
 
* [http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/nhsfv/index.html NHS Forth Valley]
 
* [http://www.nhsgrampian.org/ NHS Grampian]
 
* [http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/gghb/index.htm NHS Greater Glasgow]
 
* [http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/nhshighland/ NHS Highland], which covers the same area as the [[Highland]] [[unitary authority]].
 
* [http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/nhslanarkshire NHS Lanarkshire]
 
* [http://www.nhslothian.scot.nhs.uk/ NHS Lothian]
 
* [http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/ohb/index.htm NHS Orkney], which covers the same area as the [[Orkney Isles]] unitary authority.
 
* [http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/shb NHS Shetland], which covers the same area as the [[Shetland Isles]] unitary authority.
 
* [http://www.nhstayside.scot.nhs.uk/ NHS Tayside]
 
* [http://www.wihb.org.uk/index.htm NHS Western Isles], which covers the same area as the [[Western Isles]] unitary authority.
 
 
===Northern Ireland===
 
 
In [[Northern Ireland]], the NHS is administered by the [http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/about_department/about.asp Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety].
 
 
The Department is organised under a [[Permanent Secretary]] into several groups and one agency. These are the Planning and Resources Group, Strategic Planning and Modernisation Group and Primary, Secondary and Community Care Group and the 5 Professional Groups. The Department&#8217;s Executive Agency is the [http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/hea/hea.asp Northern Ireland Health and Social Services Estates Agency] (known as Health Estates).
 
 
The five professional groups are
 
 
*[http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/phealth/index.asp Medical and Allied Services]
 
*[http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/hss/ssi/index.asp Social Services Inspectorate]
 
*[http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/pgroups/nursing/index.asp Nursing and Midwifery Advisory Group]
 
*[http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/pgroups/dental/dental.asp Dental Services]
 
*[http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/pgroups/pharmaceutical/index.asp Pharmaceutical Advice and Services]
 
 
===Other===
 
In addition to this hierarchy there are various internal bodies which have authority over particular matters. For example, the [[National Institute for Clinical Excellence]] (NICE) is an NHS body which produces guidelines and standards for healthcare.
 
 
==Funding==
 
The NHS was, and largely remains, a system of healthcare intended to be "free at the point of delivery" and paid for by taxes. [[Nigel Lawson]], former [[Chancellor of the Exchequer]] once said that it was the national religion. Private medical care remained, and remains, available in the UK, but it largely used as a "top up" service to obtain speedy operations. The NHS's budget for 2005-06 is over £80 billion.
 
 
Contrary to popular belief, the founding principles of the NHS called for its funding out of general [[taxation]], not through [[national insurance]]. As of March 2005, the NHS has 1.3 million employees, and is variously the third or fifth largest employer in the world, after the [[People's Liberation Army|Chinese army]], [[Indian Railways]] and (as argued by [[Jon Hibbs]], the NHS's head of news, in a press release from March 22, 2005) [[Wal-Mart]] and the [[US Department of Defense]]. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/money/main.jhtml?xml=/money/2005/03/23/cnnhs23.xml] [http://politics.guardian.co.uk/publicservices/story/0,11032,1443862,00.html]
 
 
==Political Issues in England==
 
 
The long-term future of the NHS and its day to day organisation are major issues in [[British politics]], and the [[Secretary of State for Health]] is one of the senior positions in the [[British Cabinet]]. Though the Secretary of State and [[British Department of Health|Department of Health (UK)]] deal with a much wider range of issues, the NHS dominates the department's remit and many government policies, such as anti-[[smoking]] and [[obesity]] campaigns are implemented by the NHS.
 
 
In recent times, UK politicians have been trying to reduce waiting times for surgery and medical procedures. Although they have sometimes failed to meet some of the targets they have set, many contend that the NHS is respected worldwide, [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4062067.stm] as a role model for the [[welfare state]].
 
 
The NHS [[National Programme for IT]] (NPfIT)— a large-scale project to renovate the use of [[Information Technology]] in the NHS in England (the Welsh equivalent is called [[Informing Healthcare]]) — has been criticised for substantial budget over-runs, from £6 billion to a potential £30 billion, [http://news.zdnet.co.uk/business/0,39020645,39169940,00.htm]. However this arises from confusion over the hardware and software procurement costs (the £6 billion) and the total costs of changing practices to use the new way of doing things that the IT investment is intended to support (the £30 billion). There has also been criticism of a perceived lack of adequate patient information security [http://news.zdnet.co.uk/0,39020330,39173812,00.htm], but some of this has been poorly informed. The ability to deliver integrated high quality services will require care professionals to access sensitive medical data. This access must however be tightly controlled and in the NPfIT model it is, sometimes too tightly to allow the best care to be delivered. One of the main concerns is that GPs and hospital doctors have given the project a lukewarm reception, citing a lack of consultation and excessive complexity. [http://www.computerweekly.com/Article136585.htm]
 
 
In 2005, [[Independent Sector Treatment Centre]]s (ISTCs) will treat around 3% of NHS patients (in England) having routine elective surgery. By 2008 this is expected to be around 10%.[http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1519575,00.html]
 
 
==Overseas Doctors and the NHS:==
 
 
Staff shortages in the NHS during 50s and 60s led to recruitment drives for qualified doctors from overseas, particularly the Indian subcontinent. This is a trend which continues to this day, and [[Overseas Doctors]] continue to contribute significantly to the NHS, especially in areas and posts which appear less glamorous or desirable to the local doctors. In recent years, several overseas doctors won race discrimination claims against the NHS, highlighting the absence of career progression and other difficulties faced by doctors from overseas.
 
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
*[[British Department of Health|Department of Health (UK)]]
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*[[History of the National Health Service]]
*[[Doctors for Reform]]
 
*[[General Medical Council]]
 
*[[NHS Foundation Trust]]
 
*[[Nursing and Midwifery Council]]
 
*[[Publicly funded medicine]]
 
*[[Health Forecasting]]
 
*[[National Blood Service]]
 
   
 
==References==
 
==References==
* Allyson M Pollock (2004), ''NHS plc: the privatisation of our healthcare'', Verso. ISBN 1844675394.
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{{Reflist}}
   
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
* [http://www.nhs.uk/ NHS Gateway]
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*[http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/nhs 'BIRTH OF THE NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE | How the state of the nation's health became a political ideal'], a BBC Archive collection of programmes and documents.
** [http://www.nhs.uk/england/default.aspx NHS in England]
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*[http://www.60yearsofnhsscotland.co.uk/ Celebrating 60 years of the NHS in Scotland] (useful insight into the distinct development of public healthcare in Scotland)
** [http://www.wales.nhs.uk/ NHS in Wales]
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*[http://www.nhs.uk/ NHS Choices] The NHS website
** [http://www.n-i.nhs.uk/ NHS Northern Ireland]
 
** [http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk/ NHS Direct] Telephone advice service ''([[England and Wales]])''
 
   
* [http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/ NHS Scotland]
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[[Category:Health and medicine related organisations in the United Kingdom]]
** [http://www.nhs24.com/ NHS 24] Telephone advice service ''([[Scotland]])''
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[[Category:National Health Service]]
   
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/events/nhs_at_50/special_report/newsid_119000/119803.stm BBC coverage of NHS 50th anniversary]
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<!--
* [http://www.nhshistory.com/ History of the British NHS].
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[[ar:خدمة الصحة الوطنية (المملكة المتحدة)]]
* [http://www.nelh.nhs.uk National Electronic Library for Health]
 
* [http://www.doctorsforreform.com/ Doctors for Reform]
 
 
* [http://www.dh.gov.uk/ Department of Health] ''([[England]])''
 
* [http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/ Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety] ''([[Northern Ireland]])''
 
* [http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Health Scottish Executive Health Department]
 
* [http://www.wales.gov.uk/subihealth/index.htm Welsh Assembly Government]
 
 
[[Category:National Health Service]]
 
 
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Latest revision as of 15:22, December 29, 2008

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The National Health Service (NHS) is the name commonly used to refer to the four publicly funded healthcare systems of the United Kingdom, collectively or individually, although only the health service in England uses the name 'National Health Service' without further qualification. The publicly-funded healthcare organisation in Northern Ireland does not use the term 'National Health Service', but is still commonly referred to as the 'NHS'.[1]

Forming the basis of healthcare in the United Kingdom, each system operates independently, and is politically accountable to the relevant devolved government of Scotland (Scottish Government), Wales (Welsh Assembly Government) and Northern Ireland (Northern Ireland Executive), and to the UK government for England.

Originally, three services (for England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland) were established by separate pieces of legislation and began operating on 5 July 1948. The Department of Health had responsibility for the NHS in England and Wales, the Scottish Office had responsibility for the NHS in Scotland and the Government of Northern Ireland had responsibility for public health in Northern Ireland. Following the creation of a Welsh Office in 1964, responsibility for public health services in Wales was transferred to it from the Department of Health in 1969.[2]. In turn, responsibility for NHS Wales and NHS Scotland transferred from the Welsh Office and Scottish Office to the Welsh Department of Health and Social Services and the Scottish Government Health Department, respectively, under devolution in 1999.

There is no discrimination when a patient resident in one country of the United Kingdom requires treatment in another. The consequent financial matters and paperwork of such inter-working are dealt with between the organisations involved and there is generally no personal involvement by the patient comparable to that which might occur when a resident of one European Union member country receives treatment in another.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Hospital warns of 'Third World' NHS BBC News, 30 August 200
  2. 1960's www.wales.nhs.uk, accessed August 7, 2008

External linksEdit

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