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Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical
synapse. Synapses allow nerve cells to communicate with one another through axons and dendrites, converting electrical impulses into chemical signals.
Neuron A (transmitting) to neuron B (receiving)
1. Mitochondrion 2. Synaptic vesicle with neurotransmitters 3. Autoreceptor 4. Synapse with neurotransmitter released (serotonin) 5. Postsynaptic receptors activated by neuro-transmitter (induction of a postsynaptic potential) 6. Calcium channel 7. Exocytosis of a vesicle 8. Recaptured neurotransmitter
N-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Like the others of this class, the α1 subunit is the one that determines most of the channel's properties.
N-type ('N' for
neuron) calcium channels are found primarily at presynaptic terminals and are involved in neurotransmitter release. Strong depolarization by an action potential causes these channels to open and allow influx of Ca 2+, initiating vesicle fusion and release of stored neurotransmitter. N-type channels are blocked by ω-conotoxin.
analgesic drug ziconotide inhibits N-type channels.
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Membrane transport protein: ion channels
Voltage-dependent calcium channel ( L-type/ CACNA1C, N-type, P-type, Q-type, R-type, T-type) - Inositol triphosphate receptor - Ryanodine receptor - Cation channels of sperm
Na: Sodium channel
Nav1.4 - Nav1.5 - Nav1.7 - Epithelial sodium channel
K: Potassium channel
Voltage-gated ( KvLQT1, KvLQT2, KvLQT3, HERG, Shaker gene, KCNE1) - Calcium-activated ( BK channel, SK channel) - Inward-rectifier ( ROMK, KCNJ2) - Tandem pore domain
Cl: Chloride channel
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
Aquaporin ( 1, 2, 3, 4)
Transient receptor potential
TRPA - TRPC ( TRPC6) - TRPM ( TRPM6) - TRPML ( Mucolipin-1) - TRPP - TRPV ( TRPV1, TRPV6)
Gap junction - Stretch-activated ion channel - Ligand-gated ion channel - Voltage-gated ion channel - Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel - Two-pore channel