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[[Image:CenterForApplicationsOfPsyc.jpg|right|frame|The [http://www.capt.org Center for Applications of Psychological Type] is a [[non-profit organization]] co-founded by Isabel Myers in 1975 for MBTI development, research and training.]]The '''Myers-Briggs Type Indicator''' ('''MBTI''') is a [[personality test]] designed to assist a person in identifying their [[personality]] preferences. It was developed by [[Katharine Cook Briggs]] and her daughter [[Isabel Briggs Myers]] during World War II, and follows from the theories of [[Carl Jung]] as laid out in his work ''Psychological Types''{{fn|1}}. The registered trademark rights in the phrase and its acronym have been assigned from the publisher of the test, Consulting Psychologists Press Inc., to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust{{fn|2}}. The test is frequently used in the areas of [[pedagogy]], [[group dynamics]], employee training, [[leadership|leadership training]], [[marriage counseling]], and [[personal development]], although [[scientific skepticism|scientific skeptics]] and academic psychologists have subjected it to considerable criticism in research literature {{fn|3}}.
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{{Expert}}
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[[File:Jung 1910-cropped.jpg|thumb|250px|[[Carl Jung]] in 1910. Myers and Briggs extrapolated their MBTI theory from Jung's writings in his book ''Psychological Types''.]]
   
== Historical development ==
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The '''Myers-Briggs Type Indicator''' ('''MBTI''') assessment is a [[Psychometrics|psychometric]] questionnaire designed to measure [[Psychology|psychological]] preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions.<ref name=Myers/>{{Rp|1}} These preferences were extrapolated from the [[Personality type|typological]] theories proposed by [[Carl Jung|Carl Gustav Jung]] and first published in his 1921 book ''[[Psychological Types]]'' (English edition, 1923<ref>{{cite book | author=Jung, Carl Gustav | date=August 1, 1971 | chapter= Psychological Types | title=Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Volume 6 | publisher=Princeton University Press| isbn=0-691-09774}}</ref>). Jung theorized that there are four principal psychological functions by which we experience the world: sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking.<ref>Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2009). ''Psychological testing: Principle, applications, and issues''. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth</ref> One of these four functions is dominant most of the time.
C. G. Jung first spoke on typology at the Munich Psychological Congress in 1913. Katharine Cook Briggs began her research into personality in 1917, developing a four-type framework: Social; Thoughtful; Executive; Spontaneous. In 1923 Jung's ''Psychological Types'' was published in English translation (having first been published in German in 1921). Katharine Briggs' first publications are two articles describing Jung's theory, in the journal ''New Republic'' in 1926 (''Meet Yourself Using the Personality Paint Box'') and 1928 (''Up From Barbarism''). Katharine Briggs' daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, wrote a prize-winning mystery novel ''Murder Yet to Come'' in 1929, using typological ideas. She joins her mother's research, which she would progressively take over entirely. In 1942, the "Briggs-Myers Type Indicator®" is created, and the ''Briggs Myers Type Indicator Handbook'' published in 1944. The indicator changes its name to the modern form (''Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®'') in 1956 {{fn|12}} {{fn|13}}.
 
   
== About the indicator ==
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The original developers of the personality inventory were Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, [[Isabel Briggs Myers]]; these two, having studied extensively the work of Jung, turned their interest of human behavior into a devotion of turning the theory of psychological types to practical use.<ref>Center for Applications of Psychological Type. (2012). The story of Isabel Briggs Myers. Retrieved from http://www.capt.org/mbti-assessment/isabel-myers.htm</ref> They began creating the indicator during [[World War II]], believing that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women who were entering the industrial workforce for the first time to identify the sort of war-time jobs where they would be "most comfortable and effective".<ref name=Myers>{{cite book |author=Myers, Isabel Briggs with Peter B. Myers|title=Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type |publisher=Davies-Black Publishing |location=Mountain View, CA |year=1980, 1995 |pages= |isbn=0-89106-074-X |oclc= |doi=}}</ref>{{Rp|xiii}} The initial questionnaire grew into the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which was first published in 1962. The MBTI focuses on normal populations and emphasizes the value of naturally occurring differences.<ref>{{cite book|last=Pearman |first=Roger R.|coauthors=Sarah C. Albritton|title=I'm Not Crazy, I'm Just Not You|publisher=Davies-Black Publishing|location=Palo Alto, California|year=1997|edition=First|pages=xiii|isbn=0-89106-096-0|nopp=true}}</ref> Robert Kaplan and Dennis Saccuzzo believe "the underlying assumption of the MBTI is that we all have specific preferences in the way we construe our experiences, and these preferences underlie our interests, needs, values, and motivation" (p. 499).<ref>Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2009). Psychological testing: Principle, applications, and issues. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth</ref>
The indicator differs from [[standardized tests]] and others measuring [[Trait (biological)|traits]], such as [[Intelligence (trait)|intelligence]], instead identifying preferred types. While types and traits are both inborn, traits can be improved akin to [[skills]], whereas types, if supported by a healthy environment, naturally [[wikt:differentiate|differentiate]] over time. The indicator attempts to tell the order in which this occurs in each person, and it is that information, combined with interviews done with others who have indicated having the same preferences, that the complete descriptions are based on. The indicator then, is akin to an arrow which attempts to point in the direction of the proper description. The facet of the theory which posits that the features being sorted for are in fact types, and not traits which can be improved with practice, is hotly debated, lacking definitive proof.
 
   
The types the MBTI sorts for, known as [[wikt:dichotomy|dichotomies]], are extraversion/introversion, sensing/intuition, thinking/feeling and judging/perceiving. Participants are given one of 16 four-letter acronyms, such as ESTJ or INFP, indicating what they prefer. The term ''best-fit types'' refers to the [[#Ethics|ethical code]] that facilitators are required to follow. It states that the person taking the indicator is always the best judge of what their preferences are, and the indicator alone should never be used to make this decision.
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== Concepts ==
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As the MBTI ''Manual'' states, the indicator "is designed to implement a theory; therefore the theory must be understood to understand the MBTI".<ref name=manual_2>{{cite book|last=Myers|first=Isabel Briggs|coauthors=Mary H. McCaulley|title=Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator|publisher=Consulting Psychologists Press|location=Palo Alto, CA|year=1985|edition=2nd|isbn=0-89106-027-8}}</ref>{{Rp|1}}
   
== The preferences ==
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Fundamental to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is the [[theory]] of [[psychological type]] as originally developed by Carl Jung.<ref name=Myers/>{{Rp|xiii}} Jung proposed the existence of two dichotomous pairs of cognitive functions:
{| style="border: 1px solid #000000; text-align: center; margin: 0 0 0 2em; clear: right; width: 20%;" align="right"
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* The "rational" (judging) functions: ''thinking'' and ''feeling''
| colspan="2" | '''Dichotomies'''
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* The "irrational" (perceiving) functions: ''sensing'' and ''intuition''
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Jung believed that for every person each of the functions are expressed primarily in either an introverted or extraverted form.<ref name=Myers/>{{Rp|17}} From Jung's original concepts, Briggs and Myers developed their own theory of psychological type, described below, on which the MBTI is based.
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=== Type ===
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Jung's typological model regards psychological type as similar to left or right handedness: individuals are either born with, or develop, certain preferred ways of perceiving and deciding. The MBTI sorts some of these psychological differences into four opposite pairs, or ''[[dichotomy|dichotomies]]'', with a resulting 16 possible psychological types. None of these types are ''better'' or ''worse''; however, Briggs and Myers theorized that individuals naturally ''prefer'' one overall combination of type differences.<ref name=Myers/>{{Rp|9}} In the same way that writing with the left hand is hard work for a right-hander, so people tend to find using their opposite psychological preferences more difficult, even if they can become more proficient (and therefore behaviorally flexible) with practice and development.
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The 16 types are typically referred to by an abbreviation of four letters—the initial letters of each of their four type preferences (except in the case of ''intuition'', which uses the abbreviation ''N'' to distinguish it from Introversion). For instance:
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* '''[[ESTJ]]''': extraversion (E), sensing (S), thinking (T), judgment (J)
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* '''[[INFP]]''': introversion (I), intuition (N), feeling (F), perception (P)
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And so on for all 16 possible type combinations.
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A related personality type model is the [[Personality Assessment System]] developed by John Gittinger. Like the MBTI, PAS identifies people's inherited tendencies, and it goes on to describe how people either accept and foster them, or compensate and modify them as functioning adults. With
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compensation and modification, Gittinger's PAS gives 512 types.
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<ref>
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Krauskopf and Saunders, 1994, Pages 66, 69, 127. Discusses specific
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relationship of the MBTI and the PAS.
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</ref>
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=== Four dichotomies ===
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{| class="infobox" style="text-align: center"
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|-
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! colspan=2 | Dichotomies
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #FFDDFE" | '''E'''xtroversion
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| style="text-align: right" | Extraversion ('''E''') –
| style="background: #FFDDFE" | '''I'''ntroversion
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| style="text-align: left" | ('''I''') Introversion
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #EDDDBB" | '''S'''ensing
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| style="text-align: right" | Sensing ('''S''') –
| style="background: #EDDDBB" | i'''N'''tuition
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| style="text-align: left" | ('''N''') Intuition
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DDDDFF" | '''T'''hinking
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| style="text-align: right" | Thinking ('''T''') –
| style="background: #DDDDFF" | '''F'''eeling
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| style="text-align: left" | ('''F''') Feeling
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DDFFDE" | '''J'''udging
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| style="text-align: right" | Judging ('''J''') –
| style="background: #DDFFDE" | '''P'''erceiving
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| style="text-align: left" | ('''P''') Perception
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="2" | A dichotomy is a division of two mutually exclusive groups, or in this case, type preferences.
 
 
|}
 
|}
* The terms '''Introvert''' and '''Extrovert''' (originally spelled ‘extravert’ by Jung, who first used the terms in the context of psychology, although 'extrovert' is now by far the more common spelling) are referred to as attitudes and show how a person orients and receives their energy. In the extroverted attitude the energy flow is outward, and the preferred focus is on other people and things, whereas in the introverted attitude the energy flow is inward, and the preferred focus is on one's own thoughts and ideas.
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The four pairs of preferences or ''dichotomies'' are shown in the table to the right.
   
* '''Sensing''' and '''Intuition''' are the perceiving functions. They indicate how a person prefers to receive data. These are the nonrational functions, as a person does not necessarily have control over receiving data, but only how to process it once they have it. Sensing prefers to receive data primarily from the five senses, and intuition prefers to receive data from the unconscious, or seeing relationships via insights.
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Note that the terms used for each dichotomy have specific technical meanings relating to the MBTI which differ from their everyday usage. For example, people who prefer judgment over perception are not necessarily more ''judgmental'' or less ''perceptive''. Nor does the MBTI instrument measure [[aptitude]]; it simply indicates for one preference over another.<ref name=manual_2/>{{Rp|3}} Someone reporting a high score for extraversion over introversion cannot be correctly described as ''more'' extraverted: they simply have a clear ''preference''.
   
* '''Thinking''' and '''Feeling''' are the judging functions. They both strive to make rational judgments and decisions using the data received from their perceiving functions, above. Thinking uses logical "true or false, if-then" logical connections. Feeling uses "more or less, better-worse" evaluations. When Thinking or Feeling is extroverted, judgments tend to rely on external sources and the generally accepted rules and procedures. When introverted, Thinking and Feeling judgments tend to be subjective, relying on internally generated ideas for logical organization and evaluation.
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Point scores on each of the dichotomies can vary considerably from person to person, even among those with the same type. However, Isabel Myers considered the ''direction'' of the preference (for example, E vs. I) to be more important than the ''degree'' of the preference (for example, very clear vs. slight).<ref name=Manual>{{cite book | author=Myers, Isabel Briggs; McCaulley Mary H.; Quenk, Naomi L.; Hammer, Allen L. |year=1998 | title=MBTI Manual (A guide to the development and use of the Myers Briggs type indicator) | publisher=Consulting Psychologists Press; 3rd ed edition| isbn=0-89106-130-4}}</ref> The expression of a person's psychological type is more than the sum of the four individual preferences. The preferences interact through [[Myers-Briggs Type Indicator#Type dynamics and development|''type dynamics'' and ''type development'']].
   
* '''Judging''' and '''Perceiving''' reveals the specific attitudes of the functions. In J-types, the judging function (T or F) is dominant, and will be directed inward or outward in accordance with the I/E preference. J-types tend to prefer a step-by-step (left brain: parts to whole) approach to life, relying on external rules and procedures, and preferring quick closure. The perceiving function (S or N) is the direct opposite to the judging function. In P-types the perceiving function is the stronger, and follows the I/E preference, whereas the judging function is auxiliary. This can result in a "bouncing around" approach to life (right brain: whole to parts), relying on subjective judgments, and a desire to leave all options open. (The terminology may be misleading for some&mdash;the term "Judging" does not imply "judgmental", and "Perceiving" does not imply "perceptive".)
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=== Attitudes: extraversion/introversion (E/I) ===
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Myers-Briggs literature uses the terms ''extraversion'' and ''introversion '' as Jung first used them. Extraversion means "outward-turning" and introversion means "inward-turning".<ref>{{cite book|last=Zeisset|first=Carolyn|title=The Art of Dialogue: Exploring Personality Differences for More Effective Communication|year=2006|publisher=Center for Applications of Psychological Type, Inc|location=Gainesville, FL|isbn=0-935652-77-9|page=13}}</ref> These specific definitions vary somewhat from the popular usage of the words. Note that ''extraversion'' is the spelling used in MBTI publications.
   
* Although the above explanation of Judgement and Perception is logically sound and is closer to Jung's definition of J and P, MBTI definition of J and P is different. The MBTI Judging type is not the type with the dominant Judging function and MBTI Perceiving type is not the type with the dominant Perceiving function. MBTI definition of J and P reads like this: "The Judging type is the type that has their strongest Judging function extroverted and the Perceiving type is the type that has their strongest Perceiving function extroverted". So MBTI INTP for example should be Judging type according to Jung, because it has dominant introverted Thinking (Ti), which is Judging function, but it is actually Perceiving type in MBTI because the strongest Perceiving function of MBTI INTP is extroverted iNtuition (Ne), which is obviously extroverted, hence P at the end of the acronym. The only other personality theory similar to MBTI theory is [[Socionics]], which tries to resolve this inconsistency in MBTI theory and stay close to Jung's original definitions.
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The preferences for extraversion and introversion are often called ''[[Attitude (psychology)|attitudes]]''. Briggs and Myers recognized that each of the cognitive functions can operate in the external world of behavior, action, people, and things (''extraverted attitude'') or the internal world of ideas and reflection (''introverted attitude''). The MBTI assessment sorts for an overall preference for one or the other.
   
== Type dynamics ==
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People who prefer extraversion draw energy from action: they tend to act, then reflect, then act further. If they are inactive, their motivation tends to decline. To rebuild their energy, extraverts need breaks from time spent in reflection. Conversely, those who prefer introversion ''expend'' energy through action: they prefer to reflect, then act, then reflect again. To rebuild their energy, introverts need quiet time alone, away from activity.
[[Image:theSixteenTypesMBTI.jpg|right|frame|170px|The table organizing the sixteen types was created by Isabel Myers, who preferred INFP (To find the opposite type of the one you are looking at, jump over one type diagonally.)]][[Image:PopulationBreakdownMBTI.jpg|right|frame|170px|By using [[inferential statistics]] an estimate of the preferences found in the US population has been gathered]]The interaction of two, three, or four preferences are known as type dynamics, and when dealing with a four-preference combination it is called a '''type'''. In total, there are 16 unique types, and many more possible two and three letter combinations, which each have their own descriptive name. Additionally, it is sometimes possible to observe the interactions that each preference combination will have with another combination, although this is more unorthodox. Complete descriptions will contain the unique interactions of all four preferences in that person, and these are typically written by licensed psychologists based on data gathered from thousands of interviews and studies. The Center for Applications of Psychological Type has released short descriptions on the internet {{fn|4}}. The most in-depth descriptions, including statistics, can be found in ''The Manual'' {{fn|5}}.
 
   
=== The type table ===
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The extravert's flow is directed outward toward people and objects, and the introvert's is directed inward toward concepts and ideas. Contrasting characteristics between extraverts and introverts include the following:
The type table is a visualization tool which is useful for discussing the dynamic qualities and interactions of preference combinations. It will typically be divided by selecting any pair of preferences and comparing or contrasting. One of the most common and basic has been used to the right. It is the grouping of the mental functions, ST, SF, NF and NT, and focuses on the combination of perception and judgment. Alternatively, if we group by the rows we will have the four attitudes which are IJ, IP, EP and EJ. There are also more complex groupings, such as combinations of perception and orientations to the outer world, which are SJ, SP, NP and NJ, or combinations of judgement and orientations to the outer world, which are TJ, TP, FP, and FJ.
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*Extraverts are ''action'' oriented, while introverts are ''thought'' oriented.
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*Extraverts seek ''breadth'' of knowledge and influence, while introverts seek ''depth'' of knowledge and influence.
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*Extraverts often prefer more ''frequent'' interaction, while introverts prefer more ''substantial'' interaction.
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*Extraverts recharge and get their energy from spending time with ''people'', while introverts recharge and get their energy from spending time ''alone''.<ref name=SpeedReading>{{cite book|last=Tieger|first=Paul D.|coauthors=Barbara Barron-Tieger|title=The Art of SpeedReading<!-- SpeedReading with no space is the correct spelling--> People|publisher=Little, Brown and Company|location=New York, NY|year=1999|pages=66|isbn=978-0-316-84518-2}}</ref>
   
=== Descriptions of the function-attitudes ===
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=== Functions: sensing/intuition (S/N) and thinking/feeling (T/F) ===
In addition to a person's general preference for introversion or extraversion (''attitudes''), each function can be introverted or extraverted as well (''function-attitudes''), and the same function will have different qualities depending on its attitude .
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Jung identified two pairs of psychological functions:
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* The two ''perceiving'' functions, sensing and intuition
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* The two ''judging'' functions, thinking and feeling
   
* '''Extraverted Sensing''' is perceiving information literally from the senses and being drawn to focus on the moment and the experience of the here and now.
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According to the Myers-Briggs typology model, each person uses one of these four functions more dominantly and proficiently than the other three; however, all four functions are used at different times depending on the circumstances.
   
Extraverted sensation strives for intensity of novel and pleasurable experience derived from sensory stimulation. Consciousness is therefore directed outward to those objects and activities that may be expected to arouse the strongest sensations.
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''Sensing'' and ''intuition'' are the information-gathering (perceiving) functions. They describe how new information is understood and interpreted. Individuals who prefer ''sensing'' are more likely to trust information that is in the present, tangible, and concrete: that is, information that can be understood by the five senses. They tend to distrust hunches, which seem to come "out of nowhere".<ref name=Myers/>{{Rp|2}} They prefer to look for details and facts. For them, the meaning is in the data. On the other hand, those who prefer ''intuition'' tend to trust information that is more abstract or theoretical, that can be associated with other information (either remembered or discovered by seeking a wider context or pattern). They may be more interested in future possibilities. For them, the meaning is in the underlying theory and principles which are manifested in the data.
   
The extraverted sensation type is pleasure seeking and pragmatic. These experiences are seen as ends in themselves and are rarely utilized for any other purpose. If normal, such persons are sensualists or aesthetes who are attracted by the physical characteristics of objects and people. They dress, eat and entertain well, and can be very good company. Extraverted sensing instinctively reacts to stimuli without reflection. ''When neurotic'', repressed intuition may be projected onto other people, so that they may become irrationally suspicious or jealous. Alternatively, they may develop a range of compulsive superstitions. According to Kiersey, ESFPs are thought to be the most generous type, second in kindness only to ISFPs.
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''Thinking'' and ''feeling'' are the [[decision-making]] (judging) functions. The thinking and feeling functions are both used to make rational decisions, based on the data received from their information-gathering functions (sensing or intuition). Those who prefer ''thinking'' tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint, measuring the decision by what seems reasonable, logical, causal, consistent, and matching a given set of rules. Those who prefer ''feeling'' tend to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with the situation, looking at it 'from the inside' and weighing the situation to achieve, on balance, the greatest harmony, consensus and fit, considering the needs of the people involved. Thinkers usually have trouble interacting with people who are inconsistent or illogical, and tend to give very direct feedback to others. They are concerned with the truth and view it as more important than being tactful.
   
* '''Introverted Sensing''' involves recalling previous events, situations, or data. It compares the present situation with things that happened earlier and notices similarities and differences.
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As noted already, people who prefer thinking do not necessarily, in the everyday sense, "think better" than their feeling counterparts; the opposite preference is considered an equally rational way of coming to decisions (and, in any case, the MBTI assessment is a measure of preference, not ability). Similarly, those who prefer feeling do not necessarily have "better" emotional reactions than their thinking counterparts.
   
Introverted sensation is subjectively filtered. Perception is not based directly on the object, but is merely suggested by it. Instead, layers of subjective impressions are superimposed upon the image so that it becomes impossible to determine what will be perceived from a knowledge only of the object. Perception thus depends crucially upon internal psychological processes that will differ from one person to the next. At its most positive, introverted sensation is found in the creative artist. At its most extreme, it produces psychotic hallucinations and a total alienation from reality.
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==== Dominant function ====
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According to Myers and Briggs, people use all four cognitive functions. However, one function is generally used in a more conscious and confident way. This dominant function is supported by the secondary (auxiliary) function, and to a lesser degree the tertiary function. The fourth and least conscious function is always the opposite of the dominant function. Myers called this inferior function the ''shadow''.<ref name=Myers />{{Rp|84}}
   
The introverted sensation type reacts subjectively to events in a way that is unrelated to objective criteria. Often this is seen as an inappropriate and uncalled-for overreaction. Because objects generally fail to penetrate directly the veil of subjective impressions, this type may seem neutral or indifferent to objective reality. Alternatively, the person may perceive the world as illusory or amusing. ''In extreme'' (psychotic) cases, this may result in an inability to distinguish illusion from reality. The subjective world of archaic images may then come to dominate consciousness completely, so that the person lives in a private, mythological realm of fantasy. Repressed intuition may also be expressed in vaguely imagined threats or an apprehension of sinister possibilities.
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The four functions operate in conjunction with the attitudes (extraversion and introversion). Each function is used in either an extraverted or introverted way. A person whose dominant function is extraverted intuition, for example, uses intuition very differently from someone whose dominant function is introverted intuition.
   
* '''Extraverted Intuition''' involves seeing possibilities and connections or threads between ideas. When presented with data, it looks for possible patterns and meanings.
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=== Lifestyle: judging/perception (J/P) ===
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Myers and Briggs added another dimension to Jung's typological model by identifying that people also have a preference for using either the ''judging'' function (thinking or feeling) or their ''perceiving'' function (sensing or intuition) when relating to the outside world (extraversion).
   
Extraverted intuition attempts to envisage all the possibilities that are inherent in an objective situation. Ordinary events are seen as providing a cipher or set of clues from which underlying processes and hidden potentialities can be determined. Yet once these possibilities are apprehended, objects and events lose their meaning and import. There is therefore a constant need for new situations and experiences to provide a fresh stimulus for the intuitive process.
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Myers and Briggs held that types with a preference for ''judging'' show the world their preferred judging function (thinking or feeling). So TJ types tend to appear to the world as logical, and FJ types as empathetic. According to Myers,<ref name=Myers />{{Rp|75}} judging types like to "have matters settled".
   
The extraverted intuition type is an excellent diagnostician and exploiter of situations. Such people see exciting possibilities in every new venture and are excellent at perceiving latent abilities in other people. They get carried away with the enthusiasm of their vision and often inspire others with the courage of their conviction. As such, they do well in occupations where these qualities are at a premium - for example in initiating new projects, in business, politics or the stock market. They are, however, easily bored and stifled by unchanging conditions. As a result they often waste their life and talents jumping from one activity to another in the search for fresh possibilities, failing to stick at any one project long enough to bring it to fruition. Furthermore, in their commitment to their own vision, they often show little regard for the needs, views or convictions of others. ''When neurotic'', repressed sensation may cause this type to become compulsively tied to people, objects or activities that stir in them primitive sensations such as pleasure, pain or fear. The consequence of this can be phobias, hypochondriacal beliefs and a range of other compulsions.
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Those types who prefer ''perception'' show the world their preferred perceiving function (sensing or intuition). So SP types tend to appear to the world as concrete and NP types as abstract. According to Myers,<ref name=Myers />{{Rp|75}} perceptive types prefer to "keep decisions open".
   
* '''Introverted Intuition''' looks to what will be and what the deep significance of something is. This process often tunes in to aspects of universal human experience and [[archetype|archetypal]] symbols.
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For extraverts, the J or P indicates their ''dominant'' function; for introverts, the J or P indicates their ''auxiliary'' function. Introverts tend to show their dominant function outwardly only in matters "important to their inner worlds".<ref name=Myers />{{Rp|13}} For example:
   
Introverted intuition is directed inward to the contents of the unconscious. It attempts to fathom internal events by relating them to universal psychological processes or to other archetypal images. Consequently it generally has a mythical, symbolic or prophetic quality.
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Because ENTJ types are extroverts, the J indicates that their ''dominant'' function is their preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). ENTJ types introvert their auxiliary perceiving function (introverted intuition). The tertiary function is sensing and the inferior function is introverted feeling.
   
According to Jung, the introverted intuition type can be either an artist, seer or crank. Such a person has a visionary ideal that reveals strange, mysterious things. These are enigmatic, 'unearthly' people who stand aloof from ordinary society. They have little interest in explaining or rationalizing their personal vision, but are content merely to proclaim it. Partly as a result of this, they are often misunderstood. Although the vision of the artist among this type generally remains on the purely perceptual level, mystical dreamers or cranks may become caught up in theirs. The person's life then becomes symbolic, taking on the nature of a Great Work, mission or spiritual-moral quest. ''If neurotic'', repressed sensation may express itself in primitive, instinctual ways and, like their extraverted counterparts, introverted intuitives often suffer from hypochondria and compulsions.
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Because INTJ types are introverts, the J indicates that their ''auxiliary'' function is their preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). INTJ types introvert their dominant perceiving function (introverted intuition). The tertiary function is feeling, and the inferior function is extraverted sensing.
   
* '''Extraverted Thinking''' is concerned with organizing and structuring the outer world based on logical principles. It sorts things into hierarchies and judges on objective criteria.
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==Historical development==
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Katharine Cook Briggs began her research into personality in 1917. Upon meeting her future son-in-law, she observed marked differences between his personality and that of other family members. Briggs embarked on a project of reading biographies, and she developed a typology based on patterns she found. She proposed four temperaments: Meditative (or Thoughtful), Spontaneous, Executive, and Social.<ref name=CAPT>{{cite web|url=http://www.capt.org/mbti-assessment/isabel-myers.htm|title=CAPT: "The Story of Isabel Briggs Myers"|accessdate=2009-07-29}}</ref><ref name=CPP>{{cite web|url=https://www.cpp.com/pr/Fall03TYPEwriter.pdf|title=The TYPE Writer: "It Happened In 1943: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Turns 60 Years Old"|accessdate=2009-07-29}}</ref> Then, after the English translation of ''Psychological Types'' was published in 1923 (having first been published in German in 1921), she recognized that Jung's theory was similar to, yet went far beyond, her own.<ref name=Myers />{{Rp|22}} Briggs's four types were later identified as corresponding to the Is, EPs, ETJs and EFJs.<ref name=CAPT/><ref name=CPP/> Her first publications were two articles describing Jung's theory, in the journal ''New Republic'' in 1926 (''Meet Yourself Using the Personality Paint Box'') and 1928 (''Up From Barbarism'').
   
Extraverted thinking is driven by the objective evidence of the senses or by objective (collective) ideas that derive from tradition or learning. Its purpose is to abstract conceptual relationships from objective experience, linking ideas together in a rational, logical fashion. Furthermore, any conclusions that are drawn are always directed outward to some objective product or practical outcome. Thinking is never carried out for its own sake, merely as some private, subjective enterprise.
+
Briggs's daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, added to her mother's typological research, which she would progressively take over entirely. Myers graduated first in her class from Swarthmore College in 1919<ref name=Myers/>{{Rp|xx}} and wrote the prize-winning mystery novel ''Murder Yet to Come'' in 1929 using typological ideas. However, neither Myers nor Briggs were formally educated in psychology, and thus they lacked scientific credentials in the field of psychometric testing.<ref name=Myers/>{{Rp|xiii}} So Myers apprenticed herself to [[Edward N. Hay]], who was then personnel manager for a large Philadelphia bank and went on to start one of the first successful personnel consulting firms in the U.S. From Hay, Myers learned test construction, scoring, validation, and statistics.<ref name=Myers/>{{Rp|xiii, xx}} In 1942, the "Briggs-Myers Type Indicator" was created, and the ''Briggs Myers Type Indicator Handbook'' was published in 1944. The indicator changed its name to the modern form (''Myers-Briggs Type Indicator'') in 1956.<ref>Geyer, Peter (1998) [http://members.ozemail.com.au/~alchymia/library/dates.html ''Some Significant Dates'']. Retrieved December 5, 2005.<!-- This is a bad reference, get rid of it.--></ref><ref>{{cite web| year=2003| url=http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/spec/manuscript/guides/Myers.htm | title=Guide to the Isabel Briggs Myers Papers 1885-1992 | publisher=University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries, Department of Special and Area Studies Collections, Gainesville, FL.| accessdate=December 5, 2005}}</ref>
   
The extraverted thinking type bases all actions on the intellectual analysis of objective data. Such people live by a general intellectual formula or universal moral code, founded upon abstract notions of truth or justice. They also expect other people to recognize and obey this formula. This type represses the feeling function (e.g., sentimental attachments, friendships, religious devotion) and may also neglect personal interests such as their own health or financial well-being. ''If extreme or neurotic'', they may become petty, bigoted, tyrannical or hostile towards those who would threaten their formula. Alternatively, repressed tendencies may burst out in various kinds of personal 'immorality' (e.g., self-seeking, sexual misdemeanours, fraud or deception).
+
Myers' work attracted the attention of Henry Chauncey, head of the [[Educational Testing Service]], and under these auspices, the first MBTI ''Manual'' was published in 1962. The MBTI received further support from Donald T. McKinnon, head of the Institute of Personality Research at the University of California; Harold Grant, professor at Michigan State and Auburn Universities; and Mary H. McCaulley of the University of Florida. The publication of the MBTI was transferred to Consulting Psychologists Press in 1975, and the Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT) was founded as a research laboratory.<ref name=Myers/>{{Rp|xxi}} After Myers' death in May 1980, Mary McCaulley updated the MBTI ''Manual'', and the second edition was published in 1985.<ref name=Manual/> The third edition appeared in 1998.
   
* '''Introverted Thinking''' is the process of analyzing things and testing them against principles. It looks for inconsistency in models and is concerned with precision.
+
===Differences from Jung===
   
Introverted thinking is contemplative, involving an inner play of ideas. It is thinking for its own sake and is always directed inward to subjective ideas and personal convictions rather than outward to practical outcomes. The main concern of such thinking is to elaborate as fully as possible all the ramifications and implications of a seminal idea. As a consequence, introverted thinking can be complex, turgid and overly scrupulous. To the extent that it withdraws from objective reality, it may also become totally abstract, symbolic or mystical.
+
====Judging vs. perception====
  +
The most notable addition of Myers and Briggs to Jung's original thought is their concept that a given type's fourth letter (J or P) is determined by how that type interacts with the ''external world'', rather than by the type's ''dominant'' function. The difference becomes evident when assessing the cognitive functions of introverts.<ref name=Myers/>{{Rp|21-22}}
   
The introverted thinking type tends to be impractical and indifferent to objective concerns. These persons usually avoid notice and may seem cold, arrogant and taciturn. Alternatively, the repressed feeling function may express itself in displays of childish naivety. Generally people of this type appear caught up in their own ideas which they aim to think through as fully and deeply as possible. ''If extreme or neurotic'' they can become rigid, withdrawn, surly or brusque. They may also confuse their subjectively apprehended truth with their own personality so that any criticism of their ideas is seen as a personal attack. This may lead to bitterness or to vicious counterattacks against their critics.
+
To Jung, a type with dominant introverted thinking, for example, would be considered ''rational'' (judging) because the decision-making function is dominant. To Myers, however, that same type would be ''irrational'' (perceiving) because the individual uses an information-gathering function (either extraverted intuition or extraverted sensing) when interacting with the outer world.
   
* '''Extraverted Feeling''' is concerned with the likes and dislikes of others and what is socially appropriate. It organizes the external world according to interpersonal relationships.
+
=====Orientation of the tertiary function=====
  +
Jung theorized that the dominant function acts alone in its preferred world: exterior for the extraverts, and interior for the introverts. The remaining three functions, he suggested, operate together in the opposite world. If the dominant cognitive function is introverted, the other functions are extraverted, and vice versa. The MBTI ''Manual'' summarizes references in Jung's work to the balance in psychological type as follows:
  +
{{quote|There are several references in Jung's writing to the three remaining functions having an opposite attitudinal character. For example, in writing about introverts with thinking dominant...Jung commented that the counterbalancing functions have an extraverted character.<ref name=Manual/>{{Rp|29}}}}
   
Extraverted feeling is based upon accepted or traditional social values and opinions. It involves a conforming, adjusting response to objective circumstances that strives for harmonious relations with the world. Because it depends so much on external stimuli rather than upon true subjective preferences, such feeling can sometimes seem cold, 'unfeeling', artificial or put on for effect.
+
However, many MBTI practitioners hold that the tertiary function is oriented in the same direction as the dominant function.<ref name=TypeLogic>{{cite web|url=http://www.typelogic.com/fa.html|title=TypeLogic|accessdate=2008-09-14}}</ref> Using the INTP type as an example, the orientation would be as follows:
  +
* Dominant introverted thinking
  +
* Auxiliary extraverted intuition
  +
* Tertiary introverted sensing
  +
* Inferior extraverted feeling
   
The extraverted feeling type follows fashion and seeks to harmonize personal feelings with general social values. Thinking is always subordinate to feeling and is ignored or repressed if intellectual conclusions fail to confirm the convictions of the heart. When this type is ''extreme or neurotic'', feeling may become gushing or extravagant and dependent upon momentary enthusiasms that may quickly turn about with changing circumstances. Such a person may therefore seem hysterical, fickle, moody or even to be suffering from multiple personality. Repressed thinking may also erupt in infantile, negative, obsessive ways. This can lead to the attribution of dreaded characteristics to the very objects or people that are most loved and valued.
+
From a theoretical perspective, psychologist [[Hans Eysenck]] called the MBTI a moderately successful quantification of Jung's original principles as outlined in ''Psychological Types''.<ref name="Eysenck 110">{{cite book|last=Eysenck|first=H.J.|title=Genius: The Natural History of Creativity|edition=1995|pages=110}}</ref>
   
* '''Introverted Feeling''' evaluates things based on one's internally derived values. It sees things in terms of like and dislike or good and bad, and it is concerned with harmony and congruence.
+
Eysenck, however, also said: "This (the MBTI) creates 16 personality types which are said to be similar to Jung's theoretical concepts. I have always found difficulties with this identification, which omits one half of Jung's theory (he had 32 types, by asserting that for every conscious combination of traits there was an opposite unconscious one). Obviously the latter half of his theory does not admit of questionnaire measurement, but to leave it out and pretend that the scales measure Jungian concepts is hardly fair to Jung."<ref>{{cite book|last=Eysenck|first=H.J.|title=Genius: The Natural History of Creativity|edition=1995|pages=179}}</ref>
   
Introverted feeling strives for an inner intensity that is unrelated to any external object. It devalues group consensus and is rarely displayed openly. When it does appear on the surface, it generally seems negative or indifferent. The focus of such feeling is upon inner processes and latent, primordial images. At its extreme, it may develop into mystical ecstasy.
+
Both models remain theory, with no controlled scientific studies supporting either Jung's original concept of type or the Myers-Briggs variation.<ref name=Carroll/>
   
The introverted feeling type is brooding and inaccessible, although may also hide behind a childish mask. Such a person aims to be inconspicuous, makes little attempt to impress and often fails to consider the perspectives of others. The outer, surface appearance is often neutral, cold and dismissive. Inwardly, however, feelings are deep, passionately intense, and may accompany secret spiritual, philosophical or poetic tendencies.
+
==Applications==
  +
The indicator is frequently used in the areas of [[pedagogy]], [[career counseling]], [[team building]], [[group dynamics]], [[professional development]], [[marketing]], [[family business]], [[leadership|leadership training]], [[executive coaching]], [[life coaching]], [[personal development]], [[marriage counseling]], and [[workers' compensation|workers' compensation claims]].
   
== Cognitive function dynamics in each type ==
+
==Format and administration==
In each type, all four of the cognitive, or mental functions, which are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling, are present and arranged in a different order. The type acronym is used as a quick way to figure out this order, which is slightly different in introverts and extroverts. An important point to remember is that the first and last letter of the type are used as guides to figure out the order of the middle two letters, which are the main priority. The chart below this section has the dynamics worked out for each type.
+
The current North American English version of the MBTI Step I includes 93 forced-choice questions (there are 88 in the European English version). ''Forced-choice'' means that the individual has to choose only one of two possible answers to each question. The choices are a mixture of word pairs and short statements. Choices are not literal opposites but chosen to reflect opposite preferences on the same dichotomy. Participants may skip questions if they feel they are unable to choose.
   
=== Introverts ===
+
Using psychometric techniques, such as [[item response theory]], the MBTI will then be scored and will attempt to identify the preference, and clarity of preference, in each dichotomy. After taking the MBTI, participants are usually asked to complete a ''Best Fit'' exercise (see below) and then given a readout of their Reported Type, which will usually include a bar graph and number to show how clear they were about each preference when they completed the questionnaire.
If the first letter of the type is an I, such as in INFP, then the dominant is introverted. The next step is to figure out which of the middle two letters this applies to, which is done by looking to the last letter. (The last letter represents the extraverted function). If it is a P, then the dominant will be the third letter, which is the judging function (the process is backwards and slightly confusing for introverts). If it is a J, then it will be the second letter, which is the perceiving function. Already it is possible to tell that the INFP has an introverted dominant, and that it is feeling, which is called introverted feeling. Also evident is that the auxiliary is intuition.
 
   
'''There are two theories on the extraverted/introverted orientation of the functions.''' One states:
+
During the early development of the MBTI thousands of items were used. Most were eventually discarded because they did not have high ''midpoint discrimination'', meaning the results of that one item did not, on average, move an individual score ''away'' from the midpoint. Using only items with high midpoint discrimination allows the MBTI to have fewer items on it but still provide as much statistical information as other instruments with many more items with lower midpoint discrimination. The MBTI requires five points one way or another to indicate a clear preference.
A rule of thumb-L is that the last three functions are always extraverted in introverts, and introverted in extraverts, so it is extraverted intuition.
 
The third function of the introverted personality will be the opposite of the second. For the INFP, the second is extraverted intuition, so the third is extraverted sensing. The fourth will be the opposite of the first, which ends up as extraverted thinking.
 
   
The second states the functions ''alternate every other'' in orientation. For introverts, it would proceed introverted, extraverted, introverted, extraverted.
+
===Additional formats===
The third function of the introverted personality will be the opposite of the second. For the INFP, the second is extraverted intuition, so the third is introverted sensing. The fourth will be the opposite of the first, which ends up as extraverted thinking.
+
Isabel Myers had noted that people of any given type shared differences as well as similarities. At the time of her death, she was developing a more in-depth method of measuring how people express and experience their individual type pattern.
   
=== Extroverts ===
+
In 1987, an advanced scoring system was developed for the MBTI. From this was developed the '''Type Differentiation Indicator (TDI)''' (Saunders, 1989) which is a scoring system for the longer MBTI, ''Form J'',<ref>{{cite web|url=http://harvey.psyc.vt.edu/Documents/BessHarveySwartzSIOP2003.pdf |format=PDF |title=Hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator|accessdate=2008-09-14}}</ref> which includes the 290 items written by Myers that had survived her previous item analyses.
If the first letter of the type is an E, such as ESTJ, then the dominant is extroverted. The next step, which is slightly different than in introverts, is to figure out to which of the middle two letters this applies. If the last letter is a P, then the dominant will be the second letter, and if it is a J, then it will be the third letter. Thus, we can tell from this that the first or dominant in the ESTJ is extraverted thinking, and the second is introverted sensing. The third, which is the opposite of the second, is introverted/extraverted (see above) intuition, and the fourth is introverted feeling.
+
It yields 20 subscales (five under each of the four dichotomous preference scales), plus seven additional subscales for a new '''Comfort-Discomfort''' factor (which purportedly corresponds to the missing factor of Neuroticism).
   
=== Function table ===
+
This factor's scales indicate a sense of overall comfort and confidence versus discomfort and anxiety. They also load onto one of the four type dimensions<ref>{{cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=v7Ww2tooAs0C&pg=PA88&lpg |format=Google Book |title=Language learning motivation: pathways to the new century|author=Rebecca L. Oxford|accessdate=2012-01-27}}</ref>:
{{MBTI table}}
+
guarded-optimistic (also T/F),
  +
defiant-compliant (also T/F),
  +
carefree-worried (also T/F),
  +
decisive-ambivalent (also J/P),
  +
intrepid-inhibited (Also E/I),
  +
leader-follower (Also E/I), and
  +
proactive-distractible (also J/P)
   
Below, the MBTI personality archetypes, after David West Keirsey [http://users.viawest.net/~keirsey/]. Keirsey adds four "Temperaments": SP - Artisan; SJ - Guardian; NF - Idealist; and NT - Rational.
+
Also included is a composite of these called "strain." There are also scales for type-scale consistency and comfort-scale consistency. Reliability of 23 of the 27 TDI subscales is greater than 0.50, "an acceptable result given the brevity of the subscales" (Saunders, 1989).
   
{{MBTI Archetypes}}
+
In 1989, a scoring system was developed for only the 20 subscales for the original four dichotomies. This was initially known as Form K, or the '''Expanded Analysis Report (EAR)'''.This tool is now called the '''[[MBTI Step II]]'''.<br>
  +
Form J or the TDI included the items (derived from Myers’ and McCaulley’s earlier work) necessary to score what became known as '''Step III'''.<ref>Briggs Myers, Isabel; McCaulley, Mary H.; Quenk, Naomi L.; Hammer, Allen L.; Mitchell, Wayne D. ''MBTI Step III Manual: Exploring Personality Development Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Instrument'' p.119. Consulting Psychologists Press (2009)</ref> (The 1998 ''MBTI Manual'' reported that the two instruments were one and the same<ref>Myers, Isabel Briggs; McCaulley Mary H.; Quenk, Naomi L.; Hammer, Allen L. (1998). ''MBTI Manual (A guide to the development and use of the Myers Briggs type indicator'') p.131. Consulting Psychologists Press; 3rd ed edition. ISBN 0-89106-130-4.</ref>)
  +
It was developed in a joint project involving the following organizations: CPP, the publisher of the whole family of MBTI works; CAPT (Center for Applications of Psychological Type), which holds all of Myers' and McCaulley's original work; and the MBTI Trust, headed by Katharine and Peter Myers. Step III was advertised as addressing type development and the use of perception and judgment by respondents.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.capt.org/research/mbti-step3.htm |title=CAPT Step III|accessdate=2008-09-14}}</ref>
   
=== Controversy surrounding the cognitive functions ===
+
===Translations into other languages===
{{Main|Cognitive functions}}
+
The MBTI has been successfully translated into over 20 languages,<ref>http://people.cpp.com/globalreports.html</ref> covering many countries across the world. However, it is more true to say that the creation of a new questionnaire language is adaptation,<ref>International Test Commission (2010). International Test Commission Guidelines for Translating and Adapting Tests. [http://www.intestcom.org]</ref> which includes translation; the other stages include reviews by subject matter experts fluent in the native language, and statistical analysis to check that the questions still measure the same psychological concepts as the original US English questionnaire.<ref>http://www.opp.eu.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/pdfs/resources/mbti_step_i_european_data_supplement.pdf</ref>
Isabel Myers interpreted Jung's writing as saying that the auxiliary, tertiary, and inferior functions are always in the opposite attitude of the dominant. Many, however, have found Jung's writing to be ambiguous, and those who study and follow Jung's theories (Jungians) are typically adamant that Myers is incorrect. Jungians posit that Jung made explicit the point that the tertiary function is actually in the same attitude as the dominant, providing balance. More recently, typologists have examined the relationships all four functions in both attitudes--introverted or extraverted. Whether looking at the four functions, or eight "function attitudes," the inferior function remains most unconscious (least developed).
 
   
== Temperament ==
+
==Precepts and ethics==
{{Main|Keirsey Temperament Sorter}}
+
The following precepts are generally used in the ethical administration of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:
[[Image:MBTITemperament.png|right|frame|Keirsey's four temperaments within the MBTI.]]Hippocrates, a Greek philosopher who lived from 460-377 B.C., proposed [[four humours]] in his writings. These were blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. In 1978, [[David Keirsey]] and Marilyn Bates reintroduced temperament theory in modern form and identified them as [[Keirsey_Temperament_Sorter#Describing_the_temperaments|Guardian]] (SJ temperament), [[Keirsey_Temperament_Sorter#Describing_the_temperaments|Artisan]] (SP), [[Keirsey_Temperament_Sorter#Describing_the_temperaments|Idealist]] (NF), and [[Keirsey_Temperament_Sorter#Describing_the_temperaments|Rationalist]] (NT). After developing modern temperament theory, Keirsey discovered the MBTI, and found that by combining intuition with the judging functions, NT and NF, and sensing with the perceiving functions, SJ and SP, he had descriptions similar to his four temperaments.{{fn|7}}<sup>-</sup>{{fn|8}}
 
   
''The Manual'' states on page 59 that, "It is important to recognize that temperament theory is not a variant of type theory, nor is type theory a variant of temperament theory." Keirsey later went on to develop the [[Keirsey Temperament Sorter]], which was first included in his book ''Please Understand Me''.
+
;Type not trait: The MBTI sorts for type; it does not indicate the strength of ability. The questionnaire allows the clarity of a preference to be ascertained (Bill ''clearly'' prefers introversion), but not the strength of preference (Jane ''strongly'' prefers extraversion) or degree of aptitude (Harry is ''good'' at thinking). In this sense, it differs from trait-based tools such as [[16PF]]. Type preferences are polar opposites: a precept of MBTI is that people fundamentally prefer one thing over the other, not a bit of both.
   
== About the test, scoring and psychometrics ==
+
;Own best judge: Individuals are considered the best judge of their own type. While the MBTI questionnaire provides a ''Reported Type'', this is considered only an indication of their probable overall Type. A ''Best Fit Process'' is usually used to allow respondents to develop their understanding of the four dichotomies, to form their own hypothesis as to their overall Type, and to compare this against the Reported Type. In more than 20% of cases, the hypothesis and the Reported Type differ in one or more dichotomies. Using the clarity of each preference, any potential for bias in the report, and often, a comparison of two or more whole Types may then help respondents determine their own Best Fit.
The current test asks 93 forced-choice questions, which means there are only two options. Participants may skip questions if they feel they are unable to choose. Using [[psychometrics|psychometric]] techniques, such as [[item response theory]], the test will then be scored and will attempt to identify which dichotomy the participant prefers. After taking the test, participants are given a readout of their score, which will include a bar graph and number of how many points they received on a certain scale. Confusion over the meaning of these numbers often causes them to be related to trait theory, and people mistakenly believe, for example, that their intuition is "more developed" than their sensing, or vice versa.
 
   
During construction of the test, thousands of items are used, and most are thrown out because they do not have high midpoint discrimination, meaning the results of that one item do not, on average, move an individual score ''away'' from the midpoint. Using only items with high midpoint discrimination allows the test to have fewer items on it but still provide as much statistical information as a test with many more items with lower midpoint discrimination. The test requires five points one way or another before it is nearly as sure it can statistically be concerning a preference.
+
;No right or wrong: No preference or total type is considered better or worse than another. They are all ''[[Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type|Gifts Differing]]'', as emphasized by the title of Isabel Briggs Myers' book on this subject.
   
=== Statistical studies ===
+
;Voluntary: It is considered unethical to compel anyone to take the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. It should always be taken voluntarily.<ref name=ethics/>
The ''[[16PF]] Fifth Edition Technical Manual''{{fn|11}} presents [[correlation|correlations]] between the MBTI scales and the [[Big five personality traits|Big Five]] personality construct, which is a conglomeration of characteristics found in nearly all personality and psychological tests. The five personality characteristics are extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability. The following study is based on a sample of 119 graduate and undergraduate students.
 
   
{{MBTI study}}
+
;Confidentiality: The result of the MBTI Reported and Best Fit type are confidential between the individual and administrator and, ethically, not for disclosure without permission.
   
These data suggest that three of the MBTI scales are related to three of the [[Big five personality traits|Big Five]] personality traits. According to this study, there is fairly strong evidence that E-I is extraversion, that S-N is the opposite of openness, and that J-P is conscientiousness. The T-F scale of the MBTI is less clearly related to the Big Five, and the emotional stability dimension of the Big Five is largely absent.
+
;Not for selection: The results of the assessment should not be used to "'''label''', evaluate, or limit the respondent in any way" (emphasis original).<ref name=ethics>{{cite web|url=http://www.myersbriggs.org/myers-and-briggs-foundation/ethical-use-of-the-mbti-instrument/ethics-for-administering.asp|title=Ethics for Administering the MBTI Instrument|accessdate=2009-02-15}}</ref> Since all types are valuable, and the MBTI measures ''preferences'' rather than ''aptitude'', the MBTI is not considered a proper instrument for purposes of employment selection. Many professions contain highly competent individuals of different types with complementary preferences.
   
==Growth in the evidence base==
+
;Importance of proper feedback: Individuals should always be given detailed feedback from a trained administrator and an opportunity to undertake a Best Fit exercise to check against their Reported Type. This feedback can be given in person or, where this is not practical, by telephone or electronically.
Growth in the evidence base is reflected in the exponential growth of the MBTI Bibliography as seen in this chronological summary reported on the [http://www.capt.org/research/MBTI-bibliography-search.htm CAPT website]:
 
   
{| class="wikitable"
+
==Type dynamics and development==
! Date
+
{| class="infobox" style="text-align: center; width: 20%;"
! References
 
|-
 
| 1968
 
| 81 (ETS Bibliography)
 
|-
 
|October 1976
 
|337(First CAPT Bibliography)
 
 
|-
 
|-
|June 1980
+
! colspan=4 | The Sixteen Types
|597
 
 
|-
 
|-
|August 1985
+
! colspan=4 | US Population Breakdown
|1,039
 
 
|-
 
|-
|September 1990
+
| colspan=4 | The table organizing the sixteen types was created by Isabel Myers (a INFP person).
|1,675
 
 
|-
 
|-
|October 1995
+
| style="background: #FFDDFE" | [[ISTJ]]<br /><small>11–14%</small>
|4,816
+
| style="background: #EDDDBB" | [[ISFJ]]<br /><small>9–14%</small>
|-
+
| style="background: #DDDDFF" | [[INFJ]]<br /><small>1–3%</small>
|July 2000
+
| style="background: #DDFFDE" | [[INTJ]]<br /><small>2–4%</small>
|7,155 (CAPT 25th Anniversary)
 
 
|-
 
|-
|April 2005
+
| style="background: #FFDDFE" | [[ISTP (personality type)|ISTP]]<br /><small>4–6%</small>
|8,961
+
| style="background: #EDDDBB" | [[ISFP]]<br /><small>5–9%</small>
|}
+
| style="background: #DDDDFF" | [[INFP]]<br /><small>4–5%</small>
=== Ethics ===
+
| style="background: #DDFFDE" | [[INTP]]<br /><small>1–3%</small>
Before purchasing the test, practitioners are required to consent to an [[ethical code]], in addition to meeting the educational requirements of class B and C psychological tests and assessments. After consenting to this code the usage of the indicator is largely unmonitored, which sometimes leads to abuses of the instrument. The ethical code contains, but is not limited to, the following points{{fn|9}}<sup>-</sup>{{fn|10}}:
+
|-
  +
| style="background: #FFDDFE" | [[ESTP]]<br /><small>4–5%</small>
  +
| style="background: #EDDDBB" | [[ESFP]]<br /><small>4–9%</small>
  +
| style="background: #DDDDFF" | [[ENFP]]<br /><small>6–8%</small>
  +
| style="background: #DDFFDE" | [[ENTP]]<br /><small>2–5%</small>
  +
|-
  +
| style="background: #FFDDFE" | [[ESTJ]]<br /><small>8–12%</small>
  +
| style="background: #EDDDBB" | [[ESFJ]]<br /><small>9–13%</small>
  +
| style="background: #DDDDFF" | [[ENFJ]]<br /><small>2–5%</small>
  +
| style="background: #DDFFDE" | [[ENTJ]]<br /><small>2–5%</small>
  +
|-
  +
| colspan=4 | <small>Estimated percentages of the 16 types in the U.S. population.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.capt.org/mbti-assessment/estimated-frequencies.htm|title=CAPT—Center for Applications of Psychological Type|accessdate=2010-06-19}}</ref></small>
  +
|}
   
# Results should be given directly to respondents and are strictly confidential, including from employers.
+
The interaction of two, three, or four preferences is known as ''type dynamics''. Although type dynamics has garnered little or no empirical support to substantiate its viability as a [[scientific theory]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://personalityjunkie.com/personality-type-theory/|title=The Personality Junkie: Personality Type Theory|accessdate=2009-11-22}}</ref> Myers and Briggs asserted that for each of the 16 four-preference types, one function is the most ''dominant'' and is likely to be evident earliest in life. A secondary or ''auxiliary'' function typically becomes more evident (''differentiated'') during teenage years and provides balance to the dominant. In normal development, individuals tend to become more fluent with a third, ''tertiary'' function during mid life, while the fourth, ''inferior'' function remains least consciously developed. The inferior function is often considered to be more associated with the unconscious, being most evident in situations such as high stress (sometimes referred to as being ''in the grip'' of the inferior function).
# Respondents should be informed of the nature of the test before taking it, and must choose to take it voluntarily.
 
# Allow respondents to clarify their results. They are always the last word as to which type is truly theirs. They should then be provided a written description of their preferences.
 
# The test must be used in accordance with ''The Manual''.
 
   
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However the use of type dynamics is disputed: in the conclusion of various studies on the subject of type dynamics, James H. Reynierse writes that "Type dynamics has persistent logical problems and is fundamentally based on a series of category mistakes; it provides, at best, a limited and incomplete account of type related phenomena;" and that "type dynamics relies on anecdotal evidence, fails most efficacy tests, and does not fit the empirical facts;". His studies gave the clear result, that the descriptions and workings of type dynamics don't fit the real behavior of people. He suggests getting completely rid of type dynamics, because it doesn't help, but hinder understanding of personality. The presumed order of functions 1 to 4 did only occur in one out of 540 test results.<ref>James H. Reynierse, “The Case Against Type Dynamics”, Journal of Psychological Type, Issue 1 2009</ref>
   
==Criticism==
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The sequence of differentiation of dominant, auxiliary, and tertiary functions through life is termed ''type development''. Note that this is an idealized sequence that may be disrupted by major life events.
===Validity===
 
The scientific basis of the MBTI has been questioned. Neither Katharine Cook Briggs nor Isabel Briggs Myers had any scientific qualifications and [[Jung|Carl Jung]]'s theory of psychological type, which the MBTI attempts to operationalise, is not based on any scientific studies. Jung's methods primarily included [[introspection]] and [[anecdote]], methods largely rejected by the modern field of [[cognitive psychology]]. <ref name=Carroll>Carroll, Robert Todd (January 9, 2004). ''[http://skepdic.com/myersb.html Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®]''. ''The Skeptic's Dictionary''. Retrieved January 8, 2004.</ref>
 
   
The [[validity (statistics)|statistical validity]] of the MBTI as a [[psychometrics|psychometric]] instrument has also been subject to criticism, in particular, the dichotomous scoring of dimensions. For example, it was expected that scores would show a [[bimodal distribution]] with peaks near the ends of the scales. However, scores on the individual subscales are actually distributed in a centrally peaked manner similar to a [[normal distribution]]. A cut-off exists at the centre of the subscale such that a score on one side is classified as one type, and a score on the other side as the opposite type. This fails to support the concept of ''type''--the norm is for people to lie near the middle of the subscale. <ref>Bess, T.L. & Harvey, R.J. (2001, April). [http://harvey.psyc.vt.edu/Documents/SIOPhandoutBess-HarveyMBTI2001.pdf ''Bimodal score distributions and the MBTI: Fact or artifact?''] Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego.</ref><ref name=Pittenger/><ref name = Matthews>Matthews, P (2004) [http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/eletters/328/7450/1244 ''The MBTI is a flawed measure of personality'']. bmj.com Rapid Responses. But see also Clack & Allen's response to Matthews.</ref><ref name=McCrae/><ref name=Stricker/>
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The dynamic sequence of functions and their attitudes can be determined in the following way:
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* The overall ''lifestyle preference'' (J-P) determines whether the judging (T-F) or perceiving (S-N) preference is most evident in the outside world; i.e., which function has an extraverted attitude
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* The ''attitude'' preference (E-I) determines whether the extraverted function is dominant or auxiliary
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* For those with an overall preference for extraversion, the function with the ''extraverted attitude'' will be the dominant function. For example, for an ESTJ type the dominant function is the judging function, thinking, and this is experienced with an extraverted attitude. This is notated as a dominant Te. For an ESTP, the dominant function is the perceiving function, sensing, notated as a dominant Se.
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* The ''Auxiliary'' function for extraverts is the secondary preference of the judging or perceiving functions, and it is experienced with an introverted attitude: for example, the auxiliary function for ESTJ is introverted sensing (Si) and the auxiliary for ESTP is introverted thinking (Ti).
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* For those with an overall preference for introversion, the function with the extraverted attitude is the ''auxiliary''; the dominant is the other function in the main four letter preference. So the dominant function for ISTJ is introverted sensing (Si) with the auxiliary (supporting) function being extraverted thinking (Te).
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* The ''Tertiary'' function is the opposite preference from the Auxiliary. For example, if the Auxiliary is thinking then the Tertiary would be feeling. The attitude of the Tertiary is the subject of some debate and therefore is not normally indicated; i.e. if the Auxiliary was Te then the Tertiary would be F (not Fe or Fi)
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* The ''Inferior'' function is the opposite preference and attitude from the Dominant, so for an ESTJ with dominant Te the Inferior would be Fi.
   
It has been estimated that between a third and a half of the published material on the MBTI has been produced for conferences of the Center for the Application of Psychological Type (which provides training in the MBTI) or as papers in the Journal of Psychological Type (which is edited by Myers-Briggs advocates) <ref name = LSRC>Coffield F, Moseley D, Hall E, Ecclestone K (2004) [http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1543.pdf ''Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review'']. Learning and Skills Research Centre.</ref> and it has been argued that this reflects a lack of critical scrutiny. <ref name=Pittenger/><ref name=LSRC/>
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Note that for extraverts, the ''dominant'' function is the one most evident in the external world. For introverts, however, it is the ''auxiliary'' function that is most evident externally, as their dominant function relates to the interior world.
   
===Reliability===
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Some examples of whole types may clarify this further. Taking the ''ESTJ'' example above:
The [[reliability (statistics)|reliability]] of the test has been interpreted as being low, with test takers who retake the test often being assigned a different type. According to surveys performed by the proponents of Myers-Briggs, the highest percentage of people fell into the same category on the second test is only 47%. Furthermore, a wide range of 39% - 76% of those tested fall into different types upon retesting weeks or years later, and many people's types also found to vary according to the time of the day.<ref name=Pittenger/><ref name=Matthews/> Skeptics claim that the MBTI lacks [[falsifiability]], which can cause [[confirmation bias]] in the interpretation of results with the terminology of the MBTI so vague that it allows any kind of behavior to fit any personality type, resulting in the [[Forer effect]], where an individual gives a high rating to a positive description that supposedly applies specifically to them <ref name=Pittenger/><ref name=Carroll/> so that when people are asked to compare their preferred type to that assigned by the MBTI only half of people pick the same profile. <ref name=Carskadon>Carskadon, TG & Cook, DD (1982). ''Validity of MBTI descriptions as perceived by recipients unfamiliar with type''. Research in Psychological Type 5: 89-94.</ref>
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* Extraverted function is a judging function (T-F) because of the overall J preference
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* Extraverted function is dominant because of overall E preference
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* Dominant function is therefore extraverted thinking (Te)
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* Auxiliary function is the preferred perceiving function: introverted sensing (Si)
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* Tertiary function is the opposite of the Auxiliary: intuition (N)<!-- As stated above, 'The attitude of the Tertiary is the subject of some debate and therefore is not normally indicated.' Please don't add it.-->
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* Inferior function is the opposite of the Dominant: introverted feeling (Fi)
   
===Utility===
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The dynamics of the ESTJ are found in the primary combination of extraverted thinking as their dominant function and introverted sensing as their auxiliary function: the dominant tendency of ESTJs to order their environment, to set clear boundaries, to clarify roles and timetables, and to direct the activities around them is supported by their facility for using past experience in an ordered and systematic way to help organize themselves and others. For instance, ESTJs may enjoy planning trips for groups of people to achieve some goal or to perform some culturally uplifting function. Because of their ease in directing others and their facility in managing their own time, they engage all the resources at their disposal to achieve their goals. However, under prolonged stress or sudden trauma, ESTJs may overuse their extraverted thinking function and fall into the grip of their inferior function, introverted feeling. Although the ESTJ can seem insensitive to the feelings of others in their normal activities, under tremendous stress, they can suddenly express feelings of being unappreciated or wounded by insensitivity.
The relevance of the MBTI for career-planning has been questioned, with reservations about the relevance of type to job performance or satisfaction, and concerns about the potential misuse of the instrument in labelling individuals. <ref name=Pittenger/><ref>{{cite book |author= Druckman, D. and R. A. Bjork, Eds. |title= In the Mind’s Eye: Enhancing Human Performance |publisher= National Academy Press |location = Washington, DC |year= 1992 |id= ISBN 0-309-04747-1}}</ref>
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Looking at the diametrically opposite four-letter type, ''INFP'':
  +
* Extraverted function is a perceiving function (S-N) because of the P preference
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* Introverted function is dominant because of the I preference
  +
* Dominant function is therefore introverted feeling (Fi)
  +
* Auxiliary function is extraverted intuition (Ne)
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* Tertiary function is the opposite of the Auxiliary: sensing (S)<!-- As stated above, 'The attitude of the Tertiary is the subject of some debate and therefore is not normally indicated.' Please don't add it.-->
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* Inferior function is the opposite of the Dominant: extraverted thinking (Te)
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The dynamics of the INFP rest on the fundamental correspondence of introverted feeling and extraverted intuition. The dominant tendency of the INFP is toward building a rich internal framework of values and toward championing human rights. They often devote themselves behind the scenes to causes such as civil rights or saving the environment. Since they tend to avoid the limelight, postpone decisions, and maintain a reserved posture, they are rarely found in executive-director type positions of the organizations that serve those causes. Normally, the INFP dislikes being "in charge" of things. When not under stress, the INFP radiates a pleasant and sympathetic demeanor; but under extreme stress, they can suddenly become rigid and directive, exerting their extraverted thinking erratically.
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Every type, and its opposite, is the expression of these interactions, which give each type its unique, recognizable ''signature''.
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==Correlations to other instruments==
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===Keirsey temperaments===
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[[David W. Keirsey]] mapped four 'temperaments' to the existing Myers-Briggs system groupings SP, SJ, NF and NT; this often results in confusion of the two theories. However, the [[Keirsey Temperament Sorter]] is not directly associated with the official Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
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{{MBTI Archetypes}}
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===Big Five===
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McCrae and Costa<ref name = McCrae/><ref>[http://leadu-library.com/mj/2007/club/MBTI/MBTI-5factor.pdf Full text]</ref> present [[correlation]]s between the MBTI scales and the [[Big five personality traits|Big Five]] personality construct, which is a conglomeration of characteristics found in nearly all personality and psychological tests. The five personality characteristics are extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability (or neuroticism). The following study is based on the results from 267 men followed as part of a longitudinal study of aging. (Similar results were obtained with 201 women.)
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{{MBTI study}}
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These data suggest that four of the MBTI scales are related to the [[Big five personality traits|Big Five]] personality traits. These correlations show that E-I and S-N are strongly related to extraversion and openness respectively, while T-F and J-P are moderately related to agreeableness and conscientiousness respectively. The emotional stability dimension of the Big Five is largely absent from the original MBTI (though the TDI, discussed above, has addressed that dimension).
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These findings led McCrae and Costa, the formulators of the Five Factor Model (a Big Five theory),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.uoregon.edu/~sanjay/bigfive.html#b5vffm|title=University of Oregon: "Measuring the Big Five Personality Factors"|accessdate=2008-08-08}}</ref> to conclude, "correlational analyses showed that the four MBTI indices did measure aspects of four of the five major dimensions of normal personality. The five-factor model provides an alternative basis for interpreting MBTI findings within a broader, more commonly shared conceptual framework." However, "there was no support for the view that the MBTI measures truly dichotomous preferences or qualitatively distinct types, instead, the instrument measures four relatively independent dimensions."
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== Origins of the theory ==
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Jung's theory of psychological type, as published in his 1921 book, was not tested through controlled scientific studies.<ref name=Carroll/> Jung's methods primarily included clinical observation, [[introspection]] and [[anecdote]]&mdash;methods that are largely regarded as inconclusive by the modern field of psychology.<ref name=Carroll>{{cite web | author=Carroll, Robert Todd | date=January 9, 2004 | url=http://skepdic.com/myersb.html |title= Myers-Briggs Type Indicator-The Skeptic's Dictionary| accessdate=January 8, 2004}}</ref>
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Jung's type theory introduced a sequence of four cognitive functions (thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuition), each having one of two orientations (extraverted or introverted), for a total of eight functions. The Myers-Briggs theory is based on these eight functions, although with some differences in expression (see [[Myers-Briggs Type Indicator#Differences from Jung|Differences from Jung]] above). However, neither the Myers-Briggs nor the Jungian models offer any scientific, experimental proof to support the ''existence'', the ''sequence'', the ''orientation'', or the ''manifestation'' of these functions.<ref name=Carroll/>
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==Validity==
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The [[validity (statistics)|statistical validity]] of the MBTI as a psychometric instrument has been the subject of criticism. It has been estimated that between a third and a half of the published material on the MBTI has been produced for conferences of the Center for the Application of Psychological Type (which provides training in the MBTI) or as papers in the ''Journal of Psychological Type'' (which is edited by Myers-Briggs advocates).<ref name = LSRC>{{cite web | author=Coffield F, Moseley D, Hall E, Ecclestone K | year=2004 | url=http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1543.pdf | format=PDF | title=Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review | publisher=Learning and Skills Research Centre}}</ref> It has been argued that this reflects a lack of critical scrutiny.<ref name=LSRC/><ref name=Pittenger/>
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For example, some researchers expected that scores would show a [[bimodal distribution]] with peaks near the ends of the scales, but found that scores on the individual subscales were actually distributed in a centrally peaked manner similar to a [[normal distribution]]. A cut-off exists at the center of the subscale such that a score on one side is classified as one type, and a score on the other side as the opposite type. This fails to support the concept of ''type'': the norm is for people to lie near the middle of the subscale.<ref name=McCrae/><ref name=Pittenger>{{cite journal | last = Pittenger | first = David J. | title = Measuring the MBTI...And Coming Up Short. | journal = Journal of Career Planning and Employment | volume = 54 | issue = 1 | pages = 48–52 | month = November | year = 1993 | url = http://www.indiana.edu/~jobtalk/HRMWebsite/hrm/articles/develop/mbti.pdf | format = PDF | accessdate = }}</ref><ref name=Stricker/><ref name= Matthews>{{cite journal | author=Matthews, P | date=2004-05-21 | url=http://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/10/30/mbti-flawed-measure-personality | title=The MBTI is a flawed measure of personality| journal=Bmj.com Rapid Responses }} But see also Clack & Allen's response to Matthews.</ref><ref name=harvey>{{cite conference | author=Bess, T.L. & Harvey, R.J. |year=2001| contribution=Bimodal score distributions and the MBTI: Fact or artifact?| title=The Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego 2001}}</ref> "''Although we do not conclude that the absence of bimodality necessarily proves that the MBTI developers’ theory-based assumption of categorical “types” of personality is invalid, the absence of empirical bimodality in IRT-based MBTI scores does indeed remove a potentially powerful line of evidence that was previously available to “type” advocates to cite in defense of their position.''" <ref name=harvey/>
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In 1991, the [[United States National Academy of Sciences|National Academy of Sciences]] committee reviewed data from MBTI research studies and concluded that only the I-E scale has high correlations with comparable scales of other instruments and low correlations with instruments designed to assess different concepts, showing strong validity. In contrast, the S-N and T-F scales show relatively weak validity. The 1991 review committee concluded at the time there was "not sufficient, well-designed research to justify the use of the MBTI in career counseling programs".<ref name=Nowack>Nowack, K. (1996). [http://www.opd.net/abstracts5.html Is the Myers Briggs Type Indicator the Right Tool to Use? Performance in Practice], American Society of Training and Development, Fall 1996, 6</ref> However, this study also based its measurement of validity on "criterion-related validity (i.e., does the MBTI predict specific outcomes related to interpersonal relations or career success/job performance?)."<ref name=Nowack/> The ethical guidelines of the MBTI assessment stress that the MBTI type "does not imply excellence, competence, or natural ability, only what is preferred."<ref name=ethics/> The 2009 MBTI Form M Manual Supplement states, "An instrument is said to be valid when it measures what it has been designed to measure (Ghiselli, Campbell, & Zedeck, 1981; Murphy & Davidshofer, 2005)."<ref name=Manual_Supplement/> Studies have found that the MBTI scores compare favorably to other assessments with respect to evidence of [[convergent validity]], divergent validity, construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability.<ref name=Manual_Supplement/><ref name=Thompson_Borrello/><ref name=Capraro/>
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The accuracy of the MBTI depends on honest self-reporting by the person tested.<ref name=manual_2/>{{Rp|52-53}} Unlike some personality measures, such as the [[Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory]] or the [[Personality Assessment Inventory]], the MBTI does not use validity scales to assess exaggerated or socially desirable responses.<ref name = Boyle>{{cite journal | author=Boyle, G J | year=1995 | title = Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): Some psychometric limitations | journal=Australian Psychologist| volume=30| pages=71–74 | doi=10.1111/j.1742-9544.1995.tb01750.x}}</ref> As a result, individuals motivated to do so can fake their responses,<ref name = Furnham>{{cite journal | author=Furnham, A | year=1990 | title = Faking personality questionnaires: Fabricating different profiles for different purposes | journal=Current Psychology | volume=9| pages=46–55 | doi=10.1007/BF02686767}}</ref> and one study found that the MBTI judgment/perception dimension correlates with the [[Eysenck Personality Questionnaire]] lie scale.<ref name = Francis-Jones>{{cite journal | author=Francis, L J; Jones, S H | year=2000 | title = The Relationship Between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Among Adult Churchgoers | journal=Pastoral Psychology | volume=48}}</ref> If respondents "fear they have something to lose, they may answer as they assume they ''should''."<ref name=manual_2/>{{Rp|53}} However, the MBTI ethical guidelines state, "It is unethical and in many cases illegal to require job applicants to take the Indicator if the results will be used to screen out applicants."<ref name=ethics/> The intent of the MBTI is to provide "a framework for understanding individual differences, and … a dynamic model of individual development".<ref name=type-at-work>{{cite web|url=http://www.myersbriggs.org/type-use-for-everyday-life/mbti-type-at-work/|title=MBTI Type at Workl|accessdate=4 August 2010}}</ref>
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The terminology of the MBTI has been criticized as being very "vague and general"<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.skepdic.com/forer.html| title=Forer effect from the Skeptic's Dictionary}}</ref> as to allow any kind of behavior to fit any personality type, which may result in the [[Forer effect]], where individuals give a high rating to a positive description that supposedly applies specifically to them.<ref name=Carroll/><ref name=Pittenger/> Others argue that while the MBTI type descriptions are brief, they are also distinctive and precise.<ref name=Keirsey/>{{Rp|14-15}} Some theorists, such as David Keirsey, have expanded on the MBTI descriptions, providing even greater detail. For instance, Keirsey's descriptions of his [[Keirsey Temperament Sorter#Four temperaments|four temperaments]], which he correlated with the sixteen MBTI personality types, show how the temperaments differ in terms of language use, intellectual orientation, educational and vocational interests, social orientation, self-image, personal values, social roles, and characteristic hand gestures.<ref name=Keirsey>{{cite book |author=Keirsey, David |title=Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Intelligence |publisher=Prometheus Nemesis Book Company |location=Del Mar, CA |year=1998 |pages= |isbn=1-885705-02-6 |oclc= |doi=}}</ref>{{Rp|32-207}}
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With regard to factor analysis, one study of 1291 college-aged students found ''six'' different factors instead of the ''four'' used in the MBTI.<ref name=Sipps-1985>Sipps, G.J., R.A. Alexander, and L. Friedt. "Item Analysis of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator." ''Educational and Psychological Measurement'', Vol. 45, No. 4 (1985), pp. 789-796.</ref> In other studies, researchers found that the JP and the SN scales correlate with one another.<ref name=McCrae/>
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According to Hans Eysenck: "The main dimension in the MBTI is called E-I, or extraversion-introversion; this is mostly a sociability scale, corelating quite well with the MMPI social introversion scale (negatively) and the Eysenck Extraversion scale (positively) (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1985). Unfortunately, the scale also has a loading on neuroticism, which correlates with the introverted end. Thus introversion correlates roughly (i.e. averaging values for males and females) -.44 with dominance, -.24 with aggression, +.37 with abasement, +.46 with counselling readiness, -.52 with self-confidence, -.36 with personal adjustment, and -.45 with empathy. The failure of the scale to disentangle Introversion and Neuroticism (in fact there is no scale for neurotic and other psychopathological attricutes in the MBTI) is its worst feature, only equalled by the failure to use factor analysis in order to test the arrangement of items in the scale."<ref name="Eysenck 110"/>
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==Reliability==
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Some researchers have interpreted the [[reliability (statistics)|reliability]] of the test as being low. Studies have found that between 39% and 76% of those tested fall into different types upon retesting some weeks or years later.<ref name=Pittenger/><ref name=Matthews/>
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One study reports that the MBTI dichotomies exhibit good split-half reliability; however, the dichotomy scores are distributed in a bell curve, and the overall ''type'' allocations are less reliable. Also, test-retest reliability is sensitive to the time between tests. Within each ''dichotomy'' scale, as measured on Form G, about 83% of categorizations remain the same when individuals are retested within nine months, and around 75% when individuals are retested after nine months. About 50% of people tested within nine months remain the same overall ''type'', and 36% remain the same type after more than nine months.<ref>{{cite journal | author=Harvey, R J | year=1996| title=Reliability and Validity, in MBTI Applications A.L. Hammer, Editor| publisher=Consulting Psychologists Press: Palo Alto, CA }} p. 5- 29.</ref> For Form M (the most current form of the MBTI instrument), the MBTI ''Manual'' reports that these scores are higher (p.&nbsp;163, Table 8.6).
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In one study, when people were asked to compare their preferred type to that assigned by the MBTI assessment, only half of people picked the same profile.<ref name=Carskadon>{{cite journal| author=Carskadon, TG & Cook, DD | year=1982| title=Validity of MBTI descriptions as perceived by recipients unfamiliar with type | journal=Research in Psychological Type | volume=5 | pages=89–94}}</ref> Critics also argue that the MBTI lacks [[falsifiability]], which can cause [[confirmation bias]] in the interpretation of results.
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==Utility==
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In her research, Isabel Myers found that the proportion of different personality types varied by choice of career or course of study.<ref name=Myers/>{{Rp|40-51}}<ref name=Manual/> However, some researchers examining the proportions of each type within varying professions report that the proportion of MBTI types within each occupation is close to that within a random sample of the population.<ref name=Pittenger/> Some researchers have expressed reservations about the relevance of type to job satisfaction, as well as concerns about the potential misuse of the instrument in labeling individuals.<ref name=Pittenger/><ref>{{cite book |author= Druckman, D. and R. A. Bjork, Eds. |title= In the Mind’s Eye: Enhancing Human Performance |publisher= National Academy Press |location = Washington, DC |year= 1992 |isbn= 0-309-04747-1}}</ref>
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CPP became the exclusive publisher of the Myers-Briggs instrument in 1975. They call it "the world's most widely used personality assessment", with as many as two million assessments administered annually.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.cpp.com/products/index.aspx|title=CPP Products|accessdate=2009-06-20}}</ref> CPP and other proponents state that the indicator meets or exceeds the reliability of other psychological instruments and cite reports of individual behavior.<ref name=Manual_Supplement>{{cite web|url=https://www.cpp.com/pdfs/MBTI_FormM_Supp.pdf|title=MBTI Form M Manual Supplement|last=Schaubhut|first=Nancy A. |coauthors=Nicole A. Herk and Richard C.Thompson|year=2009|publisher=CPP|pages=17|accessdate=8 May 2010}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/10/30/mbti-flawed-measure-personality|title=Response to Paul Matthews' criticism|last=Clack|first=Gillian |coauthors=Judy Allen|accessdate=2008-05-14}}</ref><ref name=Tieger>{{cite book |author=Barron-Tieger, Barbara; Tieger, Paul D. |title=Do what you are: discover the perfect career for you through the secrets of personality type |publisher=Little, Brown |location=Boston |year=1995 |pages= |isbn=0-316-84522-1 |oclc= |doi=}}</ref>
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Some studies have found strong support for [[construct validity]], [[internal consistency]], and [[test-retest reliability]], although variation was observed.<ref name=Thompson_Borrello>{{cite journal|doi=10.1177/0013164486463032|journal=Educational and Psychological Measurement|volume=46|issue=3|pages=745–752|date=Autumn 1986|last=Thompson|first=Bruce|coauthors=Gloria M. Borrello|title=Construct Validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator|publisher=[[SAGE Publications]]|accessdate=2008-04-20}}</ref><ref name=Capraro>{{cite journal|doi=10.1177/0013164402062004004|journal=Educational and Psychological Measurement|volume=62|issue=4|pages=590–602 |date=August 2002|last=Capraro|first=Robert M.|coauthors=Mary Margaret Capraro|title=Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability Across: Studies a Meta-Analytic Reliability Generalization Study|publisher=[[SAGE Publications]]|accessdate=2008-04-20}}</ref> However, some academic psychologists have criticized the MBTI instrument, claiming that it "lacks convincing validity data",<ref name= McCrae>{{cite journal | author=McCrae, R R; Costa, P T | year=1989 | title= Reinterpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator From the Perspective of the Five-Factor Model of Personality | journal=Journal of Personality| volume=57| pages=17–40 | pmid = 2709300 | doi = 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1989.tb00759.x | issue=1}}</ref><ref name=Stricker>{{cite journal | author=Stricker, L J; Ross, J | year=1964 | title= An Assessment of Some Structural Properties of the Jungian Personality Typology | journal=Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology| volume=68| pages=62–71 | doi= 10.1037/h0043580}}</ref><ref name= Matthews/><ref>{{cite book| author=Hunsley J, Lee CM, Wood JM |year=2004| chapter= Controversial and questionable assessment techniques| title=Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology, Lilienfeld SO, Lohr JM, Lynn SJ (eds.)| publisher= Guilford| isbn= 1-59385-070-0}}, p. 65</ref> while some studies have shown the statistical validity and reliability to be low.<ref name=Pittenger/><ref name=Matthews/><ref>Kline, Paul, ''The handbook of psychological testing'', Psychology Press, 2000, ISBN 0-415-21158-1, ISBN 978-0-415-21158-1</ref>
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Studies suggest that the MBTI is not a useful predictor of job performance.<ref name=Pittenger/><ref name=Nowack /><ref>Letters to the Editor: It's Not You, It's Your Personality." (1992, February 3). Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. PAGE A13. Retrieved November 8, 2008, from Wall Street Journal database. (Document ID: 27836749).</ref> As noted above under [[#Precepts and ethics|Precepts and ethics]], the MBTI measures preference, not ability. The use of the MBTI as a predictor of job success is expressly discouraged in the ''Manual''.<ref name=manual_2/>{{Rp|78}} However, the MBTI continues to be popular because many people are qualified to administer it, it is not difficult to understand, and there are many supporting books, websites and other useful sources which are readily available to the general public.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.nature.com/naturejobs/science/articles/10.1038/nj7412-545a |title=Career development: What's your type? |author=Corie Lok |year=2012 |work=Nature 488, 545-547 }}</ref>
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
  +
* [[Adjective Check List]] (ACL)
  +
* [[Roger Birkman#The Birkman Method|Birkman Method]]
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* [[Two-factor models of personality#Factors integrated into modern instruments|CPI 260]]
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* [[DISC assessment]]
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* [[Enneagram of Personality]]
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* [[Riso–Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator]]
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* [[FIRO-B]]
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* [[Forer Effect]]
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* [[Forte Communications Style Profile|Forté Profile]]
 
* [[Holland Codes]]
 
* [[Holland Codes]]
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* [[Humorism]]
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* [[Interaction Styles]]
  +
* [[Interpersonal compatibility]]
  +
* [[Kingdomality]]
  +
* [[List of tests#Personality tests|List of personality tests]]
  +
* [[Personality Assessment System]]
  +
* [[Personality clash]]
 
* [[Personality psychology]]
 
* [[Personality psychology]]
* [[Big five personality traits]]
+
* [[Revised NEO Personality Inventory]]
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* [[Socionics]]
  +
* [[Strong Interest Inventory]]
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* [[Thomas Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument]]
   
 
==References & Bibliography==
 
==References & Bibliography==
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* [http://www.16types.com/ 16types.com - Complete resource for understanding the 16 personality types.]
 
* [http://www.16types.com/ 16types.com - Complete resource for understanding the 16 personality types.]
* [http://www.stuffintheair.com/cartoon-scientist.html Example of an ENTP] A case history, including career choices.
 
 
* [http://www.bestfittype.com/ BestFitType.com - Explore all 16 personality types.]
 
* [http://www.bestfittype.com/ BestFitType.com - Explore all 16 personality types.]
 
* [http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/ CognitiveProcesses.com - Explore the 16 personality types from the Jungian perspective.]
 
* [http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/ CognitiveProcesses.com - Explore the 16 personality types from the Jungian perspective.]
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* [http://www.geocities.com/lifexplore/ Life Explore - Information regarding typology (i.e. MBTI)]
 
* [http://www.geocities.com/lifexplore/ Life Explore - Information regarding typology (i.e. MBTI)]
   
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The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions.[1]:1 These preferences were extrapolated from the typological theories proposed by Carl Gustav Jung and first published in his 1921 book Psychological Types (English edition, 1923[2]). Jung theorized that there are four principal psychological functions by which we experience the world: sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking.[3] One of these four functions is dominant most of the time.

The original developers of the personality inventory were Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers; these two, having studied extensively the work of Jung, turned their interest of human behavior into a devotion of turning the theory of psychological types to practical use.[4] They began creating the indicator during World War II, believing that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women who were entering the industrial workforce for the first time to identify the sort of war-time jobs where they would be "most comfortable and effective".[1]:xiii The initial questionnaire grew into the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which was first published in 1962. The MBTI focuses on normal populations and emphasizes the value of naturally occurring differences.[5] Robert Kaplan and Dennis Saccuzzo believe "the underlying assumption of the MBTI is that we all have specific preferences in the way we construe our experiences, and these preferences underlie our interests, needs, values, and motivation" (p. 499).[6]

Concepts Edit

As the MBTI Manual states, the indicator "is designed to implement a theory; therefore the theory must be understood to understand the MBTI".[7]:1

Fundamental to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is the theory of psychological type as originally developed by Carl Jung.[1]:xiii Jung proposed the existence of two dichotomous pairs of cognitive functions:

  • The "rational" (judging) functions: thinking and feeling
  • The "irrational" (perceiving) functions: sensing and intuition

Jung believed that for every person each of the functions are expressed primarily in either an introverted or extraverted form.[1]:17 From Jung's original concepts, Briggs and Myers developed their own theory of psychological type, described below, on which the MBTI is based.

Type Edit

Jung's typological model regards psychological type as similar to left or right handedness: individuals are either born with, or develop, certain preferred ways of perceiving and deciding. The MBTI sorts some of these psychological differences into four opposite pairs, or dichotomies, with a resulting 16 possible psychological types. None of these types are better or worse; however, Briggs and Myers theorized that individuals naturally prefer one overall combination of type differences.[1]:9 In the same way that writing with the left hand is hard work for a right-hander, so people tend to find using their opposite psychological preferences more difficult, even if they can become more proficient (and therefore behaviorally flexible) with practice and development.

The 16 types are typically referred to by an abbreviation of four letters—the initial letters of each of their four type preferences (except in the case of intuition, which uses the abbreviation N to distinguish it from Introversion). For instance:

  • ESTJ: extraversion (E), sensing (S), thinking (T), judgment (J)
  • INFP: introversion (I), intuition (N), feeling (F), perception (P)

And so on for all 16 possible type combinations.

A related personality type model is the Personality Assessment System developed by John Gittinger. Like the MBTI, PAS identifies people's inherited tendencies, and it goes on to describe how people either accept and foster them, or compensate and modify them as functioning adults. With compensation and modification, Gittinger's PAS gives 512 types. [8]

Four dichotomies Edit

Dichotomies
Extraversion (E) – (I) Introversion
Sensing (S) – (N) Intuition
Thinking (T) – (F) Feeling
Judging (J) – (P) Perception

The four pairs of preferences or dichotomies are shown in the table to the right.

Note that the terms used for each dichotomy have specific technical meanings relating to the MBTI which differ from their everyday usage. For example, people who prefer judgment over perception are not necessarily more judgmental or less perceptive. Nor does the MBTI instrument measure aptitude; it simply indicates for one preference over another.[7]:3 Someone reporting a high score for extraversion over introversion cannot be correctly described as more extraverted: they simply have a clear preference.

Point scores on each of the dichotomies can vary considerably from person to person, even among those with the same type. However, Isabel Myers considered the direction of the preference (for example, E vs. I) to be more important than the degree of the preference (for example, very clear vs. slight).[9] The expression of a person's psychological type is more than the sum of the four individual preferences. The preferences interact through type dynamics and type development.

Attitudes: extraversion/introversion (E/I) Edit

Myers-Briggs literature uses the terms extraversion and introversion as Jung first used them. Extraversion means "outward-turning" and introversion means "inward-turning".[10] These specific definitions vary somewhat from the popular usage of the words. Note that extraversion is the spelling used in MBTI publications.

The preferences for extraversion and introversion are often called attitudes. Briggs and Myers recognized that each of the cognitive functions can operate in the external world of behavior, action, people, and things (extraverted attitude) or the internal world of ideas and reflection (introverted attitude). The MBTI assessment sorts for an overall preference for one or the other.

People who prefer extraversion draw energy from action: they tend to act, then reflect, then act further. If they are inactive, their motivation tends to decline. To rebuild their energy, extraverts need breaks from time spent in reflection. Conversely, those who prefer introversion expend energy through action: they prefer to reflect, then act, then reflect again. To rebuild their energy, introverts need quiet time alone, away from activity.

The extravert's flow is directed outward toward people and objects, and the introvert's is directed inward toward concepts and ideas. Contrasting characteristics between extraverts and introverts include the following:

  • Extraverts are action oriented, while introverts are thought oriented.
  • Extraverts seek breadth of knowledge and influence, while introverts seek depth of knowledge and influence.
  • Extraverts often prefer more frequent interaction, while introverts prefer more substantial interaction.
  • Extraverts recharge and get their energy from spending time with people, while introverts recharge and get their energy from spending time alone.[11]

Functions: sensing/intuition (S/N) and thinking/feeling (T/F) Edit

Jung identified two pairs of psychological functions:

  • The two perceiving functions, sensing and intuition
  • The two judging functions, thinking and feeling

According to the Myers-Briggs typology model, each person uses one of these four functions more dominantly and proficiently than the other three; however, all four functions are used at different times depending on the circumstances.

Sensing and intuition are the information-gathering (perceiving) functions. They describe how new information is understood and interpreted. Individuals who prefer sensing are more likely to trust information that is in the present, tangible, and concrete: that is, information that can be understood by the five senses. They tend to distrust hunches, which seem to come "out of nowhere".[1]:2 They prefer to look for details and facts. For them, the meaning is in the data. On the other hand, those who prefer intuition tend to trust information that is more abstract or theoretical, that can be associated with other information (either remembered or discovered by seeking a wider context or pattern). They may be more interested in future possibilities. For them, the meaning is in the underlying theory and principles which are manifested in the data.

Thinking and feeling are the decision-making (judging) functions. The thinking and feeling functions are both used to make rational decisions, based on the data received from their information-gathering functions (sensing or intuition). Those who prefer thinking tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint, measuring the decision by what seems reasonable, logical, causal, consistent, and matching a given set of rules. Those who prefer feeling tend to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with the situation, looking at it 'from the inside' and weighing the situation to achieve, on balance, the greatest harmony, consensus and fit, considering the needs of the people involved. Thinkers usually have trouble interacting with people who are inconsistent or illogical, and tend to give very direct feedback to others. They are concerned with the truth and view it as more important than being tactful.

As noted already, people who prefer thinking do not necessarily, in the everyday sense, "think better" than their feeling counterparts; the opposite preference is considered an equally rational way of coming to decisions (and, in any case, the MBTI assessment is a measure of preference, not ability). Similarly, those who prefer feeling do not necessarily have "better" emotional reactions than their thinking counterparts.

Dominant function Edit

According to Myers and Briggs, people use all four cognitive functions. However, one function is generally used in a more conscious and confident way. This dominant function is supported by the secondary (auxiliary) function, and to a lesser degree the tertiary function. The fourth and least conscious function is always the opposite of the dominant function. Myers called this inferior function the shadow.[1]:84

The four functions operate in conjunction with the attitudes (extraversion and introversion). Each function is used in either an extraverted or introverted way. A person whose dominant function is extraverted intuition, for example, uses intuition very differently from someone whose dominant function is introverted intuition.

Lifestyle: judging/perception (J/P) Edit

Myers and Briggs added another dimension to Jung's typological model by identifying that people also have a preference for using either the judging function (thinking or feeling) or their perceiving function (sensing or intuition) when relating to the outside world (extraversion).

Myers and Briggs held that types with a preference for judging show the world their preferred judging function (thinking or feeling). So TJ types tend to appear to the world as logical, and FJ types as empathetic. According to Myers,[1]:75 judging types like to "have matters settled".

Those types who prefer perception show the world their preferred perceiving function (sensing or intuition). So SP types tend to appear to the world as concrete and NP types as abstract. According to Myers,[1]:75 perceptive types prefer to "keep decisions open".

For extraverts, the J or P indicates their dominant function; for introverts, the J or P indicates their auxiliary function. Introverts tend to show their dominant function outwardly only in matters "important to their inner worlds".[1]:13 For example:

Because ENTJ types are extroverts, the J indicates that their dominant function is their preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). ENTJ types introvert their auxiliary perceiving function (introverted intuition). The tertiary function is sensing and the inferior function is introverted feeling.

Because INTJ types are introverts, the J indicates that their auxiliary function is their preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). INTJ types introvert their dominant perceiving function (introverted intuition). The tertiary function is feeling, and the inferior function is extraverted sensing.

Historical developmentEdit

Katharine Cook Briggs began her research into personality in 1917. Upon meeting her future son-in-law, she observed marked differences between his personality and that of other family members. Briggs embarked on a project of reading biographies, and she developed a typology based on patterns she found. She proposed four temperaments: Meditative (or Thoughtful), Spontaneous, Executive, and Social.[12][13] Then, after the English translation of Psychological Types was published in 1923 (having first been published in German in 1921), she recognized that Jung's theory was similar to, yet went far beyond, her own.[1]:22 Briggs's four types were later identified as corresponding to the Is, EPs, ETJs and EFJs.[12][13] Her first publications were two articles describing Jung's theory, in the journal New Republic in 1926 (Meet Yourself Using the Personality Paint Box) and 1928 (Up From Barbarism).

Briggs's daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, added to her mother's typological research, which she would progressively take over entirely. Myers graduated first in her class from Swarthmore College in 1919[1]:xx and wrote the prize-winning mystery novel Murder Yet to Come in 1929 using typological ideas. However, neither Myers nor Briggs were formally educated in psychology, and thus they lacked scientific credentials in the field of psychometric testing.[1]:xiii So Myers apprenticed herself to Edward N. Hay, who was then personnel manager for a large Philadelphia bank and went on to start one of the first successful personnel consulting firms in the U.S. From Hay, Myers learned test construction, scoring, validation, and statistics.[1]:xiii, xx In 1942, the "Briggs-Myers Type Indicator" was created, and the Briggs Myers Type Indicator Handbook was published in 1944. The indicator changed its name to the modern form (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) in 1956.[14][15]

Myers' work attracted the attention of Henry Chauncey, head of the Educational Testing Service, and under these auspices, the first MBTI Manual was published in 1962. The MBTI received further support from Donald T. McKinnon, head of the Institute of Personality Research at the University of California; Harold Grant, professor at Michigan State and Auburn Universities; and Mary H. McCaulley of the University of Florida. The publication of the MBTI was transferred to Consulting Psychologists Press in 1975, and the Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT) was founded as a research laboratory.[1]:xxi After Myers' death in May 1980, Mary McCaulley updated the MBTI Manual, and the second edition was published in 1985.[9] The third edition appeared in 1998.

Differences from JungEdit

Judging vs. perceptionEdit

The most notable addition of Myers and Briggs to Jung's original thought is their concept that a given type's fourth letter (J or P) is determined by how that type interacts with the external world, rather than by the type's dominant function. The difference becomes evident when assessing the cognitive functions of introverts.[1]:21-22

To Jung, a type with dominant introverted thinking, for example, would be considered rational (judging) because the decision-making function is dominant. To Myers, however, that same type would be irrational (perceiving) because the individual uses an information-gathering function (either extraverted intuition or extraverted sensing) when interacting with the outer world.

Orientation of the tertiary functionEdit

Jung theorized that the dominant function acts alone in its preferred world: exterior for the extraverts, and interior for the introverts. The remaining three functions, he suggested, operate together in the opposite world. If the dominant cognitive function is introverted, the other functions are extraverted, and vice versa. The MBTI Manual summarizes references in Jung's work to the balance in psychological type as follows:

There are several references in Jung's writing to the three remaining functions having an opposite attitudinal character. For example, in writing about introverts with thinking dominant...Jung commented that the counterbalancing functions have an extraverted character.[9]:29

However, many MBTI practitioners hold that the tertiary function is oriented in the same direction as the dominant function.[16] Using the INTP type as an example, the orientation would be as follows:

  • Dominant introverted thinking
  • Auxiliary extraverted intuition
  • Tertiary introverted sensing
  • Inferior extraverted feeling

From a theoretical perspective, psychologist Hans Eysenck called the MBTI a moderately successful quantification of Jung's original principles as outlined in Psychological Types.[17]

Eysenck, however, also said: "This (the MBTI) creates 16 personality types which are said to be similar to Jung's theoretical concepts. I have always found difficulties with this identification, which omits one half of Jung's theory (he had 32 types, by asserting that for every conscious combination of traits there was an opposite unconscious one). Obviously the latter half of his theory does not admit of questionnaire measurement, but to leave it out and pretend that the scales measure Jungian concepts is hardly fair to Jung."[18]

Both models remain theory, with no controlled scientific studies supporting either Jung's original concept of type or the Myers-Briggs variation.[19]

ApplicationsEdit

The indicator is frequently used in the areas of pedagogy, career counseling, team building, group dynamics, professional development, marketing, family business, leadership training, executive coaching, life coaching, personal development, marriage counseling, and workers' compensation claims.

Format and administrationEdit

The current North American English version of the MBTI Step I includes 93 forced-choice questions (there are 88 in the European English version). Forced-choice means that the individual has to choose only one of two possible answers to each question. The choices are a mixture of word pairs and short statements. Choices are not literal opposites but chosen to reflect opposite preferences on the same dichotomy. Participants may skip questions if they feel they are unable to choose.

Using psychometric techniques, such as item response theory, the MBTI will then be scored and will attempt to identify the preference, and clarity of preference, in each dichotomy. After taking the MBTI, participants are usually asked to complete a Best Fit exercise (see below) and then given a readout of their Reported Type, which will usually include a bar graph and number to show how clear they were about each preference when they completed the questionnaire.

During the early development of the MBTI thousands of items were used. Most were eventually discarded because they did not have high midpoint discrimination, meaning the results of that one item did not, on average, move an individual score away from the midpoint. Using only items with high midpoint discrimination allows the MBTI to have fewer items on it but still provide as much statistical information as other instruments with many more items with lower midpoint discrimination. The MBTI requires five points one way or another to indicate a clear preference.

Additional formatsEdit

Isabel Myers had noted that people of any given type shared differences as well as similarities. At the time of her death, she was developing a more in-depth method of measuring how people express and experience their individual type pattern.

In 1987, an advanced scoring system was developed for the MBTI. From this was developed the Type Differentiation Indicator (TDI) (Saunders, 1989) which is a scoring system for the longer MBTI, Form J,[20] which includes the 290 items written by Myers that had survived her previous item analyses. It yields 20 subscales (five under each of the four dichotomous preference scales), plus seven additional subscales for a new Comfort-Discomfort factor (which purportedly corresponds to the missing factor of Neuroticism).

This factor's scales indicate a sense of overall comfort and confidence versus discomfort and anxiety. They also load onto one of the four type dimensions[21]: guarded-optimistic (also T/F), defiant-compliant (also T/F), carefree-worried (also T/F), decisive-ambivalent (also J/P), intrepid-inhibited (Also E/I), leader-follower (Also E/I), and proactive-distractible (also J/P)

Also included is a composite of these called "strain." There are also scales for type-scale consistency and comfort-scale consistency. Reliability of 23 of the 27 TDI subscales is greater than 0.50, "an acceptable result given the brevity of the subscales" (Saunders, 1989).

In 1989, a scoring system was developed for only the 20 subscales for the original four dichotomies. This was initially known as Form K, or the Expanded Analysis Report (EAR).This tool is now called the MBTI Step II.
Form J or the TDI included the items (derived from Myers’ and McCaulley’s earlier work) necessary to score what became known as Step III.[22] (The 1998 MBTI Manual reported that the two instruments were one and the same[23]) It was developed in a joint project involving the following organizations: CPP, the publisher of the whole family of MBTI works; CAPT (Center for Applications of Psychological Type), which holds all of Myers' and McCaulley's original work; and the MBTI Trust, headed by Katharine and Peter Myers. Step III was advertised as addressing type development and the use of perception and judgment by respondents.[24]

Translations into other languagesEdit

The MBTI has been successfully translated into over 20 languages,[25] covering many countries across the world. However, it is more true to say that the creation of a new questionnaire language is adaptation,[26] which includes translation; the other stages include reviews by subject matter experts fluent in the native language, and statistical analysis to check that the questions still measure the same psychological concepts as the original US English questionnaire.[27]

Precepts and ethicsEdit

The following precepts are generally used in the ethical administration of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:

Type not trait
The MBTI sorts for type; it does not indicate the strength of ability. The questionnaire allows the clarity of a preference to be ascertained (Bill clearly prefers introversion), but not the strength of preference (Jane strongly prefers extraversion) or degree of aptitude (Harry is good at thinking). In this sense, it differs from trait-based tools such as 16PF. Type preferences are polar opposites: a precept of MBTI is that people fundamentally prefer one thing over the other, not a bit of both.
Own best judge
Individuals are considered the best judge of their own type. While the MBTI questionnaire provides a Reported Type, this is considered only an indication of their probable overall Type. A Best Fit Process is usually used to allow respondents to develop their understanding of the four dichotomies, to form their own hypothesis as to their overall Type, and to compare this against the Reported Type. In more than 20% of cases, the hypothesis and the Reported Type differ in one or more dichotomies. Using the clarity of each preference, any potential for bias in the report, and often, a comparison of two or more whole Types may then help respondents determine their own Best Fit.
No right or wrong
No preference or total type is considered better or worse than another. They are all Gifts Differing, as emphasized by the title of Isabel Briggs Myers' book on this subject.
Voluntary
It is considered unethical to compel anyone to take the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. It should always be taken voluntarily.[28]
Confidentiality
The result of the MBTI Reported and Best Fit type are confidential between the individual and administrator and, ethically, not for disclosure without permission.
Not for selection
The results of the assessment should not be used to "label, evaluate, or limit the respondent in any way" (emphasis original).[28] Since all types are valuable, and the MBTI measures preferences rather than aptitude, the MBTI is not considered a proper instrument for purposes of employment selection. Many professions contain highly competent individuals of different types with complementary preferences.
Importance of proper feedback
Individuals should always be given detailed feedback from a trained administrator and an opportunity to undertake a Best Fit exercise to check against their Reported Type. This feedback can be given in person or, where this is not practical, by telephone or electronically.

Type dynamics and developmentEdit

The Sixteen Types
US Population Breakdown
The table organizing the sixteen types was created by Isabel Myers (a INFP person).
ISTJ
11–14%
ISFJ
9–14%
INFJ
1–3%
INTJ
2–4%
ISTP
4–6%
ISFP
5–9%
INFP
4–5%
INTP
1–3%
ESTP
4–5%
ESFP
4–9%
ENFP
6–8%
ENTP
2–5%
ESTJ
8–12%
ESFJ
9–13%
ENFJ
2–5%
ENTJ
2–5%
Estimated percentages of the 16 types in the U.S. population.[29]

The interaction of two, three, or four preferences is known as type dynamics. Although type dynamics has garnered little or no empirical support to substantiate its viability as a scientific theory,[30] Myers and Briggs asserted that for each of the 16 four-preference types, one function is the most dominant and is likely to be evident earliest in life. A secondary or auxiliary function typically becomes more evident (differentiated) during teenage years and provides balance to the dominant. In normal development, individuals tend to become more fluent with a third, tertiary function during mid life, while the fourth, inferior function remains least consciously developed. The inferior function is often considered to be more associated with the unconscious, being most evident in situations such as high stress (sometimes referred to as being in the grip of the inferior function).

However the use of type dynamics is disputed: in the conclusion of various studies on the subject of type dynamics, James H. Reynierse writes that "Type dynamics has persistent logical problems and is fundamentally based on a series of category mistakes; it provides, at best, a limited and incomplete account of type related phenomena;" and that "type dynamics relies on anecdotal evidence, fails most efficacy tests, and does not fit the empirical facts;". His studies gave the clear result, that the descriptions and workings of type dynamics don't fit the real behavior of people. He suggests getting completely rid of type dynamics, because it doesn't help, but hinder understanding of personality. The presumed order of functions 1 to 4 did only occur in one out of 540 test results.[31]

The sequence of differentiation of dominant, auxiliary, and tertiary functions through life is termed type development. Note that this is an idealized sequence that may be disrupted by major life events.

The dynamic sequence of functions and their attitudes can be determined in the following way:

  • The overall lifestyle preference (J-P) determines whether the judging (T-F) or perceiving (S-N) preference is most evident in the outside world; i.e., which function has an extraverted attitude
  • The attitude preference (E-I) determines whether the extraverted function is dominant or auxiliary
  • For those with an overall preference for extraversion, the function with the extraverted attitude will be the dominant function. For example, for an ESTJ type the dominant function is the judging function, thinking, and this is experienced with an extraverted attitude. This is notated as a dominant Te. For an ESTP, the dominant function is the perceiving function, sensing, notated as a dominant Se.
  • The Auxiliary function for extraverts is the secondary preference of the judging or perceiving functions, and it is experienced with an introverted attitude: for example, the auxiliary function for ESTJ is introverted sensing (Si) and the auxiliary for ESTP is introverted thinking (Ti).
  • For those with an overall preference for introversion, the function with the extraverted attitude is the auxiliary; the dominant is the other function in the main four letter preference. So the dominant function for ISTJ is introverted sensing (Si) with the auxiliary (supporting) function being extraverted thinking (Te).
  • The Tertiary function is the opposite preference from the Auxiliary. For example, if the Auxiliary is thinking then the Tertiary would be feeling. The attitude of the Tertiary is the subject of some debate and therefore is not normally indicated; i.e. if the Auxiliary was Te then the Tertiary would be F (not Fe or Fi)
  • The Inferior function is the opposite preference and attitude from the Dominant, so for an ESTJ with dominant Te the Inferior would be Fi.

Note that for extraverts, the dominant function is the one most evident in the external world. For introverts, however, it is the auxiliary function that is most evident externally, as their dominant function relates to the interior world.

Some examples of whole types may clarify this further. Taking the ESTJ example above:

  • Extraverted function is a judging function (T-F) because of the overall J preference
  • Extraverted function is dominant because of overall E preference
  • Dominant function is therefore extraverted thinking (Te)
  • Auxiliary function is the preferred perceiving function: introverted sensing (Si)
  • Tertiary function is the opposite of the Auxiliary: intuition (N)
  • Inferior function is the opposite of the Dominant: introverted feeling (Fi)

The dynamics of the ESTJ are found in the primary combination of extraverted thinking as their dominant function and introverted sensing as their auxiliary function: the dominant tendency of ESTJs to order their environment, to set clear boundaries, to clarify roles and timetables, and to direct the activities around them is supported by their facility for using past experience in an ordered and systematic way to help organize themselves and others. For instance, ESTJs may enjoy planning trips for groups of people to achieve some goal or to perform some culturally uplifting function. Because of their ease in directing others and their facility in managing their own time, they engage all the resources at their disposal to achieve their goals. However, under prolonged stress or sudden trauma, ESTJs may overuse their extraverted thinking function and fall into the grip of their inferior function, introverted feeling. Although the ESTJ can seem insensitive to the feelings of others in their normal activities, under tremendous stress, they can suddenly express feelings of being unappreciated or wounded by insensitivity.

Looking at the diametrically opposite four-letter type, INFP:

  • Extraverted function is a perceiving function (S-N) because of the P preference
  • Introverted function is dominant because of the I preference
  • Dominant function is therefore introverted feeling (Fi)
  • Auxiliary function is extraverted intuition (Ne)
  • Tertiary function is the opposite of the Auxiliary: sensing (S)
  • Inferior function is the opposite of the Dominant: extraverted thinking (Te)

The dynamics of the INFP rest on the fundamental correspondence of introverted feeling and extraverted intuition. The dominant tendency of the INFP is toward building a rich internal framework of values and toward championing human rights. They often devote themselves behind the scenes to causes such as civil rights or saving the environment. Since they tend to avoid the limelight, postpone decisions, and maintain a reserved posture, they are rarely found in executive-director type positions of the organizations that serve those causes. Normally, the INFP dislikes being "in charge" of things. When not under stress, the INFP radiates a pleasant and sympathetic demeanor; but under extreme stress, they can suddenly become rigid and directive, exerting their extraverted thinking erratically.

Every type, and its opposite, is the expression of these interactions, which give each type its unique, recognizable signature.

Correlations to other instrumentsEdit

Keirsey temperamentsEdit

David W. Keirsey mapped four 'temperaments' to the existing Myers-Briggs system groupings SP, SJ, NF and NT; this often results in confusion of the two theories. However, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter is not directly associated with the official Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

ISITEJ
ISIFEJ
INIFEJ
INITEJ
Inspector Protector Counselor Mastermind
ISETIP
ISEFIP
INEFIP
INETIP
Crafter Composer Healer Architect
ESETIP
ESEFIP
ENEFIP
ENETIP
Promoter Performer Champion Inventor
ESITEJ
ESIFEJ
ENIFEJ
ENITEJ
Supervisor Provider Teacher Field Marshal

Big FiveEdit

McCrae and Costa[32][33] present correlations between the MBTI scales and the Big Five personality construct, which is a conglomeration of characteristics found in nearly all personality and psychological tests. The five personality characteristics are extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability (or neuroticism). The following study is based on the results from 267 men followed as part of a longitudinal study of aging. (Similar results were obtained with 201 women.)

  Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability
E-I .65 .06 -.37 -.15 .31
S-N .12 -.56 .34 .37 .06
T-F .19 -.25 -.21 .09 .07
J-P .18 -.15 .10 .55 .08
The closer the number is to 1.0 or -1.0, the higher the degree of correlation.

These data suggest that four of the MBTI scales are related to the Big Five personality traits. These correlations show that E-I and S-N are strongly related to extraversion and openness respectively, while T-F and J-P are moderately related to agreeableness and conscientiousness respectively. The emotional stability dimension of the Big Five is largely absent from the original MBTI (though the TDI, discussed above, has addressed that dimension).

These findings led McCrae and Costa, the formulators of the Five Factor Model (a Big Five theory),[34] to conclude, "correlational analyses showed that the four MBTI indices did measure aspects of four of the five major dimensions of normal personality. The five-factor model provides an alternative basis for interpreting MBTI findings within a broader, more commonly shared conceptual framework." However, "there was no support for the view that the MBTI measures truly dichotomous preferences or qualitatively distinct types, instead, the instrument measures four relatively independent dimensions."

Origins of the theory Edit

Jung's theory of psychological type, as published in his 1921 book, was not tested through controlled scientific studies.[19] Jung's methods primarily included clinical observation, introspection and anecdote—methods that are largely regarded as inconclusive by the modern field of psychology.[19]

Jung's type theory introduced a sequence of four cognitive functions (thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuition), each having one of two orientations (extraverted or introverted), for a total of eight functions. The Myers-Briggs theory is based on these eight functions, although with some differences in expression (see Differences from Jung above). However, neither the Myers-Briggs nor the Jungian models offer any scientific, experimental proof to support the existence, the sequence, the orientation, or the manifestation of these functions.[19]

ValidityEdit

The statistical validity of the MBTI as a psychometric instrument has been the subject of criticism. It has been estimated that between a third and a half of the published material on the MBTI has been produced for conferences of the Center for the Application of Psychological Type (which provides training in the MBTI) or as papers in the Journal of Psychological Type (which is edited by Myers-Briggs advocates).[35] It has been argued that this reflects a lack of critical scrutiny.[35][36]

For example, some researchers expected that scores would show a bimodal distribution with peaks near the ends of the scales, but found that scores on the individual subscales were actually distributed in a centrally peaked manner similar to a normal distribution. A cut-off exists at the center of the subscale such that a score on one side is classified as one type, and a score on the other side as the opposite type. This fails to support the concept of type: the norm is for people to lie near the middle of the subscale.[32][36][37][38][39] "Although we do not conclude that the absence of bimodality necessarily proves that the MBTI developers’ theory-based assumption of categorical “types” of personality is invalid, the absence of empirical bimodality in IRT-based MBTI scores does indeed remove a potentially powerful line of evidence that was previously available to “type” advocates to cite in defense of their position." [39]

In 1991, the National Academy of Sciences committee reviewed data from MBTI research studies and concluded that only the I-E scale has high correlations with comparable scales of other instruments and low correlations with instruments designed to assess different concepts, showing strong validity. In contrast, the S-N and T-F scales show relatively weak validity. The 1991 review committee concluded at the time there was "not sufficient, well-designed research to justify the use of the MBTI in career counseling programs".[40] However, this study also based its measurement of validity on "criterion-related validity (i.e., does the MBTI predict specific outcomes related to interpersonal relations or career success/job performance?)."[40] The ethical guidelines of the MBTI assessment stress that the MBTI type "does not imply excellence, competence, or natural ability, only what is preferred."[28] The 2009 MBTI Form M Manual Supplement states, "An instrument is said to be valid when it measures what it has been designed to measure (Ghiselli, Campbell, & Zedeck, 1981; Murphy & Davidshofer, 2005)."[41] Studies have found that the MBTI scores compare favorably to other assessments with respect to evidence of convergent validity, divergent validity, construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability.[41][42][43]

The accuracy of the MBTI depends on honest self-reporting by the person tested.[7]:52-53 Unlike some personality measures, such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory or the Personality Assessment Inventory, the MBTI does not use validity scales to assess exaggerated or socially desirable responses.[44] As a result, individuals motivated to do so can fake their responses,[45] and one study found that the MBTI judgment/perception dimension correlates with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire lie scale.[46] If respondents "fear they have something to lose, they may answer as they assume they should."[7]:53 However, the MBTI ethical guidelines state, "It is unethical and in many cases illegal to require job applicants to take the Indicator if the results will be used to screen out applicants."[28] The intent of the MBTI is to provide "a framework for understanding individual differences, and … a dynamic model of individual development".[47]

The terminology of the MBTI has been criticized as being very "vague and general"[48] as to allow any kind of behavior to fit any personality type, which may result in the Forer effect, where individuals give a high rating to a positive description that supposedly applies specifically to them.[19][36] Others argue that while the MBTI type descriptions are brief, they are also distinctive and precise.[49]:14-15 Some theorists, such as David Keirsey, have expanded on the MBTI descriptions, providing even greater detail. For instance, Keirsey's descriptions of his four temperaments, which he correlated with the sixteen MBTI personality types, show how the temperaments differ in terms of language use, intellectual orientation, educational and vocational interests, social orientation, self-image, personal values, social roles, and characteristic hand gestures.[49]:32-207

With regard to factor analysis, one study of 1291 college-aged students found six different factors instead of the four used in the MBTI.[50] In other studies, researchers found that the JP and the SN scales correlate with one another.[32]

According to Hans Eysenck: "The main dimension in the MBTI is called E-I, or extraversion-introversion; this is mostly a sociability scale, corelating quite well with the MMPI social introversion scale (negatively) and the Eysenck Extraversion scale (positively) (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1985). Unfortunately, the scale also has a loading on neuroticism, which correlates with the introverted end. Thus introversion correlates roughly (i.e. averaging values for males and females) -.44 with dominance, -.24 with aggression, +.37 with abasement, +.46 with counselling readiness, -.52 with self-confidence, -.36 with personal adjustment, and -.45 with empathy. The failure of the scale to disentangle Introversion and Neuroticism (in fact there is no scale for neurotic and other psychopathological attricutes in the MBTI) is its worst feature, only equalled by the failure to use factor analysis in order to test the arrangement of items in the scale."[17]

ReliabilityEdit

Some researchers have interpreted the reliability of the test as being low. Studies have found that between 39% and 76% of those tested fall into different types upon retesting some weeks or years later.[36][38]

One study reports that the MBTI dichotomies exhibit good split-half reliability; however, the dichotomy scores are distributed in a bell curve, and the overall type allocations are less reliable. Also, test-retest reliability is sensitive to the time between tests. Within each dichotomy scale, as measured on Form G, about 83% of categorizations remain the same when individuals are retested within nine months, and around 75% when individuals are retested after nine months. About 50% of people tested within nine months remain the same overall type, and 36% remain the same type after more than nine months.[51] For Form M (the most current form of the MBTI instrument), the MBTI Manual reports that these scores are higher (p. 163, Table 8.6).

In one study, when people were asked to compare their preferred type to that assigned by the MBTI assessment, only half of people picked the same profile.[52] Critics also argue that the MBTI lacks falsifiability, which can cause confirmation bias in the interpretation of results.

UtilityEdit

In her research, Isabel Myers found that the proportion of different personality types varied by choice of career or course of study.[1]:40-51[9] However, some researchers examining the proportions of each type within varying professions report that the proportion of MBTI types within each occupation is close to that within a random sample of the population.[36] Some researchers have expressed reservations about the relevance of type to job satisfaction, as well as concerns about the potential misuse of the instrument in labeling individuals.[36][53]

CPP became the exclusive publisher of the Myers-Briggs instrument in 1975. They call it "the world's most widely used personality assessment", with as many as two million assessments administered annually.[54] CPP and other proponents state that the indicator meets or exceeds the reliability of other psychological instruments and cite reports of individual behavior.[41][55][56]

Some studies have found strong support for construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability, although variation was observed.[42][43] However, some academic psychologists have criticized the MBTI instrument, claiming that it "lacks convincing validity data",[32][37][38][57] while some studies have shown the statistical validity and reliability to be low.[36][38][58]

Studies suggest that the MBTI is not a useful predictor of job performance.[36][40][59] As noted above under Precepts and ethics, the MBTI measures preference, not ability. The use of the MBTI as a predictor of job success is expressly discouraged in the Manual.[7]:78 However, the MBTI continues to be popular because many people are qualified to administer it, it is not difficult to understand, and there are many supporting books, websites and other useful sources which are readily available to the general public.[60]

See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Key TextsEdit

Additional materialEdit

External linksEdit

Authorized Myers-Briggs / KeirseyEdit

Unauthorized personality tests inspired by Myers-Briggs / KeirseyEdit

Additional information and essays on all 16 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ProfilesEdit

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