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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2

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The correct title of this article is Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2. It appears incorrectly here because of technical restrictions.


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The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2, is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

FunctionEdit

The M2 muscarinic receptors are located in the heart, where they act to slow the heart rate down to normal sinus rhythm after stimulatory actions of the sympathetic nervous system, by slowing the speed of depolarization. They also reduce contractile forces of the atrial cardiac muscle, and reduce conduction velocity of the atrioventricular node (AV node). However, they have no effect on the contractile forces of the ventricular muscle.

MechanismEdit

M2 muscarinic receptors act via a Gi type receptor, which causes a decrease in cAMP in the cell, generally leading to inhibitory-type effects.

In addition, they modulate muscarinic potassium channels.[1][2] In the heart, this contributes to a decreased heart rate.

GeneEdit

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is encoded by the gene CHRM2.[3]

Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene.[3]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
  2. Boron, W. F and Boulpaep, E. L. (2005). Medical Physiology, 387, Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Entrez Gene: CHRM2 cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2.

Further readingEdit


  • Goyal RK (1989). Muscarinic receptor subtypes. Physiology and clinical implications.. N. Engl. J. Med. 321 (15): 1022–9.
  • Brann MR, Ellis J, Jørgensen H, et al. (1994). Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes: localization and structure/function.. Prog. Brain Res. 98: 121–7.
  • van Koppen CJ, Nathanson NM (1991). Site-directed mutagenesis of the m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Analysis of the role of N-glycosylation in receptor expression and function.. J. Biol. Chem. 265 (34): 20887–92.
  • Ashkenazi A, Ramachandran J, Capon DJ (1989). Acetylcholine analogue stimulates DNA synthesis in brain-derived cells via specific muscarinic receptor subtypes.. Nature 340 (6229): 146–50.
  • Bonner TI, Buckley NJ, Young AC, Brann MR (1987). Identification of a family of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes.. Science 237 (4814): 527–32.
  • Peralta EG, Ashkenazi A, Winslow JW, et al. (1988). Distinct primary structures, ligand-binding properties and tissue-specific expression of four human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.. EMBO J. 6 (13): 3923–9.
  • Badner JA, Yoon SW, Turner G, et al. (1995). Multipoint genetic linkage analysis of the m2 human muscarinic receptor gene.. Mamm. Genome 6 (7): 489–90.
  • Offermanns S, Simon MI (1995). G alpha 15 and G alpha 16 couple a wide variety of receptors to phospholipase C.. J. Biol. Chem. 270 (25): 15175–80.
  • Russell M, Winitz S, Johnson GL (1994). Acetylcholine muscarinic m1 receptor regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis controls growth factor stimulation of Raf activity.. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14 (4): 2343–51.
  • Kunapuli P, Onorato JJ, Hosey MM, Benovic JL (1994). Expression, purification, and characterization of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK5.. J. Biol. Chem. 269 (2): 1099–105.
  • Haga K, Kameyama K, Haga T, et al. (1996). Phosphorylation of human m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and protein kinase C.. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (5): 2776–82.
  • Kostenis E, Conklin BR, Wess J (1997). Molecular basis of receptor/G protein coupling selectivity studied by coexpression of wild type and mutant m2 muscarinic receptors with mutant G alpha(q) subunits.. Biochemistry 36 (6): 1487–95.
  • Smiley JF, Levey AI, Mesulam MM (1998). Infracortical interstitial cells concurrently expressing m2-muscarinic receptors, acetylcholinesterase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase in the human and monkey cerebral cortex.. Neuroscience 84 (3): 755–69.
  • von der Kammer H, Mayhaus M, Albrecht C, et al. (1998). Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate expression of the EGR gene family of transcription factors.. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (23): 14538–44.
  • Sato KZ, Fujii T, Watanabe Y, et al. (1999). Diversity of mRNA expression for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in human mononuclear leukocytes and leukemic cell lines.. Neurosci. Lett. 266 (1): 17–20.
  • Retondaro FC, Dos Santos Costa PC, Pedrosa RC, Kurtenbach E (1999). Presence of antibodies against the third intracellular loop of the m2 muscarinic receptor in the sera of chronic chagasic patients.. FASEB J. 13 (14): 2015–20.
  • Waid DK, Chell M, El-Fakahany EE (2000). M(2) and M(4) muscarinic receptor subtypes couple to activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.. Pharmacology 61 (1): 37–42.
  • Obara K, Arai K, Miyajima N, et al. (2000). Expression of m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mRNA in primary culture of human prostate stromal cells.. Urol. Res. 28 (3): 196–200.




External linksEdit

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.Template:Transmembranereceptor-stubes:Receptor muscarínico M2


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