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Murray's Psychogenic Needs

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This is the list of needs identified in Explorations in Personality, edited by Henry A. Murray in 1938.

Need Definition
Abasement To surrender and submit to others, accept blame and punishment. To enjoy pain and misfortune. 
Achievement To accomplish difficult tasks, overcoming obstacles and becoming expert. 
Affiliation To be close and loyal to another person, pleasing them and winning their friendship and attention. 
Aggression To forcefully overcome an opponent, controlling, taking revenge or punishing them.
Autonomy To break free from constraints, resisting coercion and dominating authority. To be irresponsible and independent.
Counteraction To make up for failure by trying again, seeking pridefully to overcome obstacles. 
Defendance To defend oneself against attack or blame, hiding any failure of the self.
Deference To admire a superior person, praising them and yielding to them and following their rules.
Dominance To control one's environment, controlling other people through command or subtle persuasion.
Exhibition To impress others through one's actions and words, even if these are shocking.
Harm avoidance To escape or avoid pain, injury and death. 
Infavoidance To avoid being humiliated or embarrassed. 
Nurturance To help the helpless, feeding them and keeping them from danger.
Order To make things clean, neat and tidy.
Play To have fun, laugh and relax, enjoying oneself.
Rejection To separate oneself from a negatively viewed object or person, excluding or abandoning it. 
Sentience To seek out and enjoy sensual experiences.
Sex To form relationship that lead to sexual intercourse.
Succourance To have one's needs satisfied by someone or something. Includes being loved, nursed, helped, forgiven and consoled.
Understanding To be curious, ask questions and find answers.

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