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This is the list of needs identified in Explorations in Personality, edited by Henry A. Murray in 1938.
|Abasement||To surrender and submit to others, accept blame and punishment. To enjoy pain and misfortune.|
|Achievement||To accomplish difficult tasks, overcoming obstacles and becoming expert.|
|Affiliation||To be close and loyal to another person, pleasing them and winning their friendship and attention.|
|Aggression||To forcefully overcome an opponent, controlling, taking revenge or punishing them.|
|Autonomy||To break free from constraints, resisting coercion and dominating authority. To be irresponsible and independent.|
|Counteraction||To make up for failure by trying again, seeking pridefully to overcome obstacles.|
|Defendance||To defend oneself against attack or blame, hiding any failure of the self.|
|Deference||To admire a superior person, praising them and yielding to them and following their rules.|
|Dominance||To control one's environment, controlling other people through command or subtle persuasion.|
|Exhibition||To impress others through one's actions and words, even if these are shocking.|
|Harm avoidance||To escape or avoid pain, injury and death.|
|Infavoidance||To avoid being humiliated or embarrassed.|
|Nurturance||To help the helpless, feeding them and keeping them from danger.|
|Order||To make things clean, neat and tidy.|
|Play||To have fun, laugh and relax, enjoying oneself.|
|Rejection||To separate oneself from a negatively viewed object or person, excluding or abandoning it.|
|Sentience||To seek out and enjoy sensual experiences.|
|Sex||To form relationship that lead to sexual intercourse.|
|Succourance||To have one's needs satisfied by someone or something. Includes being loved, nursed, helped, forgiven and consoled.|
|Understanding||To be curious, ask questions and find answers.|