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- Main article: Psychiatric illness and increased mortality
Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.5 (out of 1000) in a population of 100,000 would mean 950 deaths per year in that entire population, or 0.95% out of the total. It is distinct from morbidity rate, which refers to the number of individuals in poor health during a given time period (the prevalence rate) or the number of newly appearing cases of the disease per unit of time (incidence rate). The term "mortality" is also sometimes inappropriately used to refer to the number of deaths among a set of diagnosed hospital cases for a disease or injury, rather than for the general population of a country or ethnic group. This disease mortality statistic is more precisely referred to as "case fatality rate" (CFR).
- The crude death rate, the total number of deaths per year per 1000 people. As of 2009[update]Template:Dated maintenance category the crude death rate for the whole world is about 8.37 per 1000 per year according to the current CIA World Factbook.
- The perinatal mortality rate, the sum of neonatal deaths and fetal deaths (stillbirths) per 1000 births.
- The maternal mortality ratio, the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in same time period.
- The maternal mortality rate, the number of maternal deaths per 1,000 women of reproductive age in the population (generally defined as 15–44 years of age) .
- The infant mortality rate, the number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per 1000 live births.
- The child mortality rate, the number of deaths of children less than 5 years old per 1000 live births.
- The standardised mortality ratio (SMR)- This represents a proportional comparison to the numbers of deaths that would have been expected if the population had been of a standard composition in terms of age, gender, etc.
- The age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) - This refers to the total number of deaths per year per 1000 people of a given age (e.g. age 62 last birthday).
- The early mortality rate, the total number of deaths in the early stages of an ongoing treatment, or in the period immediately following an acute treatment.
- The late mortality rate, the total number of deaths in the late stages of an ongoing treatment, or a significant length of time after an acute treatment.
Note that the crude death rate as defined above and applied to a whole population can give a misleading impression. The crude death rate depends on the age (and gender) specific mortality rates and the age (and gender) distribution of the population. The number of deaths per 1000 people can be higher for developed nations than in less-developed countries, despite life expectancy being higher in developed countries due to standards of health being better. This happens because developed countries typically have a completely different population age distribution, with a much higher proportion of older people, due to both lower recent birth rates and lower mortality rates. A more complete picture of mortality is given by a life table which shows the mortality rate separately for each age. A life table is necessary to give a good estimate of life expectancy.
The ten countries with the highest infant mortality rate are:
- Angola 192.50
- Afghanistan 165.96
- Sierra Leone 145.24
- Mozambique 137.08
- Liberia 130.51
- Niger 122.66
- Somalia 118.52
- Mali 117.99
- Tajikistan 112.10
- Guinea-Bissau 108.72
According to the CDC, the 10 leading causes of death in the United States in 2002 were:
- 696,447 Heart Disease
- 557,197 Malignant Neoplasms (i.e. cancer)
- 162,555 Cerebrovascular disease
- 124,777 Chronic Low. Respiratory Disease
- 105,796 Unintentional Injury
- 73,248 Diabetes Mellitus
- 65,418 Influenza & Pneumonia
- 58,866 Alzheimer's disease
- 40,801 Nephritis
- 33,569 Septicemia
(out of a total population of 283,974,000 people in the U.S. at least 1 year old)
Sources and references
- CIA World Factbook 2004
- Mortality - The Medical Dictionary by Medterms
- "10 Leading Causes of Death, United States" from the Center for Disease Control
Death and dying
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