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Main article: Neurotansmitter uptake inhibitors
File:Serotonin (5-HT).svg
Norepinephrine structure




A monoamine reuptake inhibitor (MRI)[1] is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor of one or more of the three major monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine by blocking the action of one or more of the respective monoamine transporters (MATs), of which include the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT). This in turn results in an increase in the synaptic concentrations of one or more of these neurotransmitters and therefore an increase in monoaminergic neurotransmission.

The majority of currently approved antidepressants act as MRIs including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and most of the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs).[2] Many psychostimulants used either as anorectics or in the treatment of ADHD also behave as MRIs.[3] Additionally, psychostimulants acting as MRIs that affect dopamine such as cocaine and methylphenidate are often abused as recreational drugs.[4] As a result, many of them have become controlled substances, which in turn has resulted in the clandestine synthesis of a vast array of designer drugs for the purpose of bypassing drug laws, a prime example of such is the mixed monoamine reuptake inhibitor and releasing agent mephedrone.[5]

Types of MRIsEdit

There are a variety of different kinds of MRIs, of which include the following:

Refer to the above articles for more information on MRIs.

See alsoEdit


  1. Axel AM, Mikkelsen JD, Hansen HH (June 2010). Tesofensine, a novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor, induces appetite suppression by indirect stimulation of alpha1 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor pathways in the diet-induced obese rat. Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 35 (7): 1464–76.
  2. (16 July 2008) Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. URL accessed 12 May 2012.
  3. (2008) Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology, Springer. URL accessed 12 May 2012.
  4. (15 April 2011) Lowinson and Ruiz's Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. URL accessed 12 May 2012.
  5. Hadlock GC, Webb KM, McFadden LM, et al. (November 2011). 4-Methylmethcathinone (mephedrone): neuropharmacological effects of a designer stimulant of abuse. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 339 (2): 530–6.

Antidepressants (ATC N06A) edit
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) Harmaline, Iproclozide, Iproniazid, Isocarboxazid, Nialamide, Phenelzine, Selegiline, Toloxatone, Tranylcypromine
Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) Brofaromine, Moclobemide
Dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DARI) Amineptine, Phenmetrazine, Vanoxerine, Modafinil
Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors Bupropion
Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) or (NARI) Atomoxetine, Maprotiline, Reboxetine, Viloxazine
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) Duloxetine, Milnacipran, Venlafaxine
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Alaproclate, Etoperidone, Citalopram, Escitalopram, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Paroxetine, Sertraline, Zimelidine
Selective serotonin reuptake enhancer (SSRE) Tianeptine
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Butriptyline, Clomipramine, Desipramine, Dibenzepin, Dothiepin, Doxepin, Imipramine, Iprindole, Lofepramine, Melitracen, Nortriptyline, Opipramol, Protriptyline, Trimipramine
Tetracyclic antidepressants Maprotiline, Mianserin, Nefazodone, Trazodone
Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) Mirtazapine

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