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For other uses see:Modeling (disambiguation)

Modelling or modeling is a technique in behaviour therapy in which the client learns by observing a target behaviour perfomed competently by another person.

The general role of modelling in learning was advocated by Miller & Dollard (1941)as one of the main methods of socialization of children.

Bandura built on their ideas and developed social learning theory. He saw the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others in the learning process, adding in a substantial cognitive component. The processes underlying observational learning are:

  • Characteristics of the modelled behaviour.- How distinct is it? how complex? how often is it available for observation?
  • Observer characteristics - How attentive are they? What are their expectations in the situation? How stressed are they
  • Post learning encoding and practice - How easy is it to symbolically encode the information, and togo through both symbolic and motor rehearsal),
  • Subsequent motor reproduction - How physically capable is the learner? Is quality feedback available?

Motivation, including external, vicarious and self reinforcement.


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