Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Mirroring in simplest form is copying what someone else is doing while communicating with them. Observed in people exhibiting similar postures, gestures or voice tonality.
This copying or miming includes: Gestures; Movements; Body language ; Muscle tensions; Expressions; Tones; Eye movements; Breathing; Tempo; Accent (linguistics); Attitude (psychology); Choice of words; Metaphors, and; everything discernable in communication.
Mirroring happens very naturally when people are conversing. The listeners will typically smile or frown along with the speaker talking to them. If one person throws in sports metaphors, another person, who is in rapport and mirroring, will likely parry along similar lines.
Somewhat like a communication dance. There is matching as if in a dance, while having normal conversation. People do this naturally with their silent body language and spoken words.
When meeting people, if you display the same expression as they have, or mirror their expression, they will generally be much more friendly. You might see this related to the way a person accepts their own image when looking in a mirror.
Crossover mirroring where match one person's movement is matched with another type of action, sound, or different movement.
Direct mirroring and facing right at people is intense. Used by lovers, people with high familiarity or interest in one-another such as opponents in a contest.
Postural Mirror-image mirroring where one person’s left side ‘matches’ the other person’s right side shows strong rapport and typically Affinity (sociology) or empathy and increasing your own synchronicity with someone can also smooth conversation.
Mirroring is common in social interactions and awareness of the process is a powerful way to influence other peoples behavior while maintaining your own position and intent.
If the person you are mirroring is stressed or unwell, you can mirror them with crossover mirroring. If they breath heavy, move your head slower, the reason for this is that mirroring someone closely will often cause you to feel their feelings.
The best rapport may be gained by mirroring not too exactly, but close enough so they get that comfortable feeling without feeling mocked.
Incongruency can be mirrored for rapport. If someone says Great but looks or sounds downtrodden, a mirroring reply would be to incongruently say "Good" with a similar down attitude like them.
Mirroring in psychotherapyEdit
Mirroring in psychodramaEdit
Also called Matching or Pacing, the extent to which you can match another person's behavior, both verbally and non-verbally, will increase rapport, and there are as many channels as your sensory ability can discriminate.
- Eye contact
- Facial expression
- Interpersonal interaction
- Neuro-linguistic programming
- Nonverbal communication
- Mirror neurons
- Psychotherapeutic processes
- Self psychology
- Ahern, G. (2003). Designing and implementing coaching/mentoring competencies: A case study: Counselling Psychology Quarterly Vol 16(4) Dec 2003, 373-383.
- Andersen, C. F. (2007). Vegetative identification: An interpersonal neurobiological phenomenon: Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening Vol 44(2) Feb 2007, 132-138.
- Austin, D. (2001). In search of the self: The use of vocal holding techniques with adults traumatized as children: Music Therapy Perspectives Vol 19(1) 2001, 22-30.
- Belous, V. V. (1998). Approaching integrative developmental psychology: Voprosy Psychologii No 2 1998, 10-17.
- Bollas, C. (1999). Dead mother, dead child. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.
- Campbell, J. (2003). Diamonds are forever: Mining precious stones in the group: Group Analysis Vol 36(4) Dec 2003, 527-537.
- Charles, M. (2003). Mirroring From the Perspective of the Theories of Matte-Blanco: Psychoanalytic Review Vol 90(6) Dec 2003, 791-809.
- Chiavegatti, M. G. (2002). Negative identity and "mirror hunger." Psichiatria e Psicoterapia Analitica Vol 21(2) Jun 2002, 128-137.
- Consalvo, K. E., Piscitelli, L. D., Williamson, L., Policarpo, G. D., Englander, M., Lyons, K., et al. (2007). Treating one of our own: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing Vol 11(2) Apr 2007, 227-231.
- Cook, T. W. (1941). Mirror position and negative transfer: Journal of Experimental Psychology Vol 29(2) Aug 1941, 155-160.
- Devor, A. H. (2004). Witnessing and mirroring: A fourteen stage model of transsexual identity formation: Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy Vol 8(1-2) 2004, 41-67.
- Espay, A. J., Li, J. Y., Johnston, L., Chen, R., & Lang, A. E. (2005). Mirror movements in parkinsonism: Evaluation of a new clinical sign: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 76(10) Oct 2005, 1355-1359.
- Farmer, S. F. (2005). Mirror movements in neurology: Comment: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Vol 76(10) Oct 2005, 1330.
- Field, T., Field, T., Sanders, C., & Nadel, J. (2001). Children with autism display more social behaviors after repeated imitation sessions: Autism Vol 5(3) Sep 2001, 317-323.
- Frank, M. M. (2001). On mirroring and mirror hunger: Psychoanalysis & Contemporary Thought Vol 24(1) Win 2001, 3-29.
- Frolund, L. (1997). Early shame and mirroring: Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review Vol 20(1) 1997, 35-57.
- Gergely, G. (1996). "Oops!" or the psychology of awakening: The role of social mirroring in the development of self-awareness and self-control: Pszichologia: Az MTA Pszichologiai Intezetenek folyoirata Vol 16(4) 1996, 361-382.
- Hartmann, H.-P., & Dickson, N. (2003). Mirroring and Mentalizing: a Commentary: Selbstpsychologie: Europaische Zeitschrift fur psychoanalytische Therapie und Forschung/ Self Psychology: European Journal for Psychoanalytic Therapy and Research Vol 4(11) 2003, 91-102.
- Hurley, S. (2005). Social heuristics that make us smarter: Philosophical Psychology Vol 18(5) Oct 2005, 585-612.
- Iacoboni, M. (2007). Face to face: The neural basis of social mirroring and empathy: Psychiatric Annals Vol 37(4) Apr 2007, 236-241.
- Jing, G., Deqing, T., & Longhui, L. (2001). Visual-motor deficit in children with learning disabilities: Chinese Mental Health Journal Vol 15(6) Nov 2001, 388-390.
- Jonsson, C.-O., & Clinton, D. (2006). What do Mothers Attune to During Interactions With Their Infants? : Infant and Child Development Vol 15(4) Jul-Aug 2006, 387-402.
- Julian, A. M. (1997). Implications of inadequate mirroring in formation and treatment of a self-disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Kellermann, P. F. (2007). Let's face it: Mirroring in psychodrama: Baim, Clark (Ed); Burmeister, Jorge (Ed); Maciel, Manuela (Ed).
- Kouneli, E. (2005). The Image of the Self in the Mirror of the Supervising Group: Group Analysis Vol 38(4) Dec 2005, 558-568.
- Legerstee, M., & Varghese, J. (2001). The role of maternal affect mirroring on social expectancies in three-month-old infants: Child Development Vol 72(5) Sep-Oct 2001, 1301-1313.
- L'Hote, C. (2007). The representationalist's dilemma. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- MacLachlan, M., McDonald, D., & Waloch, J. (2004). Mirror treatment of lower limb phantom pain: A case study: Disability and Rehabilitation: An International, Multidisciplinary Journal Vol 26(14-15) Jul-Aug 2004, 901-904.
- Martignetti, C. A. (1995). A comparative study of idealization, mirroring, and perceptions of parental authority in the devotees of a guru. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Menarini, R. (1996). The symptom in the group situation. (Trans S. D. Weston): Group Analysis Vol 29(4) Dec 1996, 441-447.
- Meyer, J. A., & Hobson, R. P. (2004). Orientation in relation to self and other: The case of autism: Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems Vol 5(2) 2004, 221-244.
- Mojovic, M. B. (2007). The impact of the post-totalitarian social context on the group matrix: Group Analysis Vol 40(3) Sep 2007, 394-403.
- Moss, G. A., Gunn, R. W., & Kubacki, K. (2008). Gender and web design: The implications of the mirroring principle for the services branding model: Journal of Marketing Communications Vol 14(1) Feb 2008, 37-57.
- Music, G. (2005). Surfacing the depths: Thoughts on imitation, resonance and growth: Journal of Child Psychotherapy Vol 31(1) Apr 2005, 72-90.
- Okamoto, E. (1964). Personality trait deduced from behavior: Theory I. Mirror drawing measures on the vertivity axis: Japanese Psychological Research 6(3) 1964, 99-107.
- Pembroke, N. (2004). Trinity, Love, and Pastoral Mirroring: Pastoral Psychology Vol 53(2) Nov 2004, 163-174.
- Pines, M. (2002). Normal and pathological: Mirroring in neurosis and psychosis: Clinica y Analisis Grupal Vol 24(1) Jul 2002, 9-25.
- Pines, M. (2003). Social brain and social group: How mirroring connects people: Group Analysis Vol 36(4) Dec 2003, 507-513.
- Rand, M. L. (2001). A bedtime story: Sleeping through the night: Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health Vol 16(2) Win 2001, 181-188.
- Reder, L. M., Angstadt, P., Cary, M., Erickson, M. A., & Ayers, M. S. (2002). A reexamination of stimulus-frequency effects in recognition: Two mirrors for low- and high-frequency pseudowords: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Vol 28(1) Jan 2002, 138-152.
- Reis, B. E. (2004). You are requested to close the eyes: Psychoanalytic Dialogues Vol 14(3) 2004, 349-371.
- Reiten, J. A. (2006). The use of nonverbal synchrony in creating trust and rapport in a culturally diverse therapeutic setting. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Rhode, M. (2005). Mirroring, imitation, identification: The sense of self in relation to the mother's internal world: Journal of Child Psychotherapy Vol 31(1) Apr 2005, 52-71.
- Robinson, C. M. (1996). Alcoholics Anonymous as seen from the perspective of self psychology: Smith College Studies in Social Work Vol 66(2) Mar 1996, 129-145.
- Rohde-Dachser, C. (1999). The struggle for empathy--Attempting to interpret masochistic fantasy enactments: International Forum of Psychoanalysis Vol 8(2) Oct 1999, 115-123.
- Salander, B. J. (2001). Adolescents' reflections on the mirror's role in identity and sense of self as outcomes of responding to paintings with mirror images. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Sato, W., & Yoshikawa, S. (2007). Spontaneous facial mimicry in response to dynamic facial expressions: Cognition Vol 104(1) Jul 2007, 1-18.
- Seiler, K. (2003). Summary of a lecture by Lewis Aron: "Empathy and authenticity in theoretical relationships: A clinical investigation." Selbstpsychologie: Europaische Zeitschrift fur psychoanalytische Therapie und Forschung/ Self Psychology: European Journal for Psychoanalytic Therapy and Research Vol 4(13-14) Dec 2003, 461-464.
- Sharma, P., & Hannafin, M. (2004). Scaffolding Critical Thinking in an Online Course: An Exploratory Study: Journal of Educational Computing Research Vol 31(2) 2004, 181-208.
- Sharpley, C. F., Halat, J., Rabinowicz, T., Weiland, B., & Stafford, J. (2001). Standard posture, postural mirroring and client-perceived rapport: Counselling Psychology Quarterly Vol 14(4) Dec 2001, 267-280.
- Shipton, G. (1999). Self-reflection and the mirror. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.
- Sikstrom, S. (2001). The variance theory of the mirror effect in recognition memory: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Vol 8(3) Sep 2001, 408-438.
- Smith, M. (2001). Critical incident debriefing in groups: A group analytic perspective: Psychodynamic Counselling Vol 7(3) Aug 2001, 329-346.
- Target, M. (2007). Is our sexuality our own? A developmental model of sexuality based on early affect mirroring: British Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 23(4) Oct 2007, 517-530.
- Thomasgard, M., Boreman, C., & Metz, W. P. (2004). A Family Under Siege: Empathic Mirroring and Collaborative Care: Families, Systems, & Health Vol 22(2) Sum 2004, 245-255.
- Trevarthen, C. (2003). Conversations with a two-month-old. Philadelphia, PA: Whurr Publishers.
- Urlic, I. (1999). Mirroring of psychogenic autistic barriers and neurotic boundaries in group process: Group Analysis Vol 32(4) Dec 1999, 535-546.
- Van Swol, L. M. (2003). The effects of nonverbal mirroring on perceived persuasiveness, agreement with an imitator, and reciprocity in a group discussion: Communication Research Vol 30(4) Aug 2003, 461-480.
- Wahler, R. G., & Meginnis, K. L. (1997). Strengthening child compliance through positive parenting practices: What works? : Journal of Clinical Child Psychology Vol 26(4) Dec 1997, 433-440.
- Walz, R. J. (2002). Ego dissolution and recuperation in William Wordsworth's "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud." PsyART Vol 6 Jul-Oct 2002, No Pagination Specified.
- Warren, J. E., Sauter, D. A., Eisner, F., Wiland, J., Dresner, M. A., Wise, R. J. S., et al. (2006). Positive emotions preferentially engage an auditory-motor "mirror" system: Journal of Neuroscience Vol 26(50) Dec 2006, 13067-13075.
- Weinberg, H., & Toder, M. (2004). The Hall of Mirrors in Small, Large and Virtual Groups: Group Analysis Vol 37(4) Dec 2004, 492-507.
- Weiskopf, D. A. (2005). Mental mirroring as the origin of attributions: Mind & Language Vol 20(5) Nov 2005, 495-520.
- Winnicott, D. W. (2003). Mirror-role of mother and family in child development. Philadelphia, PA: Whurr Publishers.
- Mirroring a tool for Rapport
- Matching and mirroring
- Effective Mirroring
- NLP and Social
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|