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"Mindfulness means learning to pay attention intentionally, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally." [1]

Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is an eight week program, developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn in 1979 at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center.

Research shows that MBSR is enormously empowering for patients with chronic pain, hypertension, heart disease, cancer, and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as for psychological problems such as anxiety and panic.

Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy grew from this work. Zindel Segal, Mark Williams and John Teasdale adapted the MBSR program so it could be used especially for people who had suffered repeated bouts of depression in their lives.

See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit



  • Kabat-Zinn, J. and Chapman-Waldrop, A. Compliance with an outpatient stress reduction program: rates and predictors of completion. J.Behav. Med. (1988) 11:333-352.
  • Bernhard, J., Kristeller, J. and Kabat-Zinn, J. Effectiveness of relaxation and visualization techniques as a adjunct to phototherapy and photochemotherapy of psoriasis. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1988) 19:572-73.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J., Massion, A.O., Kristeller, J., Peterson, L.G., Fletcher, K., Pbert, L., Linderking, W., Santorelli, S.F. Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Am. J Psychiatry (1992) 149:936-943.
  • Miller, J., Fletcher, K. and Kabat-Zinn, J. Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry (1995) 17:192-200.
  • Massion, A.O., Teas, J., Hebert, J.R., Wertheimer, M.D., and Kabat-Zinn, J. Meditation, melatonin, and breast/prostate cancer: Hypothesis and preliminary data. Medical Hypotheses (1995) 44:39-46.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. Chapman, A, and Salmon, P. The relationship of cognitive and somatic components of anxiety to patient preference for alternative relaxation techniques. Mind/ Body Medicine (1997) 2:101-109.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J., Wheeler, E., Light, T., Skillings, A., Scharf, M.S., Cropley, T. G., Hosmer, D., and Bernhard, J. Influence of a mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention on rates of skin clearing in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis undergoing phototherapy (UVB) and photochemotherapy (PUVA) Psychosomat Med (1998) 60: 625-632.
  • Saxe, G., Hebert, J., Carmody, J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Rosenzweig, P., Jarzobski, D., Reed, G., and Blute, R. Can Diet, in conjunction with Stress Reduction, Affect the Rate of Increase in Prostate-specific Antigen After Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer? J. of Urology, In Press, 2001.

Additional materialEdit



  • Kaplan, HK, Goldenberg, DL, and Galvin-Nadeau, M. (1993) The impact of a meditation-based stress reduction program on fibromyalgia. Gen Hosp. Psychiatry 15:284-289.
  • Goldenberg, DL, Kaplin, KH, Nadeau, MG, et al. (1994) A controlled study of a stress reduction, cognitive-behavorial treatment program in fibromyalgia. Musculoskeletal Pain 2:53-66.
  • Astin, JA.(1997) Stress Reduction through mindfulness meditation: Effects of psychosocial symptomatology, sense of control, and spiritual experiences. Psychother Psychosom 66:97-106.
  • Roth, B and Creaser, T.(1997) Mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction: Experience with a bilingual inner-city program. The Nurse Practitioner 22:150-176.
  • Shapiro, SL, Schwartz, GE, and Bonner, G. (1998) Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. J Behav Med 1:93-98.
  • Speca, M, Carlson, LE, Goodey, E, Angen, M. A randomized, wait-list controlled clinical trial: the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients. Psychosom Med (2000) 62:613-622.

External linksEdit

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