Ad blocker interference detected!
Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers
Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.
Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Military recruitment is an aspect of personnel recruitment and is the act of requesting people, usually male adults, to join a military voluntarily. Involuntary military recruitment is known as conscription. Many countries that have abolished conscription use military recruiters to persuade people to join, often at an early age. To facilitate this process, militaries have established recruiting commands. These units are solely responsible for increasing military enlistment.
Military recruitment can be considered part of military science if analysed as part of military history. Acquiring large amounts of forces in a relatively short period of time, especially voluntarily, as opposed to stable development, is a frequent phenomenon in history.
Recent cross-cultural studies suggest that, throughout the world, the same broad categories may be used to define recruitment appeals. They include war, economic motivation, education, family and friends, politics, and identity and psychosocial factors. 
Wartime recruitment strategies in the USEdit
Prior to the outbreak of World War I, military recruitment in the US was conducted primarily by individual states.  Upon entering the war, however, the federal government took on an increased role.
The increased emphasis on a national effort was reflected in WWI recruitment methods. Peter A. Padilla and Mary Riege Laner define six basic appeals to these recruitment campaigns: patriotism, job/career/education, adventure/challenge, social status, travel, and miscellaneous. Between 1915 and 1918, 42% of all army recruitment posters were themed primarily by patriotism . And though other themes - such as adventure and greater social status - would play an increased role during World War II recruitment, appeals to serve one’s country remained the dominant selling point.
After WWII, military recruitment shifted significantly. With no war calling men and women to duty, the United States refocused its recruitment efforts to present the military as a career option, and as a means of achieving a higher education. A majority - 55% - of all recruitment posters would serve this end. And though peacetime would not last, factors such as the move to an all-volunteer military would ultimately keep career-oriented recruitment efforts in place. 
Recruitment without conscriptionEdit
On February 20, 1970, the President’s Commission on an All-Volunteer Armed Force unanimously agreed that the United States would be best served by an all-volunteer military. In supporting this recommendation, the committee noted that recruitment efforts would have to be intensified, as new enlistees would need to be convinced rather than conscripted. Much like the post-WWII era, these new campaigns put a stronger emphasis on job opportunity. As such, the committee recommended “improved basic compensation and conditions of service, proficiency pay, and accelerated promotions for the highly skilled to make military career opportunities more attractive.” These new directives were to be combined with “an intensive recruiting effort.”  Finalized in mid-1973, the recruitment of a “professional” military was met with success. In 1975 and 1976, military enlistments exceeded expectations, with over 365,000 men and women entering the military. Though this may, in part, have been the result of a lack of civilian jobs during the recession, it nevertheless stands to underline the ways in which recruiting efforts responded to the circumstances of the time. 
Indeed, recommendations made by the President's Commission continue to work in present-day recruitment efforts. Understanding the need for greater individual incentive, the US military has re-packaged the benefits of the GI Bill. Though originally intended as compensation for service, the bill is now seen as a recruiting tool. Today, the GI Bill is "no longer a reward for service rendered, but an inducement to serve and has become a significant part of recruiters’ pitches.” 
For a description of controversies surrounding current US Military recruitment, refer to this page. It describes controversy over recruiters' honesty, potential exploitation of high-school students, military paying for education and providing job skills, and whether reformation is a better option than disassociation.
Military recruitment in the UKEdit
During both world wars and a period after the second, military service was mandatory for at least some of the British population. At other times, techniques similar to those outlined above have been used. The most prominent concern over the years has been the minimum age for recruitment, which has been 16 for many years. This has now been raised to 18 in relation to combat operations. In recent years, there have been various concerns over the techniques used in (especially) army recruitment in relation to the portrayal of such a career as an enjoyable adventure.
See also Edit
- Ensign, T. (2004). America's military today: The challenge of militarism. New York, NY: New Press.
- Military Psychology: a Comparative Image. (1968). American Psychologist Vol 23(2) Feb 1968, 112-121.
- Abrahams, N. M., Atwater, D. C., & Alf, E. F. (1977). Unobtrusive measurement of racial bias in job-placement decisions: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 62(1) Feb 1977, 116-119.
- Anonymous. (1967). Fiscal Year 1968 Work Program for the Department of the Army. Oxford, England: George Washington U , Human Resourc.
- Ao, J., Liu, J., Chen, Q., Song, H., & Zhang, Z. (2002). Mental health of air force recruits: Chinese Mental Health Journal Vol 16(1) Jan 2002, 47.
- Appelgren, L. (1967). An Attrition Game: Operations Research 15(1) 1967, 11-31.
- Bachman, J. G., Freedman-Doan, P., O'Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D., & Segal, D. R. (1999). Changing patterns of drug use among US military recruits before and after enlistment: American Journal of Public Health Vol 89(5) May 1999, 672-677.
- Baker, C. H. (1967). Target Detection Performance with a Stationary Radar Sweep-Line: Acta Psychologica 27 1967, 361-367.
- Baker, H. E., III, & Jennings, K. M. (2000). Limitations in "realistic recruiting" and subsequent socialization efforts: The case of Riddick Bowe and the United States Marine Corps: Public Personnel Management Vol 29(3) Fal 2000, 367-378.
- Balkin, D. B., & Groeneman, S. (1985). The effect of incentive compensation on recruitment: The case of the military: Personnel Administrator Vol 30(1) Jan 1985, 29-34.
- Barabanshchikov, A. V., Platonov, K. K., & Fedenko, N. F. (1967). A Contribution to the History of Soviet Military Psychology: Voprosy Psychologii 13(6) 1967, 76-84.
- Bastin, G. (1967). The Sociometrical Methods. Oxford, England: Hans Huber.
- Behague, D. P. (2008). Psychiatry and military conscription in Brazil: The search for opportunity and institutionalized therapy: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Vol 32(2) Jun 2008, 194-218.
- Berger, S. M. (1967). Social Structure and Mediated Learning: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 7(1, Pt 1) Sep 1967, 104-108.
- Berkowitz, L., & Lepage, A. (1967). Weapons as Aggression-Eliciting Stimuli: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol 7(2, Pt 1) Oct 1967, 202-207.
- Berkowitz, L., & LePage, A. (1996). Weapons as aggression-eliciting stimuli. Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin and Company.
- Berry, N. H. (1967). The Assessment of Recruit Aptitude for Service in the Marine Corps: Military Medicine 132(5) 1967, 347-353.
- Bhargava, H. K., & Snoap, K. J. (2003). Improving recruit distribution decisions in the US Marine Corps: Decision Support Systems Vol 36(1) Sep 2003, 19-30.
- Blakelock, E. H., Jr., & Houk, J. L. (1967). A Modified Version of Flanagan Critical Incident Technique Applied to Interaction of Counterinsurgent Forces with an Indigenous Population: Psychological Reports 20(2) 1967, 503-506.
- Boer, L. C., Harsveld, M., & Hermans, P. H. (1997). The selective-listening task as a test for pilots and air traffic controllers: Military Psychology Vol 9(2) 1997, 136-149.
- Boneau, C. A., & Cates, J. N. (1969). Psychology in the Scientific Manpower Commission's Draft Survey: American Psychologist Vol 24(5) May 1969, 551-553.
- Borman, W. C. (1982). Validity of behavioral assessment for predicting military recruiter performance: Journal of Applied Psychology Vol 67(1) Feb 1982, 3-9.
- Bourne, P. G. (1967). Some Observations on the Psychosocial Phenomena Seen in Basic Training: Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes 30(2) 1967, 187-196.
- Bowles, S. V., & Picano, J. J. (2006). Dimensions of coaching related to productivity and quality of life: Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research Vol 58(4) Fal 2006, 232-239.
- Brown, R. K. (1968). The Tiger Test as a Predictor of Cadet Retention During the First 13 Weeks at the Air Force Academy: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Bryant, G. W. (1968). Ideal Leader Behavior Descriptions of Appointed and Sociometrically Chosen Student Leaders: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Bulgarella, D. M. (1974). The longitudinal effects of severity on the socialization of recruits in the United States Marine Corps: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Cates, J. N. (1969). Impact of the draft on graduate education in psychology: American Psychologist Vol 24(11) Nov 1969, 1056-1057.
- Cavana, R. Y., Boyd, D. M., & Taylor, R. J. (2007). A systems thinking study of retention and recruitment issues for the New Zealand army electronic technician trade group: Systems Research & Behavioral Science Vol 24(2) Mar-Apr 2007, 201-216.
- Cavanaugh, J. L. (1975). Career decisions in the early postresidency years: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 132(3) Mar 1975, 277-280.
- Chapin, M. G. (2004). Violence Exposure in Home and Community: Influence on Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Army Recruits: Journal of Community Psychology Vol 32(5) Sep 2004, 527-541.
- Charles, G. (1986). "Effects of the military draft on mortality": Comment: New England Journal of Medicine Vol 315(7) Aug 1986, 453.
- Cheatham, H. E. (1984). Integration of women into the U.S. military: Sex Roles Vol 11(1-2) Jul 1984, 141-153.
- Chisum, G. T., & Hill, J. H. (1967). Flashblindness: the Effects of Preflash Adaption and Pupil Size: Aerospace Medicine 38(4) 1967, 395-399.
- Chuan-yun, L., Ling-zhi, C., & Xiao-hong, L. (2005). The Subtype of T Lymphocytes and ACTH Changes in Different Trait-anxiety Levels of New Recruits Under Ball Firing Examination: Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 13(4) Nov 2005, 477-479.
- Ciborowski, P. J. (1994). Choosing the military as a career: A group counseling program that addresses issues not presented by recruiters: School Counselor Vol 414) Mar 1994, 305-309.
- Conway, T. L., Woodruff, S. I., & Hervig, L. K. (2007). Women's smoking history prior to entering the US Navy: A prospective predictor of performance: Tobacco Control: An International Journal Vol 16(2) Apr 2007, 79-84.
- de Albuquerque, C. L., & Paes-Machado, E. (2004). The Hazing Machine: The Shaping of Brazilian Military Police Recruits: Policing & Society Vol 14(2) Jun 2004, 175-192.
- de Silva, H., Hobbs, C., & Hanks, H. (2001). Conscription of children in armed conflict--a form of child abuse. A study of 19 former child soldiers: Child Abuse Review Vol 10(2) Mar-Apr 2001, 125-134.
- Dean, M. A., Conte, J. M., & Blankenhorn, T. R. (2006). Examination of the predictive validity of Big Five personality dimensions across training performance criteria: Personality and Individual Differences Vol 41(7) Nov 2006, 1229-1239.
- Dertouzos, J. N., & Garber, S. (2006). Effectiveness of advertising in different media: The case of U.S. Army recruiting: Journal of Advertising Vol 35(2) Sum 2006, 111-122.
- Dobson, P., & Williams, A. (1989). The validation of the selection of male British Army officers: Journal of Occupational Psychology Vol 62(4) Dec 1989, 313-325.
- Eber, H. W. (1968). Relation of Age, Education, and Personality Characteristics to Military Rank in an Army Reserve Unit: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 15(1) Jan 1968, 89-90.
- Engelbrecht, W. (1975). Validation of a vocational aptitude battery and use of the results in a computer-assisted vocation-oriented test interpretation: I: Diagnostica Vol 21(1) 1975, 3-23.
- Fernandez, J. C. (1992). Soldier quality and job performance in team tasks: Social Science Quarterly Vol 73(2) Jun 1992, 253-265.
- Frenzel, G., Lilieblad, B., Skold, P., & Stahlberg, B. (1974). Investigations concerning the enlistment of conscripts: MPI-B Rapport No 102 Jun 1974, 46.
- Friedman, J. N. W., Oltmanns, T. F., Gleason, M. E. J., & Turkheimer, E. (2006). Mixed impressions: Reactions of strangers to people with pathological personality traits: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 40(4) Aug 2006, 395-410.
- Ganzach, Y., Pazy, A., Ohayun, Y., & Brainin, E. (2002). Social exchange and organizational commitment: Decision-making training for job choice as an alterative to the realistic job preview: Personnel Psychology Vol 55(3) Fal 2002, 613-637.
- Garber, A. K., Boyer, C. B., Pollack, L. M., Chang, Y. J., & Shafer, M.-A. (2008). Body mass index and disordered eating behaviors are associated with weight dissatisfaction in adolescent and young adult female military recruits: Military Medicine Vol 173(2) Feb 2008, 138-145.
- Gasbarri, A., & Bersani, G. (1992). Personality disorders and fitness for military service: Nosological and psychopathological comparison among disorders considered as a cause of unfitness and the DSM-III--R classification: Rivista di Psichiatria Vol 27(4) Jul-Aug 1992, 125-138.
- Giffen, M. B., & McNeil, J. S. (1967). Effect of Military Retirement on Dependents: Archives of General Psychiatry 17(6) 1967, 717-722.
- Goldberg, J., Richards, M. S., Anderson, R. J., & Rodin, M. B. (1991). Alcohol consumption in men exposed to the military draft lottery: A natural experiment: Journal of Substance Abuse Vol 3(3) 1991, 307-313.
- Goldstein, I. L. (1989). Cast-Off Youth: A Found Human Resource: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 34 (6), Jun, 1989.
- Goodman, A. F., & Lawson, H. B. (1967). Dod User Needs Study, Phase Ii: Flow of Scientific and Technical Information within the Defense Industry: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association 2 1967, 375-376.
- Gorriaran, A. J. (2004). Emotional intelligence in the selection of military recruiters: An analysis of recruiters in the field. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Gunderson, E. K., & Arthur, R. J. (1967). Prognosis for Psychiatric Patients in Naval Service: Military Medicine 132(9) 1967, 704-712.
- Gunderson, E. K., & Arthur, R. J. (1967). Prognosis for Severe Psychiatric Disabilities Incurred in Naval Service: Journal of Occupational Medicine 9(7) 1967, 327-335.
- Haiduk, G., Janik, K., & Kleinpeter, U. (1983). The brain-organic psychosyndrome and fitness for military service: Psychiatrie, Neurologie und Medizinische Psychologie Vol 35(7) Jul 1983, 405-408.
- Hamilton, R. F. (1968). A Research Note on the Mass Support for "Tough" Military Initiatives: American Sociological Review 33(3) 1968, 439-445.
*Haritos-Fatouros, M. (1995). The official torturer: A learning model for obedience to the authority of violence. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. *Hearst, N., Newman, T. B., & Hulley, S. B. (1986). "Effects of the military draft on mortality": Reply: New England Journal of Medicine Vol 315(7) Aug 1986, 454. *Hedlund, C. (1976). Commissioned army officers: A longitudinal study of vocational environment and adaptation of personnel from recruitment to promotion: Pedagogisk-Psykologiska Problem No 304 5-8 Nov 1976, 9. *Hindelang, R. L., Schwerin, M. J., & Farmer, W. L. (2004). Quality of life (QOL) in the U.S. Marine Corps: The validation of a QOL model for predicting reenlistment intentions: Military Psychology Vol 16(2) Apr 2004, 115-134. *Hobbs, C., Hanks, H., & de Silva, H. (2001). Conscription of children in armed conflict--A form of child abuse: A study of 19 former child soldiers: Child Abuse Review Vol 10(5) Sep-Oct 2001, 299. *Hoiberg, A., & Booth, R. F. (1973). Changes in attitudes and characteristics of marine recruits during the 1960s: Psychological Reports Vol 32(3, Pt 2) Jun 1973, 1079-1086. *Holloman, C. R. (1967). The Perceived Leadership Role of Military and Civilian Supervisors in a Military Setting: Personnel Psychology 20(2) 1967, 199-210. *Hooper, R. R. (1986). "Effects of the military draft on mortality": Comment: New England Journal of Medicine Vol 315(7) Aug 1986, 453-454. *Janowitz, M. (1975). The all-volunteer military as a "sociopolitical" problem: Social Problems Vol 22(3) Feb 1975, 432-449. *Jones, L. V. (2007). Some lasting consequences of US psychology programs in World Wars I and II: Multivariate Behavioral Research Vol 42(3) 2007, 593-608. *Jordan, T. E. (2002). Queen Victoria's Irish soldiers: Quality of life and social origins of the thin green line: Social Indicators Research Vol 57(1) Jan 2002, 73-88. *Kang, H. K., & Breslin, P. P. (1986). "Effects of the military draft on mortality": Comment: New England Journal of Medicine Vol 315(7) Aug 1986, 454. *Kepplinger, H. M., & Hachenberg, M. (1980). Demands from a minority group: A study of social change through the behavior of military draft resistance: Kolner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie Vol 32(3) Aug 1980, 508-534. *Kick, E. L., Davis, B. L., Kiefer, D. M., & Burns, T. J. (1998). A cross-national analysis of militarization and well-being relationships in developing countries: Social Science Research Vol 27(4) Dec 1998, 351-370. *Kidwell, B., & Langholtz, H. J. (1998). Personnel selection, preparation, and training for U. N. peacekeeping missions. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group. *Krauss, M. R., Russell, R. K., Powers, T. E., & Li, Y. (2006). Accession Standards for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Survival Analysis of Military Recruits, 1995-2000: Military Medicine Vol 171(2) Feb 2006, 99-102. *la Rocco, J. M., Ryman, D. H., & Biersner, R. J. (1977). Life history and mood as predictors of adjustment in Navy recruit training: Journal of Community Psychology Vol 5(1) Jan 1977, 46-51. *Lajewski, W. M., Liman, J. P., Swan, K. G., & Staton, S. M. (1997). Don't know, don't care: Medical students' knowledge of and attitudes toward military medical career opportunities and medical educational cost reimbursement: Military Medicine Vol 162(12) Dec 1997, 812-816. *Lang-Ree, O. C., & Martinussen, M. (2006). Applicant reactions and attitudes towards the selection procedure in the Norwegian Air Force: Human Factors and Aerospace Safety Vol 6(4) 2006, 345-358. *Lathan, C. A. (1993). The Navy environmental health officer: Analysis and comparison of the accession route of the Naval environmental health officers that possess strong leadership abilities: Dissertation Abstracts International. *Laurence, J. H. (2006). Poultry and Patriotism: Attitudes toward the U.S. Military. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International. *Laurence, J. H., & Ramsberger, P. F. (1991). Low-aptitude men in the military: Who profits, who pays? New York, NY, England: Praeger Publishers. *Lazar, A., Kravetz, S., & Zinger, A. (2004). Moderating Effects of Rater Personality on the Relation Between Candidate Self-Monitoring and Selection Interview Ratings: International Journal of Selection and Assessment Vol 12(4) Dec 2004, 321-326. *Ledot, D., Antoni, M., Calvet, P., Luccioni, H., & et al. (1988). The offspring of North African immigrants at an army selection center in Tarascon, France: A psychosociological study among 104 recruits: Psychologie Medicale Vol 20(10) Oct 1988, 1485-1488. *Lefroy, D. A. (1982). Differences on psychological measures related to military attrition: Dissertation Abstracts International. *Li, H., Li, X., Lei, M., Li, Y., & Gong, N. (2003). Meta-analysis of the SCL-90 results before and after military training of recruits: Chinese Mental Health Journal Vol 17(4) Apr 2003, 275, 272. *Li, L. (1993). On military pilot selection: Psychological Science (China) Vol 16(5) Sep-Oct 1993, 299-304. *Lievens, F., Van Hoye, G., & Schreurs, B. (2005). Examining the relationship between employer knowledge dimensions and organizational attractiveness: An application in a military context: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology Vol 78(4) Dec 2005, 553-572. *Linn, R. (1994). Morally puzzled individuals in a morally puzzled community: Resisting Israeli soldiers during war in Lebanon and the Intifada: Psychological Reports Vol 75(1, Pt 2), Spec Issue Aug 1994, 423-434. *Lomranz, J. (1995). "Thus we live, forever taking leave": The launching stage in the Israeli family: Social Behavior and Personality Vol 23(3) 1995, 287-302. *Lyon, W. B., & Oldaker, L. L. (1967). The Child, the School, and the Military Family: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 37(2) 1967, 269-270. *Macarthur, D. M. (1968). Current Emphasis on the Department of Defense's Social and Behavioral Sciences Program: American Psychologist Vol 23(2) Feb 1968, 104-107. *Macintosh, H. (1968). Separation Problems in Military Wives: American Journal of Psychiatry 125(2) 1968, 260-265. *Mack, D. (2003). May the Work I've Done Speak for Me: African American Civilian Corps Enrollees in Montana, 1933-1934: Western Journal of Black Studies Vol 27(4) Win 2003, 236-245. *MacLean, A. (2005). Lessons from the Cold War: Military Service and College Education: Sociology of Education Vol 78(3) Jul 2005, 250-266. *Mael, F. A., & Ashforth, B. E. (1995). Loyal from day one: Biodata, organizational identification, and turnover among newcomers: Personnel Psychology Vol 48(2) Sum 1995, 309-333. *Magyar, I., Lukacs, H., Mod, L., Alfoldi, A., & et al. (1986). Military induction, stress, and DST: Biological Psychiatry Vol 21(11) Sep 1986, 1102-1103. *Maier, M. H. (1988). On the need for quality control in validation research: Personnel Psychology Vol 41(3) Fal 1988, 497-502. *Mangelsdorff, A. D. (2000). Military psychology: Kazdin, Alan E (Ed). *Marler, L. J. (1992). Team oriented performance management model for total quality navy recruiting: Dissertation Abstracts International. *Marshall, K. P., & Fisher, C. (2005). Marketing Military Service: Benefits Segmentation Based on Generalized and Restricted Exchange: Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing Vol 14(1-2) 2005, 247-267. *Martin, T. J. (1995). Who stays, who leaves? An analysis of first-term Army attrition. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. *Masi, R. J. (1995). Transformational leadership and its roles in empowerment, productivity, and commitment to quality. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. *Masi, R. J., & Cooke, R. A. (2000). Effects of transformational leadership on subordinate motivation, empowering norms, and organizational productivity: International Journal of Organizational Analysis Vol 8(1) 2000, 16-47. *Mazzuchi, J. F., & Gilbert, A. C. (1974). Granting occupational preference to Marine recruits: A solution or a problem? : Vocational Guidance Quarterly Vol 23(1) Sep 1974, 61-67. *McGuire, F. L. (1990). Early Standards for Recruits. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. *McGuire, F. L. (1990). The Introduction of Binet-Type Testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. *McGuire, F. L. (1990). The Marginal Recruit. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. *McGuire, F. L. (1990). Recruit Screening in World War I. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. *McGuire, F. L. (1990). Recruit Screening in World War II. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. *McGuire, F. L. (1990). The Search for an Actuarial (Statistical) Approach to Screening. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. *McNeil, J. S., & Giffen, M. B. (1967). Military Retirement: the Retirement Syndrome: American Journal of Psychiatry 123(7) 1967, 848-854. *Merrill, L. L., Stander, V. A., Thomsen, C. J., Crouch, J. L., & Milner, J. S. (2004). Childhood Exposure to Family Violence and Attrition in the Navy: Military Medicine Vol 169(6) Jun 2004, 465-468. *Miller, L. W., Kaplan, R. J., & Edwards, W. (1967). Judge: a Value-Judgment-Based Tactical Command System: Organizational Behavior & Human Performance 2(4) 1967, 329-374. *Munnoch, K., & Bridger, R. (2008). The relationship between a mechanical comprehension test and weapons-training tasks: Military Psychology Vol 20(2) 2008, 95-101. *Nelson, P. D., & Berry, N. H. (1968). Cohesion in Marine Recruit Platoons: Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied 68(1) 1968, 63-71. *No authorship, i. (1951). Across the Secretary's desk: American Psychologist Vol 6(3) Mar 1951, 96-97. *No authorship, i. (1967). Selective Service and the College Qualification Test: American Psychologist Vol 22(3) Mar 1967, 234. *No authorship, i. (1984). School counselors and military recruitment (adopted in March 1982): School Counselor Vol 32(1) Sep 1984, 73-75. *Nourizadeh, S. M. (2004). How recruiter coping styles and personality impact on job performance. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. *Ord, I. G. (1968). The P.I.R. Test and Derivatives: Australian Psychologist 2(3) 1968, 137-146. *Pallone, N. J., & Yeandel, F. A. (1968). Religious Influence and Social Perception. Ii: the Clear Triumph of Religious over Military Authority: Journal of Social Psychology 75(1) 1968, 147-154. *Parker, R. O. (1997). The influences of organizational culture on the personnel selection process. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. *Pepin, R. R. (1967). A Study of Scholastic Achievements and Personal Adjustments of Military and Non-Military Transitory High School Students: Dissertation Abstracts International. *Picano, J. J., Roland, R. R., Williams, T. J., & Rollins, K. D. (2006). Sentence completion test verbal defensiveness as a predictor of success in military personnel selection: Military Psychology Vol 18(3) 2006, 207-218. *Preiss, M., Novak, T., Klose, J., Samankova, D., Brezinova, K., & Stepankova, H. (2006). Influence on result of personality assessment: Results of Temperament and Character Inventory: Ceskoslovenska Psychologie Vol 50(3) 2006, 251-261. *Prociuk, T. J. (1988). Applied psychology in the Canadian Forces: An overview of current research: Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne Vol 29(1) Jan 1988, 94-102. *Raymond, J., Henry, F., & De, R. (1968). Simulation Behavior Symptomatic of Mental Illness in an Adolescent: Annales Medico-Psychologiques 1(1) 1968, 139-140. *Reeve, E. G. (1971). Validation of selection boards and procedures as exemplified in a study of the War Office Selection Boards. Oxford, England: Academic Press. *Robinson, G. L. (1991). Drill instructor attributes, platoon characteristics, and attrition rate differences in United States Marine Corps recruit training: Dissertation Abstracts International. *Rotmistrov, P. A. (1968). 50 Years of the Soviet Higher Military School: Vestnik Vysshei Shkoly 26(2) 1968, 7-12. *Satin, D. G. (1967). Allocation of Mental Health Resources in a Military Setting: a Community Mental Health Approach: Military Medicine 132(9) 1967, 698-703. *Schreurs, B., Derous, E., De Witte, K., Proost, K., Andriessen, M., & Glabeke, K. (2005). Attracting Potential Applicants to the Military: The Effects of Initial Face-to-Face Contacts: Human Performance Vol 18(2) 2005, 105-122. *Serfaty, E. M., Masautis, A. E., & Foglia, V. L. (2004). Epidemiology of sleep disorders: Acta Psiquiatrica y Psicologica de America Latina Vol 50(1) Mar 2004, 59-66. *Small, G. W. (1969). The usefulness of Canadian Army Selection Tests in a culturally restricted population: Canadian Psychologist/Psychologie canadienne Vol 10(1) Jan-Feb 1969, 9-19. *Sperling, P. I. (1968). A New Direction for Military Psychology: Political Psychology: American Psychologist Vol 23(2) Feb 1968, 97-103. *Stander, V. A., Merrill, L. L., Thomsen, C. J., & Milner, J. S. (2007). Posttraumatic stress symptoms in Navy personnel: Prevalence rates among recruits in basic training: Journal of Anxiety Disorders Vol 21(6) 2007, 860-870. *Steinhaus, S. D., & Waters, B. K. (1991). Biodata and the application of a psychometric perspective: Military Psychology Vol 3(1) 1991, 1-23. *Sulzer, J. L., & Burglass, R. K. (1968). Responsibility Attribution, Empathy, and Punitiveness: Journal of Personality 36(2) 1968, 272-282. *Talcott, G. W., Haddock, C. K., Klesges, R. C., Lando, H., & Fiedler, E. (1999). Prevalence and predictors of discharge in United States Air Force basic military training: Military Medicine Vol 164(4) Apr 1999, 269-274. *Tate, M. M. (1987). Utility of demographic and psychological measures for the prediction of Army separation: Dissertation Abstracts International. *Thomas, C. A., Jr. (1967). Return-to-Duty Oriented Group Psychotherapy in an Army Psychiatric Treatment Center: Military Medicine 132(9) 1967, 716-721. *Trent, L. K., Hilton, S. M., & Melcer, T. (2007). Premilitary tobacco use by male Marine Corps recruits: Military Medicine Vol 172(10) Oct 2007, 1077-1083. *Vander Weg, M. W., Peterson, A. L., Ebbert, J. O., DeBon, M., Klesges, R. C., & Haddock, C. K. (2008). Prevalence of alternative forms of tobacco use in a population of young adult military recruits: Addictive Behaviors Vol 33(1) Jan 2008, 69-82. *Wallen, V. (1967). Culture Shock and the Problem of Adjustment to a New Overseas Environment: Military Medicine 132(9) 1967, 722-725. *Wang, F.-r., & Zhang, Y.-l. (2005). The Psychological Selection of Military Officers (PSMO) in the United States, Germany and Belgium: Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 13(2) May 2005, 247-249. *Wang, J.-L., Zhang, Y.-j., & Luo, G.-y. (2005). A Study on Applicability of Brief MMPI for Chinese Armed Police Force: Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 13(2) May 2005, 138-140. *Waters, B. K., & Lee, G. C. (1982). Legal and political considerations in large-scale adaptive testing: HumRRO Professional Paper PP 1-82 Mar 1982, 29-32. *Wei, W., Ping-Ging, G., & Li-Ying, G. (2006). Research on the Interaction Anxiousness Status of Recruits in Chinese People's Armed Police Force: Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 14(2) Apr 2006, 164-165. *Williams, A., Hagerty, B. M., Yousha, S. M., Horrocks, J., Hoyle, K. S., & Liu, D. (2004). Psychosocial Effects of the Boot Strap Intervention in Navy Recruits: Military Medicine Vol 169(10) Oct 2004, 814-820. *Williams, R. A., Hagerty, B. M., Yousha, S. M., Hoyle, K. S., & Oe, H. (2002). Factors associated with depression in Navy recruits: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 58(4) Apr 2002, 323-337. *Xiao, L., Miao, D., Xiao, W., Wu, S., & Li, H. (2007). Personality measurement for recruit selection: Acta Psychologica Sinica Vol 39(2) Mar 2007, 362-370. *Yeandel, F. A. (1967). Social Authority and Social Perception: a Laboratory Study of the Effect of Pressure to Conform Perceptually Applied by Religious and Military Authority Surrogates: Dissertation Abstracts International. *Ying, Y., Ya-Ning, X., Jing-Bo, Z., & Rui-Yue, G. (2006). A Study on Quality of Life of Recruits in the Chinese People's Armed Police Forces of Guangdong Province Fore-and-aft the Basic Military Training: Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 14(2) Apr 2006, 168-169. *Zeidner, J., Johnson, C. D., & Scholarios, D. (1997). Evaluating military selection and classification systems in the multiple job context: Military Psychology Vol 9(2) 1997, 169-186. *Zuliani, R. A. (1989). The realistic organizational preview and the joining decision process: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- United States Navy Recruiting Information
- United States Army Recruiting Information
- United States Marine Corps Recruiting Information
- United States Air Force Recruiting Information
- United States Coast Guard Recruiting Information
- ↑ Brett, Rachel, and Irma Specht. Young Soldiers: Why They Choose to Fight. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2004. ISBN 1-58826-261-8
- ↑ Padilla, Peter A. and Mary Riege Laner. “Trends in Military Influences on Army Recruitment: 1915-1953.” Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 71, No. 4. Fall 2001421-36. Austin: University of Texas Press. Page 423
- ↑ Padilla, Peter A. and Mary Riege Laner. “Trends in Military Influences on Army Recruitment: 1915-1953.” Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 71, No. 4. Fall 2001421-36. Austin: University of Texas Press. Page 423
- ↑ Padilla, Peter A. and Mary Riege Laner. “Trends in Military Influences on Army Recruitment: 1915-1953.” Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 71, No. 4. Fall 2001421-36. Austin: University of Texas Press. Page 433
- ↑ The Report of the President’s Commission on an All-Volunteer Armed Force. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1970. Page 18.
- ↑ Bliven, Bruce Jr. Volunteers, One and All. New York: Readers Digest Press, 1976. ISBN 0-88349-058-7
- ↑ White, John B. Lieutenant Commander, US Naval Reserve, Ph. D. "The GI Bill: Recruiting Bonus, Retention Onus." Military Review, July-August 2004.
- ↑ BBC News | UK | Marching orders for teenage soldiers?
- ↑ BBC NEWS | UK | MoD denies 'war glamour' claim
- ↑ BBC NEWS | Education | Teachers reject 'Army propaganda'