Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Changes: Michael Merzenich

Edit

Back to page

(Created page with "{{BioPsy}} '''Michael M. Merzenich''' is a professor emeritus neuroscientist at the University of California, San Francisco. His contributions to the field are numerous. ...")
 
(External links)
 
Line 523: Line 523:
 
[[Category:University of Wisconsin–Madison alumni]]
 
[[Category:University of Wisconsin–Madison alumni]]
 
[[Category:1942 births]]
 
[[Category:1942 births]]
[[Category:People from Oregon]]
 
 
[[Category:Living people]]
 
[[Category:Living people]]
 
[[Category:University of California, San Francisco faculty]]
 
[[Category:University of California, San Francisco faculty]]
[[Category:American bloggers]]
+
[[Category:American health care businesspeople]]
+
{{enWP|Michael Merzenich}}
[[Category:American chief executives]]
 

Latest revision as of 21:12, August 1, 2011

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)


Michael M. Merzenich is a professor emeritus neuroscientist at the University of California, San Francisco. His contributions to the field are numerous. He took the sensory cortex maps developed by his predecessors like Archie Tunturi, Clinton Woolsey, Vernon Mountcastle, Wade Marshall, and Philip Bard, and refined them using dense micro-electrode mapping techniques. Using this, he definitively showed there to be multiple somatotopic maps of the body in the postcentral sulcus,[1][2] and multiple tonotopic maps of the acoustic inputs in the superior temporal plane.[3] He led the cochlear implant team at UCSF,[4][5] which transferred its technology to Advanced Bionics,[6] and their version is the Clarion cochlear implant.[7] He collaborated with Bill Jenkins and Gregg Recanzone to demonstrate sensory maps are labile into adulthood in animals performing operant sensory tasks.[8][9][10] He collaborated with Paula Tallal, Bill Jenkins, and Steve Miller to form the company Scientific Learning.[4][11] This was based on Fast ForWord software they co-invented that produces improvements in children's language skills that has been related to the magnitude of their temporal processing impairments prior to training.[12] Dr. Merzenich was director and Chief Scientific Officer between November 1996 and January 2003. Dr. Merzenich took two sabbaticals from UCSF in 1997 and 2004. In 1997 he led research teams at Scientific Learning Corporation, and in 2004 at Posit Science Corporation.[13] Currently, Merzenich's second company, Posit Science, is working on a broad range of behavioral therapies. Their lead product is brain-training software called Cortex (TM) with InSight (TM).[14] Dr. Merzenich is Chief Scientific Officer and on the Board of Directors at Posit Science.[13]

Early biographyEdit

Born in Lebanon, Oregon in 1942,[15][16] Merzenich grew up fascinated by science. He attended the University of Portland in Portland, Oregon earning his Bachelor of Science in 1964.[4][17] Here he was valedictorian, receiving only one non-A, a C in a philosophy course in which he argued with the instructor. In 1968 he earned his PhD in Physiology at Johns Hopkins Medical School in the lab of Vernon Mountcastle, studying neural coding of stimulus magnitude in the hairy skin.[17][18] He left Johns Hopkins to conduct his postdoctoral studies at the University of Wisconsin under Jerzy Rose. There, he did a cross-species analysis of the cochlear nucleus in large game cats and pinnipeds, did the first auditory cortical microelectrode maps in the macaque with John Brugge, and the first somatosensory maps in the macaque with neurosurgeon Ron Paul. He earned his neurophysiology fellowship between 1968 and 1971.[17] He left Wisconsin to join the faculty at UCSF as the only basic scientist in the clinical Otolaryngology department, head and neck surgery.[17][19] Dr. Merzenich started with UCSF in 1971 as faculty member becoming full professor in 1980.[13] Dr. Merzenich is Co-Director at the Coleman Memorial Laboratory where he conducts research on the cerebral cortex. His research examines neurological illness, learning processes and the neurological processes of the cerebral cortex.[17] He remains in the same department, now as a professor emeritus, retiring in 2007.[4]

AwardsEdit

In May 1999, Dr. Merzenich was honored by election into the National Academy of Sciences for his research on brain plasticity.[11][13] He went on to be elected to the National Academy's Institute of Medicine in 2008, making him one of a very select few to have been elected to more than one of the National Academies.[20] As of 2001 he received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.[15] He has been awarded the International Ipsen Prize,[11] Zülch Prize of the Max-Planck Institute,[11] Thomas Alva Edison Patent Award,[4] the Purkinje Medal,[4] and Karl Spencer Lashley Award. Dr. Merzenich has published more than 200 articles. His work is also often covered in the popular press, including The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Time and Newsweek. He has appeared on Sixty Minutes II, CBS Evening News and Good Morning America. He holds over 50 US patents.[4][21] Dr. Merzenich is the Francis A. Sooy Chair of Otolaryngology, in the Keck Center for Integrative Neurosciences at the University of California, San Francisco Medical Center.[11]

Federal grantsEdit

Federal grant awards Michael Merzenich leading researcher
Year Grant abstract Citation Recipient organization Granted by Amount Inflationary conversion Template:Inflation-fn
2005–2006 Brain plasticity based training for focal dystonia [22] Posit Science Corporation NICHD $195,727 $Template:Formatprice
2001–2005 Auditory and somatosensory cortex Javits grant [23] UCSF NINDS $1,662,734 $Template:Formatprice
2005 Brain plasticity based training for Schizophrenia Fast-Track proposal [24] Posit Science Corporation NIMH $139,811 $Template:Formatprice
2005 Brain plasticity rehabilitaton of visual cognition [25] Posit Science Corporation NEI $97,350 $Template:Formatprice
1996–2000 Functional organization of auditory somatosensory cortex [26] UCSF NINDS $1,245,234 $Template:Formatprice
1992–1995 Design Of Pediatric Cochlear Implants [27] UCSF NIDCD $1,097,866 $Template:Formatprice
1981–1995Functional Organization Of The Central Auditory System [28] UCSF NINDS $1,324,202 $Template:Formatprice
1987 Sensory Disorders And Language Study Section [29] U.S. PHS PUBLIC ADVISORY GROUPS CSR - -
1987 Scala Tympani Electrode Arrays [30] UCSF NINDS - -
1977–1980 Development Of An Acoustic Prosthesis [31] UCSF NINDS - -
1980–1982 Develop Electrodes For Auditory Prosthesis [32] UCSF NINDS - -
1975–1980 Functional Organization Of The Auditory System [33] UCSF NINDS - -
1977–1980 Develop Multichannel Electrodes For Auditory Prosthesis [34] UCSF NINDS - -
1972–1974 Studies On Organization Of Central Auditory System [35] UCSF NINDS - -

Patents and inventionsEdit

Dr. Merzenich along with Peter B. Delahunt, Joseph L. Hardy, Henry W. Mahncke, and Donald Richards hold the patent for visual emphasis for cognitive training exercises.[36] This patent explores a computer system of visual learning. The participant observes a scene which shows at least one foreground object against a background. The background or foreground are modified to enhance the participants response to achieve a correct response in an iterative basis.[37]

Published worksEdit

Dr. Merzenich has contributed to over 232 publications.[38]

  • Allard, T.T. (September 18, 1987). Syndactyly results in the emergence of dougle-digit fields in somatosensory cortex in adult owl monkeys.. Soc. Neurosci. Abstract 11:965 (Listed in the bibliography for Abstract 11:965).
  • Jenkins, W.M. (September 18, 1987). Behaviorally controlled differential use of restricted hand surfaces induce changes in the cortical representation of the hand in area 3b of adult owl monkeys.. Soc. Neurosci. Abstract 10:665 (Listed in the bibliography for Abstract 11:965): 303.
  • Jenkins, W.M. (1987). Reorganization of neocortical representations after brain injury: A neurophysiological model of the bases of recovery from stroke.. Progress in Brain Research (Elsevier) F.J. Seil, E. Herbert, and B.M. Carlson (eds) (Listed in the bibliography for Abstract 11:965): 303.
  • Merzenich, M.M. (1981). The organization of the Si cortex. Multiple representations of the body in primate.. Cortical Sensory Organization C.N. Woolsey (ed) 1: Multiple Somatic Areas. (Listed in the bibliography for Abstract 11:965): 303.
  • Merzenich, M.M. (1983). Topographic reorganiation of somatosensory cortical areas 3b and 1 in adult monkeys following restricted deafferentation.. Neuroscience 8:33-55 (Listed in the bibliography for Abstract 11:965): 303.
  • Merzenich, M.M. (1983). Progression of change following median nerve section in the cortical representation of the hand in areas 3b and 1 in adult owl and squirrel monkeys.. Neuroscience 10:639-665 (Listed in the bibliography for Abstract 11:965): 303.
  • Merzenich, M.M. (1984). Progression of change following median nerve section in the cortical representation of the hand in areas 3b and 1 in adult owl and squirrel monkeys.. Neuroscience 224:591-605 (Listed in the bibliography for Abstract 11:965): 303.
  • Merzenich, M.M. (1984). Observations and hypotheses on special organizational features of the central auditory nervous system.. Dynamic Aspects of Neocortical Function, G. Edleman, M. Cowan and E. Gall (eds). New York: J. Wiley and Sons (Listed in the bibliography for Abstract 11:965): 303.
  • Wall, J.T. (1987). Functional reorganization in somatosensory cortical areas 3 b and 1 of adult monkeys after median nerve repair: Possible relationships to sensory recovery in humans.. J. Neurosci. 6:218-233 (Listed in the bibliography for Abstract 11:965): 303.

Book editorEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Merzenich, Michael, self-published memoir, A Childhood in the Sticks[39]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Paul, R.L. (1972). Representation of slowly and rapidly adapting cutaneous mechanoreceptors of the hand in Brodmann's areas 3 and 1 of Macaca mulatta.. Brain Research 1972 Jan 28;36(2):229-49. (2): 229–49.
  2. Merzenich, M.M. (1978). Double representation of the body surface within cytoarchitectonic areas 3b and 2 in Sl in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). J. Comp. Neurol. 181:41-73 (Listed in the bibliography for Abstract 11:965): 303.
  3. Brain Research 50:275-96 1973
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named PositScience
  5. Med. Biol. Eng. Computing 21:241-54 1983
  6. (2009). BionicEar.com - Harmony Cochlear Implant by Advanced Bionics. Advanced Bionics.. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  7. (2009). BionicEar.com - Harmony Cochlear Implant by Advanced Bionics. Advanced Bionics.. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  8. Jenkins, W.M. (1990). Functional reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex in adult owl monkeys after behaviorally controlled tactile stimulation. J Neurophysiol 63:82-104.
  9. J. Neurophysiol. 67:1031-56 1992
  10. J. Neurosci. 13:87-103 1993
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Dr. Michael M. Merzenich. Scientific Learning Corporation.. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  12. Science 271:77-84 1996
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 (2008). Michael M. Merzenich Profile - Forbes.com. Forbes.com LLC. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  14. Posit Science Cortex with InSight - Posit Science Corporation
  15. 15.0 15.1 Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Michael M. Merzenich.. PsycARTICLES: Citation and Abstract. American Psychologist. Vol 56(11), Nov 2001, 878-881.. URL accessed on 2009-01-02. This is an article which requires purchase
  16. A Childhood in the Sticks, author MM Merzenich
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 (2003). OHNS - Faculty Profiles. Faculty profiles. URL accessed on 2009-01-02. [dead link]
  18. Exp. Brain Res. 10:251-64 1970
  19. OHNS at UCSF
  20. [1] http://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-news-1/Merzenich-Elected-to-Institute-of-Medicine-27287-1/
  21. Lashley Award Recipients
  22. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Brain Plasticity Based Training for Focal Dystonia. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  23. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Auditory and somatosensory cortex. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  24. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Brain plasticity based training for Schizophrenia. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  25. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Brain plasticity rehabilitaton of visual cognition. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  26. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Functional organization of auditory somatosensory cortex. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  27. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Design Of Pediatric Cochlear Implants. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  28. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Functional Organization Of The Central Auditory System. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  29. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Sensory Disorders And Language Study Section. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  30. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Scala Tympani Electrode Arrays. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  31. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Development Of An Acoustic Prosthesis. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  32. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Develop Electrodes For Auditory Prosthesis. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  33. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Functional Organization Of The Auditory System. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  34. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Develop Multichannel Electrodes For Auditory Prosthesisunctional Organization Of The Auditory System. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  35. ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Studies On Organization Of Central Auditory System. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  36. (2008). Michael M. Merzenich - Patents & Inventors. FreshContext LLC/Freshpatents.com. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  37. (2008). Visual emphasis for cognitive training exercises. Patent #20080084427. FreshContext LLC/Freshpatents.com. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  38. (2003). merzenich - PubMed Results. PubMed A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. Department of Health & Human Services: U.S. National Library of Medicine. URL accessed on 2009-01-02.
  39. Ellison, Katherine Video Games vs. the Aging Brain Aging. DISCOVER Magazine. URL accessed on 2009-01-03.

External linksEdit

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki