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Michael J. Apter

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Michael J. Apter is a research psychologist who has worked in the area of motivation. He developed reversal theory. He is currently a visiting researcher at Georgetown University.

Dr. Apter is founder and director of Apter International, which is a worldwide management consultancy company.

Biographical information


He has a doctorate from Bristol University (U.K.). While working for his doctorate he spent a year at Princeton and a year at King’s College London, as well as a term at Oxford.


He taught at the University of Wales, Cardiff for twenty years. He has been a visiting professor at Purdue, Northwestern, Chicago and Yale, and has held visiting positions in Canada, Spain, Norway, Belgium and France.

Main areas of interest

Funded grants


He is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society and a Life Fellow of the Netherlands Institute of Advanced Studies.

Editorial board/consulting editor

Association affiliations

See also



  • Apter, M.J. (1982) The experience of motivation: The theory of psychological reversals.London and New York: Academic Press.
  • Apter, M.J. (Ed.) (2001) Motivational Styles in Everyday Life: A Guide to Reversal Theory. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.ISBN: 1-55798-739-4
  • Apter, M.J. (2005) Personality Dynamics: Key Concepts in Reversal Theory. Loughborough, U.K.: Apter International Ltd.

Book Chapters


External links

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