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Methadone chemical structure
Methadone

6-(Dimethylamino)-4,4-diphenylheptan-3-one
IUPAC name
CAS number
76-99-3a
ATC code

N02AC52 ., .

PubChem
4095
DrugBank
APRD00485
Chemical formula {{{chemical_formula}}}
Molecular weight 309.445 g/mol
Bioavailability 40-90%
Metabolism Hepatic
Elimination half-life 24-36 hrs.
Excretion Urine, Test by specific gravity and bilirubin
Pregnancy category Reduction of oxygen to unborn child due to depression of breathing
Legal status
Routes of administration oral, intravenous

Methadone (Symoron, Dolophine, Amidone, Methadose, Physeptone, Heptadon and many others) is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic, and a maintenance anti-addictive for use in patients on opioids. It was developed in Germany in 1937. Although chemically unlike morphine or heroin, methadone also acts on the opioid receptors and thus produces many of the same effects. Methadone is also used in managing chronic pain due to its long duration of action and very low cost. In late 2004, the cost of a one-month supply of methadone was $20, as compared to an equivalent analgesic amount of meperidine (pethidine) at $120, up to $500 and more for hydromorphone, morphine, fentanyl, and extended-release oxycodone (trade name OxyCodone(TM)).

Methadone's usefulness in treatment of opioid dependence is the result of several factors. It has cross-tolerance with other opioids including heroin and morphine, long duration of effects with the result that oral dosing with methadone will stabilise the condition of the patient by stopping and preventing the opioid withdrawal syndrome, and by at least partially blocking the "rush" resulting from intravenous injection of heroin, morphine, and similar drugs.

Today a number of pharmaceutical companies produce and distribute methadone, with only the racemic hydrochloride being available in the United States as of March 2008 but the tartrate and other salts of the laevorotary form (levomethadone, with trade names like Polamidone, Heptadon etc.), which is more potent and lacks the cardiac effects like lengthened QT interval caused by the dextrorotary form, being available in Europe and elsewhere. The major producer remains Mallinckrodt. Mallinckrodt sells bulk methadone to most of the producers of generic preparations and also distributes its own brand name product in the form of tablets, dispersible tablets and oral concentrate under the name Methadose in the United States.

HistoryEdit

File:Methadone 40mg.jpg

Methadone was developed in Nazi Germany in the late 1930s in anticipation of possible shortages of raw opium during the upcoming war and possible blockades by the enemy, which would result in shortages of morphine and other opiates for both the military and civilian populations. It was tested by medical professionals in the German military in 1939-40 but decided that it was too toxic and too likely to become addictive upon repeated use (habituation) for use in the army and other organisations.

The drug was given the trade name Dolophine from the Latin dolor meaning pain (Cf. Dipidolor for piritramide, Dolantin for pethidine, and the "-dol" ending in so many trade and chemical names for analgesics of all types in German, English, French, and other languages) and was not named either in honour of or personally by Adolf Hitler as explored in greater detail below.

On September 11, 1941 Bockmühl and Ehrhart filed an application for a patent for a synthetic substance they called Hoechst 10820 or polamidon (a name still in regular use in Germany) and whose structure had no relation to morphine or the opiate alkaloids (Bockmühl and Ehrhart, 1949).

Methadone was introduced into the United States in 1947 by Eli Lilly and Company as an analgesic (they gave it the trade name Dolophine, which is now registered to Roxane Laboratories). Since then, it has been best known for its use in treating narcotic addiction. A great deal of anecdotal evidence was available "on the street" that methadone might prove effective in treating heroin withdrawal and it had even been used in some hospitals. It was not until studies performed at the Rockefeller University in New York City by Professor Vincent Dole, along with Marie Nyswander and Mary Jeanne Kreek, that methadone was systematically studied as a potential substitution therapy. Their studies introduced a sweeping change in the notion that drug addiction was not necessarily a simple character flaw, but rather a disorder to be treated in the same way as other diseases. To date, methadone maintenance therapy has been the most systematically studied and most successful, and most politically polarizing, of any pharmacotherapy for the treatment of drug addiction patients.

Methadone (as Dolophine) was first manufactured in the USA by Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, a St. Louis-based subsidiary of the Tyco International corporation. Mallinckrodt held the patent up until the early 1990s, and is still the major producer.

In the United States, methadone maintenance treatment emerged from trials in New York City in 1964 in response to the dramatic and continuing increase of heroin abuse and addiction following World War II.

The results of the early major studies showed methadone could effectively interrupt illicit opioid use and reduce the associated costs to society, findings which have been consistent with later research and backed up by modern knowledge of the psychological, social and pharmacological mechanisms of illicit opioid addiction.

Origin of Dolophine nameEdit

A persistent but untrue urban legend claims that the trade name "Dolophine" was coined in tribute to Adolf Hitler by its German creators, and it is sometimes even claimed that the drug was originally named "adolphine" or "adolophine" or "Dolphamine". The claim is still presented as fact by Church of Scientology literature[1] and was repeated by actor and vocal Scientologist Tom Cruise in a 2005 Entertainment Weekly interview.[2] However, as the magazine pointed out, this is not true: the name "Dolophine" was in fact created after the war by the American branch of Eli Lilly,[3] and the pejorative term "adolphine" (never an actual name of the drug) appeared in the United States in the early 1970s.[4]

PharmacologyEdit

Methadone acts by binding to the µ-opioid receptor, but also has some affinity for the NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptor. It is metabolized by the enzymes CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2D6, with great variability between individuals. Its main route of administration is oral. Adverse effects include hypoventilation, constipation and miosis, in addition to tolerance, dependence and withdrawal symptoms. The withdrawal can be much more severe than other opiates spanning anywhere from two weeks to six months.

Mode of actionEdit

Methadone is a full mu-opioid agonist. Methadone also binds to the glutamatergic NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor, and thus acts as a receptor antagonist against glutamate. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. NMDA receptors have a very important role in modulating long term excitation and memory formation. NMDA antagonists such as dextromethorphan, ketamine, and ibogaine are being studied for their role in decreasing the development of tolerance to opioids and as possible for eliminating addiction/tolerance/withdrawal, possibly by disrupting memory circuitry. Acting as an NMDA antagonist may be one mechanism by which methadone decreases craving for opioids and tolerance, and has been proposed as a possible mechanism for its distinguished efficacy regarding the treatment of neuropathic pain.

MetabolismEdit

Methadone has a slow metabolism and very high fat solubility, making it longer lasting than morphine-based drugs. Methadone has a typical elimination half-life of 15 to 60 hours with a mean of around 22. However, metabolism rates vary greatly between individuals, up to a factor of 100,[5][6] ranging from as few as 4 hours to as many as 130 hours,[7] or even 190 hours.[8] This variability is apparently due to genetic variability in the production of the associated enzymes CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2D6. A longer half life frequently allows for administration only once a day in heroin detoxification and maintenance programs. Patients who metabolize methadone rapidly, on the other hand, may require twice daily dosing to obtain sufficient symptom alleviation while avoiding excessive peaks and troughs in their blood concentrations and associated effects.[7] This can also allow lower total doses in some such patients. The analgesic activity is shorter than the pharmacological half-life; dosing for pain control usually requires multiple doses per day(Quote Needed).

The toxic effects of an overdose can be treated with naloxone.[9]

Route of administrationEdit

The most common route of administration at a methadone clinic is in a racemic oral solution, though in Germany, only the (R)-methadone enantiomer has traditionally been used, as it is responsible for most of the desired opioid effects.[7] This is becoming less common due to the higher production costs.

Methadone is available in traditional pill, sublingual tablet, and two different formulations designed for the patient to drink. Drinkable forms include ready-to-dispense liquid, and "diskette" which is a tablet designed to dissolve itself in water for oral administration, used in a similar fashion to Alka-Selter(TM). The liquid form the most common as it allows for finer grained dose titration. Methadone is almost as effective when administered orally as by injection. In fact, injection of methadone does not result in a "rush" as with most opioids, because its extraordinarily high volume of distribution causes it to diffuse into other tissues in the body, particularly fatty tissue; the peak concentration in the blood is achieved at roughly the same time, whether the drug is injected or ingested. Though there seems to be some discrepancy regarding effects felt from one person to the next, "rush" like effects have been occasionally reported by some. At best, most oral and pill preparations of the drug are hardly suitable for intravenous injection and perhaps account for the prevailing attitude against IV use.

Adverse effectsEdit

Adverse effects of methadone include[9][10][11][12][13]

MortalityEdit

According to the National Center for Health Statistics,[14] as well as a 2006 series in the Charleston (WV) Gazette,[15] medical examiners listed methadone as contributing to 3,849 deaths in 2004, up from 790 in 1999. Approximately 82% of those deaths were listed as accidental- and most deaths involved combinations of methadone with other drugs (especially benzodiazepines).

More information on methadone associated mortality can be found at Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA - U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services).

Tolerance and dependenceEdit

As with other opioid medications, tolerance and dependence usually develop with repeated doses. Tolerance to the different physiological effects of methadone varies. Tolerance to analgesia usually occurs during the first few weeks of use; whereas with respiratory depression, sedation, and nausea it is seen within approximately 5-7 days.[How to reference and link to summary or text] There is no tolerance formed to constipation produced by methadone or other opioids; however, effects may be less severe after time and can often be alleviated through increase intake of dietary fiber (fruits and vegetables, high-fiber cereals, etc.) or fiber supplements.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Withdrawal Symptoms Edit

Physical Symptoms[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Cognitive Symptoms [How to reference and link to summary or text]

Withdrawal symptoms are generally slightly less severe than those of morphine or heroin at equivalent doses but are significantly more prolonged; methadone withdrawal symptoms can last for several weeks or more. At high maintenance doses, sudden cessation of therapy can result in withdrawal symptoms described as "the worst withdrawal imaginable," lasting from weeks to months.[16]

"... every patient of methadone will always tell you ... [one] can kick heroin anytime, but methadone ... is something else.

Once ... [after] 72 hours ... I was literally on the floor screaming my guts out. I [was] taken to the hospital ... The doctor, realizing my condition and that it was severe, gave me a shot of methadone. The relief was immediate.

... 2 days later I was in the same condition! Never did I go through such hell in all my days.

The intensity of methadone withdrawal is just too much! ... about 5 years ago [a prison] inmate went into convulsions and upon falling, he hit the metal bars and died!" [16]

Indeed, there is a trend in the management of opiate addiction towards the reduction of a patient's methadone dosage to a point where they can be switched to buprenorphine or another opiate with an easier withdrawal profile. Ultimately, methadone's long half-life and minimal side-effect profile makes it ideal for mantenance, but is not considered to be a desirable opiate to withdraw from when attempting to become completely opiate-free.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Methadone maintenanceEdit

Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) reduces and/or eliminates the use of heroin, and criminality associated with heroin use, and allows patients to improve their health and social productivity[17]. In addition, enrollment in methadone maintenance has the potential to reduce the transmission of infectious diseases associated with heroin injection, such as hepatitis and HIV.[17] The principal effects of methadone maintenance are to relieve narcotic craving, suppress the abstinence syndrome, and block the euphoric effects associated with heroin. Methadone maintenance has been found to be medically safe and non-sedating.[17] It is also indicated for pregnant women addicted to heroin.[17]

AnalgesicEdit

In recent years, methadone has gained popularity among physicians for the treatment of other medical problems, such as an analgesic in chronic pain. The increased usage comes as doctors search for an opioid drug that can be dosed less frequently than short-acting drugs like morphine or hydrocodone. Another factor in the increased usage is the low cost of methadone. A week's supply will typically have a retail cost of $50-$70 in the United States, compared to hundreds of dollars for alternative opioids. Methadone, with its long half-life (and thus long duration of effect) and good oral bioavailability, is a common second-choice drug for pain that does not respond to weaker agonists. A major drawback is that unlike OxyContin (oxycodone continuous release), methadone is not technologically engineered for sustained release of the drug so blood concentrations will fluctuate greatly between dosing. This problem is overcome to a great extent by the practice of dosing methadone two or three three times a day in pain patients. Some physicians also choose methadone for treating chronic pain in patients who are thought to have a propensity for addiction, because it causes less of an intoxicated or euphoric "high". The effect is of morphine-equivalent origin.

On November 29, 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a Public Health Advisory about methadone titled "Methadone Use for Pain Control May Result in Death and Life-Threatening Changes in Breathing and Heart Beat." The advisory went on to say that "the FDA has received reports of death and life-threatening side effects in patients taking methadone. These deaths and life-threatening side effects have occurred in patients newly starting methadone for pain control and in patients who have switched to methadone after being treated for pain with other strong narcotic pain relievers. Methadone can cause slow or shallow breathing and dangerous changes in heart beat that may not be felt by the patient." The advisory urged that physicians use caution when prescribing methadone to patients who are not used to the drug, and that patients take the drug exactly as directed.[18] As with any strong medication which can be fatal in large doses methadone must be taken properly and with due care. Otherwise the accumulation of methadone could potentially reach a level of toxicity if the dose is too high or if the user's metabolism of the drug is slow. In such a situation, a patient who fared fine after the first few doses could reach high levels of the drug in his body without ever taking more than was prescribed. For this reason, it is reasonable to make sure that patients who do not have a tolerance to opiates be prescribed methadone in initially small doses, and that when sent home, patients and their families are made very aware of the symptoms characteristic of opiate overdose. Also, there is some evidence methadone and other opioids may cause cardiac conduction problems (prolonged QTc interval[19]) although there are few documented cases of fatalities resulting from this side-effect with methadone.

In an effort to turn the tide on reported increases in methadone-related adverse events, the DEA announced in a recent advisory that manufacturers of methadone hydrochloride 40-mg tablets have agreed to restrict their distribution of that particular formulation of the drug.

As of 1. January 2008, manufacturers will ship the methadone hydrochloride 40-mg formulation only to hospitals and facilities that have been authorized for detoxification and maintenance treatment of patients with opioid addiction. In addition, manufacturers of the drug will instruct their wholesale distributors to stop supplying the formulation to any facility that doesn't meet the criteria.

The DEA advisory stresses that the 40-mg formulation of methadone hydrochloride is indicated only for the detoxification and maintenance treatment of opioid-addicted patients and is not FDA-approved for use in pain management.

Federal law does not restrict the prescribing, dispensing or administration of methadone for the treatment of pain, and the 5-mg and 10-mg methadone formulations will continue to be available as a tool family physicians can use to treat patients for pain.

AntitussiveEdit

Methadone linctus, which is about one-third the concentration of the liquid methadone used for opioid maintenance, is used where available and approved for such use as a cough syrup for violent coughing. Narcotic cough suppressants are very useful against dry, unproductive coughing, especially that which persists after an illness has otherwise resolved and/or is a manifestation of recurring bronchitis, causes pain in the chest, and/or prevents the patient from sleeping. These drugs work directly on the coughing centre in the brain, and several branches of the opioid family contain effective cough suppressants.

Natural and semi-synthetic opiates with antitussive effects include codeine, ethylmorphine (also known as dionine or codethyline), dihydrocodeine, benzylmorphine, laudanum, dihydroisocodeine, nicocodeine, nicodicodeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, acetyldihydrocodeine, thebacon, diamorphine (heroin), acetylmorphone, noscapine and pholcodine and others. Amongst other synthetics are dimemorfan and dextromethorphan in the morphinan group, tipepidine of the thiambutenes, and other drugs of the open-chain (methadone) type with antitussive efficacy include levomethadone, normethadone, and levopropoxyphene.

Methadone as treatment for leukemia Edit

Researchers in Germany have discovered that methadone has surprising killing power against leukemia cells, including treatment-resistant forms of the cancer. Their laboratory study, published in the 1 August 2008 issue of Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, suggests that methadone holds promise as a new therapy for leukemia, especially in patients whose cancer no longer responds to chemotherapy and radiation. [20].

Similar drugsEdit

The closest chemical relative of methadone in clinical use is levomethadone, the laevorotary or left-handed stereoisomer of methadone. It is stronger than the racemic drug and is marketed especially in continental Europe as an analgesic under the trade names Levo-Polamidone, Polamidone, Heptanone, Heptadone, Heptadon and others. It is used as the hydrochloride salt almost exclusively with some uncommon pharmaceuticals and research subjects consisting of the tartrate.

Related to methadone, the synthetic compound levo-α-acetylmethadol (or LAAM) has an even longer duration of action (from 48 to 72 hours), permitting a reduction in frequency of use. In 1994 it was approved as a treatment of narcotic addiction. Like methadone, LAAM is in Schedule II of the United States Controlled Substances Act. LAAM has since been removed from the US and European markets due to reports of rare cardiac side effects. LAAM is still available at many MMT clinics throughout the US though methadone is preferred by most patients, though it is restricted to existing patients.

Other drugs which are not structurally related to methadone are also used in maintenance treatment, particularly Subutex (buprenorphine) and Suboxone (buprenorphine combined with naloxone). In the UK and other European countries, however, not only buprenorphine and oral methadone but also injectable methadone and pharaceutical diamorphine (heroin) or other opioids may be used for outpatient maintenance treatment of opiate addiction, and treatment is generally provided in much less heavily regulated environments than in the United States. A study from Austria indicated that oral morphine (in the form of MS-Contin, also known as Vendal retard, MST-Continus and others) provides better results than oral methadone, and studies of heroin maintenance have indicated that a low background dose of methadone combined with heroin maintenance may significantly improve outcomes for less-responsive patients.[21] Other opiates such as dihydrocodeine in both extended-release and plain form are also sometimes used for maintenance treatment as an alternative to methadone or buprenorphine.[22]

Another close relative of methadone is dextropropoxyphene, first marketed in 1957 under the trade name of Darvon. Oral analgesic potency is one-half to one-third that of codeine, with 65 mg approximately equivalent to about 600 mg of aspirin. Dextropropoxyphene is prescribed for relief of mild to moderate pain. Bulk dextropropoxyphene is in Schedule II of the United States Controlled Substances Act, while preparations containing it are in Schedule IV. More than 100 tons of dextropropoxyphene are produced in the United States annually, and more than 25 million prescriptions are written for the products. Since dextropropoxyphene produces relatively modest pain relief compared to other opioids but still produces severe respiratory depression at high doses, it is particularly dangerous when abused, as drug users may take dangerously high doses in an attempt to achieve narcotic effects. This narcotic is among the top 10 drugs reported by medical examiners in recreational drug use deaths. However dextropropoxyphene is still prescribed for the short term relief of opiate withdrawal symptoms, particularly when the aim of treatment is to smooth detoxification to a drug free state rather than a switch to maintenance treatment.

Other analogues of methadone which are still in clinical use are dipipanone (Diconal) and dextromoramide (Palfium) which are shorter lasting than methadone but considerably more effective as analgesics. These drugs have a high potential for abuse and dependence and were notorious for being widely abused and sought after by drug addicts in the 1970s. They are still rarely used for the relief of severe pain in the treatment of terminal cancer or other serious medical conditions.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Buttnor, Al. "The Drug Problem: How It CAN be Solved". Freedom Magazine (vol. 4, iss. 1) p. 15. Retrieved April 7, 2006.
  2. Tom Responds, Entertainment Weekly, May 11, 2005
  3. www.exchangesupplies.org/publications/methadone_briefing/section1.html. URL accessed on 2007-07-09.
  4. http://www.indro-online.de/discovery.pdf (PDF format)
  5. Kell MJ (1994). Utilization of plasma and urine methadone concentrations to optimize treatment in maintenance clinics: I. Measurement techniques for a clinical setting. Journal of addictive diseases : the official journal of the ASAM, American Society of Addiction Medicine 13 (1): 5–26.
  6. Eap CB, DeglonJ-J, Boumann P. (1999). Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of methadone: Clinical relevance. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems: the official journal of EUROPAD, European Opiate Addiction Treatment Association 1 (1): 19–34.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Eap CB, Buclin T, Baumann P (2002). Interindividual variability of the clinical pharmacokinetics of methadone: implications for the treatment of opioid dependence. Clinical pharmacokinetics 41 (14): 1153–93.
  8. Manfredonia, John Prescribing Methadone for Pain Management in End-of-Life Care. JAOA The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. URL accessed on 2007-01-29.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Public Health Issue: Methadone Maintenance Therapy RICHARD SADOVSKY, M.D. - Anderson IB, Kearney TE. Use of methadone. West J Med January 2000;172:43-6.
  10. Dolophine Drug Description. RxList.
  11. Methadone. MedlinePlus.
  12. Methadone. Drugs.com.
  13. Methadone. MedicineNet.
  14. Increases in Methadone-Related Deaths:1999-2004.
  15. http://www.wvgazette.com/section/Series/The+Killer+Cure. URL accessed on 2007-07-09.
  16. 16.0 16.1 [http://www.heroinaddiction.com/heroin_methadone.html Methadone, Methadone Addiction & Methadone Side Effects By Narconon Arrowhead & Heroin Addiction]. (HTML) URL accessed on 10/31, 2008.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 Joseph H, Stancliff S, Langrod J (2000). Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT): a review of historical and clinical issues. Mt. Sinai J. Med. 67 (5-6): 347–64.
  18. 2006 Safety Alerts for Drugs, Biologics, Medical Devices, and Dietary Supplements. MedWatch. Food and Drug Administration.
  19. Maremmani I, Pacini M, Cesaroni C, Lovrecic M, Perugi G, Tagliamonte A (2005). QTc interval prolongation in patients on long-term methadone maintenance therapy. European addiction research 11 (1): 44–9.
  20. Claudia Friesen, Mareike Roscher, Andreas Alt and Erich Miltner (2008). Methadone, Commonly Used as Maintenance Medication for Outpatient Treatment of Opioid Dependence, Kills Leukemia Cells and Overcomes Chemoresistance. Cancer Research 68 (15): 6059-6064.
  21. Michels II, Stover H, Gerlach R. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany. Harm Reduction Journal. 2007 February 2;4:5.
  22. Robertson JR, Raab GM, Bruce M, McKenzie JS, Storkey HR, Salter A. Addressing the efficacy of dihydrocodeine versus methadone as an alternative maintenance treatment for opiate dependence: A randomized controlled trial. Addiction. 2006 Dec;101(12):1752-9.

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