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For the work by Aristotle, see Metaphysics (Aristotle).
Sanzio 01 Plato Aristotle

Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome)

Metaphysics investigates principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. Cosmology and ontology are traditional branches of metaphysics. It is concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world.[1] Someone who studies metaphysics can be called either a "metaphysician" or a "metaphysicist".[2]

The word derives from the Greek words μετά (metá) (meaning "beyond" or "after") and φυσικά (physiká) (meaning "physical"), "physical" referring to those works on matter by Aristotle in antiquity. The prefix meta- ("beyond") was attached to the chapters in Aristotle's work that physically followed after the chapters on "physics", in posthumously edited collections. Aristotle himself did not call these works Metaphysics. Aristotle called some of the subjects treated there "first philosophy".

A central branch of metaphysics is ontology, the investigation into what types of things there are in the world and what relations these things bear to one another. The metaphysician also attempts to clarify the notions by which people understand the world, including existence, objecthood, property, space, time, causality, and possibility.

Before the development of modern science, scientific questions were addressed as a part of metaphysics known as "natural philosophy"; the term "science" itself meant "knowledge" of epistemological origin. The scientific method, however, made natural philosophy an empirical and experimental activity unlike the rest of philosophy, and by the end of the eighteenth century it had begun to be called "science" in order to distinguish it from philosophy. Thereafter, metaphysics became the philosophical enquiry of a non-empirical character into the nature of existence. Thus the original situation of metaphysics being integral with (Aristotelian) physics and science, has, in the West, become reversed so that scientists often consider metaphysics antithetical to the empirical sciences.

History of metaphysicsEdit

One of the first metaphysicians is Parmenides of Elea. He held that the multiplicity of existing things, their changing forms and motion, are but an appearance of a single eternal reality (“Being”),thus giving rise to the Parmenidean principle that “all is one”. From this concept of Being, he went on to say that all claims of change or of non-Being are illogical. Because he introduced the method of basing claims about appearances on a logical concept of Being, he is considered one of the founders of metaphysics. [3]

Metaphysics is called the "first philosophy" by Aristotle.The editor of his works, Andronicus of Rhodes, is thought to have placed the books on first philosophy right after another work, Physics, and called them τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικὰ βιβλία (ta meta ta physika biblia) or "the books that come after the [books on] physics". This was misread by Latin scholiasts, who thought it meant "the science of what is beyond the physical".[4] In the English language, the word comes by way of the Medieval Latin metaphysica, the neuter plural of Medieval Greek metaphysika.[5] While its Greek and Latin origins are clear, various dictionaries trace its first appearance in English to the mid-sixteenth century, although in some cases as early as 1387.[5][6]

Aristotle's Metaphysics was divided into three parts, in addition to some smaller sections related to a philosophical lexicon and some reprinted extracts from the Physics, which are now regarded as the proper branches of traditional Western metaphysics:

Ontology 
The study of Being and existence; includes the definition and classification of entities, physical or mental, the nature of their properties, and the nature of change.
Natural Theology 
The study of a God or Gods; involves many topics, including among others the nature of religion and the world, existence of the divine, questions about Creation, and the numerous religious or spiritual issues that concern humankind in general.
Universal science 
The study of first principles, which Aristotle believed to be the foundation of all other inquiries. An example of such a principle is the law of noncontradiction and the status it holds in non-paraconsistent logics.

Universal science or first philosophy treats of "being qua being"—that is, what is basic to all science before one adds the particular details of any one science. Essentially "being qua being" may be translated as "being insofar as being goes" or as "being in terms of being". This includes topics such as causality, substance, species and elements, as well as the notions of relation, interaction, and finitude.

Metaphysics as a discipline was a central part of academic inquiry and scholarly education even before the age of Aristotle, who considered it "the Queen of Sciences". Its issues were considered no less important than the other main formal subjects of physical science, medicine, mathematics, poetics and music. Since the beginning of modern philosophy during the seventeenth century, problems that were not originally considered within the bounds of metaphysics have been added to its purview, while other problems considered metaphysical for centuries are now typically relegated to their own separate regions in philosophy, such as philosophy of religion, philosophy of mind, philosophy of perception, philosophy of language, and philosophy of science.

In some cases, subjects of metaphysical scholarship have been found to be entirely physical and natural, thus making them part of physics proper (cf. Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity).

Central questions of metaphysicsEdit

Most positions that can be taken with regards to any of the following questions are endorsed by one or another notable philosopher.It is often difficult to frame the questions in a non-controversial manner.

Abstract objects and mathematicsEdit

Some philosophers endorse views according to which there are abstract objects such as numbers, or Universals. (Universals are properties that can be instantiated by multiple objects, such as redness or squareness.) Abstract objects are generally regarded as being outside of space and time, and/or as being causally inert. Mathematical objects and fictional entities and worlds are often given as examples of abstract objects. The view that there really are no abstract objects is called nominalism. Realism about such objects is exemplified by Platonism. Other positions include moderate realism, as espoused by Aristotle, and conceptualism.

The philosophy of mathematics overlaps with metaphysics because some positions are realistic in the sense that they hold that mathematical objects really exist, whether transcendentally, physically, or mentally. Platonic realism holds that mathematical entities are a transcendent realm of non-physical objects. The simplest form of mathematical empiricism claims that mathematical objects are just ordinary physical objects, i.e. that squares and the like physically exist. Plato rejected this view, among other reasons, because geometrical figures in mathematics have a perfection that no physical instantiation can capture. Modern mathematicians have developed many strange and complex mathematical structures with no counterparts in observable reality, further supporting Plato's view. The third main form of realism holds that mathematical entities exist in the mind. However, given a materialistic conception of the mind, it does not have the capacity to literally contain the many infinities of objects in mathematics. Intuitionism, inspired by Kant, sticks with the idea that "there are no non-experienced mathematical truths". This involves rejecting as intuitionistically unacceptable anything that cannot be held in the mind or explicitly constructed. Intuitionists reject the law of the excluded middle and are suspicious of infinity, particularly of transfinite numbers.

Other positions such as formalism and fictionalism that do not attribute any existence to mathematical entities are anti-realist.

Cosmology and cosmogonyEdit

Cosmology is the branch of metaphysics that deals with the world as the totality of all phenomena in space and time. Historically, it has had quite a broad scope, and in many cases was founded in religion. The ancient Greeks did not draw a distinction between this use and their model for the cosmos. However, in modern use it addresses questions about the Universe which are beyond the scope of physical science. It is distinguished from religious cosmology in that it approaches these questions using philosophical methods (e.g. dialectics). Cosmogony deals specifically with the origin of the universe.

Modern metaphysical cosmology and cosmogony try to address questions such as:

Determinism and free willEdit

See also: Determinism and Free will

Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. It holds that no random, spontaneous, mysterious, or miraculous events occur. The principal consequence of the deterministic claim is that it poses a challenge to the existence of free will.

The problem of free will is the problem of whether rational agents exercise control over their own actions and decisions. Addressing this problem requires understanding the relation between freedom and causation, and determining whether the laws of nature are causally deterministic. Some philosophers, known as Incompatibilists, view determinism and free will as mutually exclusive. If they believe in determinism, they will therefore believe free will to be an illusion, a position known as Hard Determinism. Proponents range from Baruch Spinoza to Ted Honderich.

Others, labeled Compatibilists (or "Soft Determinists"), believe that the two ideas can be coherently reconciled. Adherents of this view include Thomas Hobbes and many modern philosophers.

Incompatibilists who accept free will but reject determinism are called Libertarians, a term not to be confused with the political sense. Robert Kane is a modern defender of this theory.

It is a popular misconception that determinism necessarily entails that humanity or individual humans have no influence on the future and its events ( a position known as Fatalism). Determinists, however, believe that the level to which human beings have influence over their future is itself dependent on present and past.

Identity and changeEdit

Main article: Identity and change

The Greeks took some extreme positions on the nature of change: Parmenides denied that change occurs at all, while Heraclitus thought change was ubiquitous: "[Y]ou cannot step into the same river twice".

Identity, sometimes called Numerical Identity, is the relation that a "thing" bears to itself, and which no "thing" bears to anything other than itself (cf. sameness). According to Leibniz, if some object x is identical to some object y, then any property that x has, y will have as well. However, it seems, too, that objects can change over time. If one were to look at a tree one day, and the tree later lost a leaf, it would seem that one could still be looking at that same tree. Two rival theories to account for the relationship between change and identity are Perdurantism, which treats the tree as a series of tree-stages, and Endurantism which maintains that the tree -- the same tree -- is present at every stage in its history.

Mind and matterEdit

The nature of matter was a problem in its own right in early philosophy. Aristotle himself introduced the idea of matter in general to the Western world, adapting the term hyle which originally meant "lumber". Early debates centered on identifying a single underlying principle. Water was claimed by Thales, Air by Anaximenes, Apeiron (the Boundless) by Anaximander, Fire by Heraclitus. Democritus, in conjunction with his mentor, Leucippus, conceived of an atomic theory many centuries before it was accepted by modern science. It is worth noting, however, that the grounds necessary to ensure validity to the proposed theory's veridical nature were not scientific, but just as philosophical as those traditions espoused by Thales and Anaximander.

Philosophers now look to empirical science for insights into the nature of matter.

The nature of the mind and its relation to the body has been seen as more of a problem as science has progressed in its mechanistic understanding of the brain and body. Proposed solutions often have ramifications about the nature of mind as a whole. René Descartes proposed substance dualism, a theory in which mind and body are essentially quite different, with the mind having some of the attributes traditionally assigned to the soul, in the seventeenth century. This creates a conceptual puzzle about how the two interact (which has received some strange answers, such as occasionalism). Evidence of a close relationship between brain and mind, such as the Phineas Gage case, have made this form of dualism increasingly unpopular.

Another proposal discussing the mind-body problem is idealism, in which the material is sweepingly eliminated in favor of the mental. Idealists, such as George Berkeley, claim that material objects do not exist unless perceived and only as perceptions. The "German idealists" such as Fichte, Hegel and Schopenhauer took Kant as their starting-point, although it is debatable how much of an idealist Kant himself was. Idealism is also a common theme in Eastern philosophy. Related ideas are panpsychism and panexperientialism which say everything has a mind rather than everything exists in a mind. Alfred North Whitehead was a twentieth-century exponent of this approach.

Idealism is a monistic theory, in which there is a single universal substance or principles. Neutral monism, associated in different forms with Baruch Spinoza and Bertrand Russell is a theory which seeks to be less extreme than idealism, and to avoid the problems of substance dualism. It claims that existence consists of a single substance, which in itself is neither mental nor physical, but is capable of mental and physical aspects or attributes – thus it implies a dual-aspect theory.

For the last one hundred years, the dominant metaphysics has without a doubt been materialistic monism. Type identity theory, token identity theory, functionalism, reductive physicalism, nonreductive physicalism, eliminative materialism, anomalous monism, property dualism, epiphenomenalism and emergence are just some of the candidates for a scientifically-informed account of the mind. (It should be noted that while many of these positions are dualisms, none of them are substance dualism.)

Prominent recent philosophers of mind include David Armstrong, Ned Block, David Chalmers, Patricia and Paul Churchland, Donald Davidson, Daniel Dennett, Douglas Hofstadter, Jerry Fodor, David Lewis, Thomas Nagel, Hilary Putnam, John Searle, John Smart and Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Necessity and possibilityEdit

See also: Modal logic and Modal realism

Metaphysicians investigate questions about the ways the world could have been. David Lewis, in "On the Plurality of Worlds," endorsed a view called Concrete Modal realism, according to which facts about how things could have been are made true by other concrete worlds, just like ours, in which things are different. Other philosophers, such as Gottfried Leibniz, have dealt with the idea of possible worlds as well. The idea of necessity is that any necessary fact is true across all possible worlds; that is, we could not imagine it to be otherwise. A possible fact is true in some possible world, even if not in the actual world. For example, it is possible that cats could have had two tails, or that any particular apple could have not existed. By contrast, certain propositions seem necessarily true, such as analytic propositions, e.g. "All bachelors are unmarried." The particular example of analytic truth being necessary is not universally held among philosophers. A less controversial view might be that self-identity is necessary, as it seems fundamentally incoherent to claim that for any x, it is not identical to itself; this is known as the law of identity, a putative "first principle". Aristotle describes the principle of non-contradiction, "It is impossible that the same quality should both belong and not belong to the same thing . . . This is the most certain of all principles . . . Wherefore they who demonstrate refer to this as an ultimate opinion. For it is by nature the source of all the other axioms."

Objects and their propertiesEdit

Further information: Problem of universals

The world seems to contain many individual things, both physical, like apples, and abstract such as love and the number 3; the former objects are called particulars. Particulars are said to have attributes, e.g. size, shape, color, location and two particulars may have some such attributes in common. Such attributes, are also termed Universals or Properties; the nature of these, and whether they have any real existence and if so of what kind, is a long-standing issue, realism and nominalism representing opposing views.

Metaphysicians concerned with questions about universals or particulars are interested in the nature of objects and their properties, and the relationship between the two. Some, e.g. Plato, argue that properties are abstract objects, existing outside of space and time, to which particular objects bear special relations. David Armstrong holds that universals exist in time and space but only at their instantiation and their discovery is a function of science. Others maintain that what particulars are is a bundle or collection of properties (specifically, a bundle of properties they have).

Religion and spiritualityEdit

Theology is the study of a God or gods and the nature of the divine. Whether there is a God (monotheism), many gods (polytheism) or no gods (atheism), or whether it is unknown or unknowable whether any gods exist (agnosticism), and whether the Divine intervenes directly in the world (theism), or its sole function is to be the first cause of the universe (deism); these and whether a God or gods and the World are different (as in panentheism and dualism), or are identical (as in pantheism), are some of the primary metaphysical questions concerning philosophy of religion.

Within the standard Western philosophical tradition, theology reached its peak under the medieval school of thought known as scholasticism, which focused primarily on the metaphysical aspects of Christianity. While the work of the scholastics has been largely eclipsed in the wake of modern philosophy, key figures such as Thomas Aquinas still play an important role in the philosophy of religion.[How to reference and link to summary or text]

Space and timeEdit

Further information: Philosophy of space and time

In the Middle Ages, Saint Augustine of Hippo asked the fundamental question about the nature of time. A traditional realist position in ontology is that time and space have existence apart from the human mind. Idealists, including Kant claim that space and time are mental constructs used to organise perceptions, or are otherwise unreal.

Suppose that one is sitting at a table, with an apple in front of him or her; the apple exists in space and in time, but what does this statement indicate? Could it be said, for example, that space is like an invisible three-dimensional grid in which the apple is positioned? Suppose the apple, and all physical objects in the universe, were removed from existence entirely. Would space as an "invisible grid" still exist? René Descartes and Leibniz believed it would not, arguing that without physical objects, "space" would be meaningless because space is the framework upon which we understand how physical objects are related to each other. Newton, on the other hand, argued for an absolute "container" space. The pendulum swung back to relational space with Einstein and Ernst Mach.

While the absolute/relative debate, and the realism debate are equally applicable to time and space, time presents some special problems of its own. The flow of time has been denied in ancient times by Parmenides and more recently by J. M. E. McTaggart in his paper The Unreality of Time.

The direction of time, also known as "time's arrow", is also a puzzle, although physics is now driving the debate rather than philosophy. It appears that fundamental laws are time-reversible and the arrow of time must be an "emergent" phenomenon, perhaps explained by a statistical understanding of thermodynamic entropy.

Common-sense tells us that objects persist across time, that there is some sense in which you are the same person you were yesterday, in which the oak is the same as the acorn, in which you perhaps even can step into the same river twice. Philosophers have developed two rival theories for how this happens, called "endurantism" and "perdurantism". Broadly speaking, endurantists hold that a whole object exists at each moment of its history, and the same object exists at each moment. Perdurantists believe that objects are four-dimensional entities made up of a series of temporal parts like the frames of a movie.

CriticismEdit

Metaphysics has been continuously contended in history as vague or untrue.

David Hume argued with his empiricist principle that all knowledge involves either relations of ideas or matters of fact:

If we take in our hand any volume; of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance; let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number? No. Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence? No. Commit it then to the flames: for it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion.

An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

Hume's assertion, it has been argued, is self-defeating if it itself is not self-evident or empirically verifiable.

Immanuel Kant prescribed a limited role to the subject and argued against knowledge progressing beyond the world of our representations, except to knowledge that the noumena exist:

...though we cannot know these objects as things in themselves, we must yet be in a position at least to think them as things in themselves; otherwise we should be landed in the absurd conclusion that there can be appearance without anything that appears.

Critique of Pure Reason pp. Bxxvi-xxvii

A.J. Ayer in "Language, Truth and Logic" using the verifiability theory of meaning concluded that metaphysical propositions were neither true nor false but strictly meaningless, as were religious views.

Karl Popper argued that metaphysical statements are not meaningless statements, but rather not fallible, testable or provable statements [How to reference and link to summary or text] i.e. neither empirical observations nor logical arguments could prove metaphysical statements to be true or false. Hence, a metaphysical statement usually implies an idea about the world or about the universe, which may seem reasonable but is ultimately not empirically testable.

Disciplines, topics and problemsEdit

Main article: List of metaphysics articles
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Disciplines

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See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. Geisler, Norman L. "Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics" page 446. Baker Books, 1999
  2. Random House Dictionary Online
  3. Encyclopedia Britannica Online
  4. However, once the name was given, the commentators sought to find intrinsic reasons for its appropriateness. For instance, it was understood to mean "the science of the world beyond nature", that is, the science of the immaterial. Again, it was understood to refer to the chronological or pedagogical order among our philosophical studies, so that the "metaphysical sciences would mean, those which we study after having mastered the sciences which deal with the physical world" (St. Thomas, "In Lib, Boeth. de Trin.", V, 1). In the widespread, though erroneous, use of the term in current popular literature, there is a remnant of the notion that metaphysical means ultraphysical: thus, "metaphysical healing" means healing by means of remedies which are not physical. Template:CathEncy
  5. 5.0 5.1 Douglas Harper. Online Etymology Dictionary. URL accessed on August 29 2006.
  6. Unabridged Dictionary. URL accessed on August 29 2006.


Further readingEdit

Key textsEdit

BooksEdit

  • Barnard, G. W. (1998). William James and the origins of mystical experience. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Buckle, H. T. (1920). Examination of the method employed by metaphysicians for discovering mental laws. New York, NY: D Appleton & Company.
  • Butchvarov, P. (1979). Being Qua Being: A Theory of Identity, Existence and Predication. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press.
  • Gale, Richard M. (2002). The Blackwell Guide to Metaphysics. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Gill, M. M., & Holzman, P. S. (1976). Psychology versus metapsychology: Psychoanalytic essays in memory of George S. Klein. Oxford, England: International U Press.
  • Gillett, C. (2003). Non-reductive realization and non-reductive identity: What physicalism does not entail. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Gillett, C. (2007). The metaphysics of mechanisms and the challenge of the new reductionism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Harris, E. E. (1965). The Foundations of Metaphysics in Science. London: George Allen and Unwin.
  • Harris, E. E. (2000). The Restitution of Metaphysics. New York: Humanity Books.
  • Hattiangadi, J. (2005). The Mind as an Object of Scientific Study. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Heller, M. (2006). Science and Transcendence: Limits of Language and Common Sense. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
  • James, W. (1892). Epilogue: Psychology and philosophy. Ny: Henry Holt and Company.
  • James, W. (1907). Lecture III: Some metaphysical problems pragmatically considered. New York, NY: Longmans, Green and Co.
  • James, W. (1913). Necessary truths and the effects of experience. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Co.
  • Jibu, M., & Yasue, K. (2004). Quantum Brain Dynamics and Quantum Field Theory. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Kant, I., & Meiklejohn, J. M. D. (1899). Critique of pure reason. New York, NY: Willey Book Co.
  • Kant, I., & Meiklejohn, J. M. D. (1899). The history of pure reason. New York, NY: Willey Book Co.
  • Kant, I., & Meiklejohn, J. M. D. (1899). Part first--Transcendental aesthetic. New York, NY: Willey Book Co.
  • Kim, J. and Ernest Sosa Ed. (1999). Metaphysics: An Anthology. Blackwell Philosophy Anthologies.
  • Kim, J. and Ernest Sosa, Ed. (2000). A Companion to Metaphysics. Malden Massachusetts, Blackwell, Publishers.
  • Lange, F. A., & Thomas, E. C. (1880). Philosophical materialism since Kant. Boston, MA: Houghton, Osgood, & Company.
  • Legerstee, M. (1999). Mental and bodily awareness in infancy: Consciousness of self-existence. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Loeb, J. (1900). Cerebral hemispheres and associative memory. New York, NY: G P Putnam's Sons.
  • Loewald, H. W. (1988). Psychoanalysis in search of nature: Thoughts on metapsychology, "metaphysics," projection. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, Inc.
  • Lotze, H. (1888). Knowledge and truth. Edinburgh, Great Britain: T & T Clark.
  • Lowe, E. J. (2003). Physical causal closure and the invisibility of mental causation. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Lowe, E. J. (2002). A Survey of Metaphysics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Loux, M. J. (2006). Metaphysics: A Contemporary Introduction (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.
  • Mach, E., & Williams, C. M. (1897). Introductory remarks: Antimetaphysical. Chicago, IL: The Open Court Publishing Company.
  • Mackintosh, R. (1899). The metaphysics of natural selection. New York, NY: MacMillan Co.
  • Magnin, T. (2006). Moral Philosophy: A Space for Dialogue between Science and Theology. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
  • Mahon, B. Z., & Caramazza, A. (2007). The organization and representation of conceptual knowledge in the brain: Living kinds and artifacts. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Medin, D. L., & Rips, L. J. (2005). Concepts and Categories: Memory, Meaning, and Metaphysics. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Melnyk, A. (2003). Some evidence for physicalism. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Menzies, P. (2003). The causal efficacy of mental states. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Midgley, M. (1999). Being scientific about our selves. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Montero, B. (2003). Varieties of causal closure. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Moore, G. (1852). The connection of the mind with the brain, etc. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers.
  • Morris, G. S. (1882). The futility of "metaphysics". Chicago, IL: S C Griggs and Company.
  • Morris, G. S. (1882). Metaphysics as a science. Chicago, IL: S C Griggs and Company.
  • Nakagomi, T. (2004). Quantum monadology and consciousness. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Noe, A., & Thompson, E. (2002). Vision and mind: Selected readings in the philosophy of perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Noordhof, P. (2003). Not old . . . but not that new either: Explicability, emergence, and the characterisation of materialism. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Panksepp, J. (1999). The periconscious substrates of consciousness: Affective states and the evolutionary origins of the self. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Paulsen, F., & Thilly, F. (1900). The freedom of the will. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Perlis, D. (1999). Consciousness as self-function. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Pessa, E. (2004). Quantum connectionism and the emergence of cognition. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Pettigrew, D. (2000). Peirce and Derrida: From sign to sign. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Physicus. (1913). The argument from metaphysical teleology. London, England: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Company.
  • Pickering, J. (1999). The self is a semiotic process. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Plotnitsky, A. (2004). The unthinkable: Nonclassical theory, the unconscious mind and the quantum brain. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Polger, T. W. (2007). Some metaphysical anxieties of reductionism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Porter, N. (1871). Theories of intuitive knowledge. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Putnam, J. J. (1921). The necessity of metaphysics. Honolulu, HI: Hogarth Press.
  • Pylkkanen, P. (2004). Can quantum analogies help us to understand the process of thought? Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Radden, J. (1999). Pathologically divided minds, synchronic unity and models of self. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Raymont, P. (2003). Kim on closure, exclusion and nonreductive physicalism. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Rediger, J. (2005). Bipolar Disorder and Western Anosognosia. New York, NY: Haworth Press.
  • Ricord, E. (1840). Elements of the philosophy of mind, applied to the development of thought and feeling. New York, NY: John N Bogert.
  • Riese, W. (1950). Integrative action. New York, NY: Nervous and Mental Disease Monographs.
  • Robertson, G. C. (1894). The history of psychology. London, Great Britain: Williams and Norgate.
  • Robertson, G. C. (1894). The metaphysics of John Stuart Mill. London, Great Britain: Williams and Norgate.
  • Robertson, G. C., & Whittaker, T. (1894). Psychology in philosophic teaching. London, Great Britain: Williams and Norgate.
  • Robinson, D. N. (1993). William James on the mind and the body. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Robinson, H. J. (1975). Renascent rationalism. Oxford, England: Macmillan.
  • Rosenberg, J. (1991). "Tractarian states" and folk-psychological explanation. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sass, L. A. (1999). Schizophrenia, self-consciousness, and the modern mind. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Searle, J. R. (1998). How to study consciousness scientifically. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Smith, T. V. (1934). The metaphysical implementation of conscience. New York, NY: Whittlesey House/McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Smyth, N. (1877). The feeling of dependence. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Takahashi, Y., & Jibu, M. (2004). Brain and Quantum Field Theory: Notes on monumental discussions presenting quantum field models of brain. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Tani, J. (1999). An interpretation of the "self" from the dynamical systems perspective: A constructivist approach. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
  • Taylor, E. (2008). William James on pure experience and samadhi in Samkhya-Yoga. New Delhi, India: Cambridge University Press India/Foundation Books.
  • Taylor, E., & Sugg, J. G. (2008). Yoga psychology and the Samkhya metaphysic. New Delhi, India: Cambridge University Press India/Foundation Books.
  • Taylor, E. I. (1992). Psychology as a person-centered science: William James after 1890: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Titchener, E. B. (1906). The ultimate nature of mind. Mind and body. Basingstoke, Hampshire, England: Macmillan Education.
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Additional materialEdit

BooksEdit

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PapersEdit

DissertationsEdit

  • Albert, D. B. (1994). Event horizons of the psyche: Synchronicity, psychedelics, and the metaphysics of consciousness. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Allen, K. (1984). Personal identity: An epistemological assessment and a metaphysical theory: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Anderson, R. L. (2007). Functional ontology construction: A pragmatic approach to addressing problems concerning the individual and the informing environment. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Baillie, H. W. (1978). The psychological foundation of Aristotelian wisdom: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barasinski, J. B. (1993). A metaphysical experience of the Absolute: A study of a theistic experience in the light of Edmund Husserl's phenomenological method: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Beckman, K. R. (1999). Vanishing women. (stage magic, psychoanalysis, Sir Alfred Hitchcock, England, Veit Harlan, Germany, Bette Davis, women). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Blom, J. J. (1975). A systematic study of the mind-body relation according to Descartes: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brown, B. T. (1995). Metaphysics and schizophrenics: A comprehensive analysis of the thought of R. D. laing and its implications for sociological theory. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Cavers-Huff, D. Y. (1997). Cognitive science and metaphysics revisited: Toward a theory of properties. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Chalmers, D. J. (1994). Toward a theory of consciousness. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Coelho, A. J. (1994). Mandalas within-beyond life: A phenomenological investigation into life and revelation as gifts unfolding-enfolding. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • David, G. L. (1975). Logical positivism, the mind-body problem and immortality: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Field, R. A. (1982). The return of the goddess: The feminine principle in the theosophic thought and transpersonal psychology: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Finn, G. (2000). The concept of the order of nature in the philosophy of Spinoza: An analysis from the perspective of Justus Buchler's ordinal metaphysics. (Baruch Spinoza). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Gillespie, D. (1982). An interpretation of some metatheoretical assumptions in cognitive psychology: Mechanism and contextualism: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Haney, S. R. (1993). Time and knowledge in William Faulkner's "Absalom, Absalomp": Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Heil, J. F., Jr. (1996). Minds, bodies and affections: Plato and Aristotle on the metaphysics of the mental. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Hickey, L. P. (1999). An interpretation and defense of social externalism. (Hilary Putnam, externalism, normativity, metaphysical realism). Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Isley, C. T. (1997). Intentionality, experience, and the lifeworld: Phenomenological presupposition and the challenge of contemporary scientism. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Jalava, J. V. (2008). Science of conscience: Metaphysics, morality, and rhetoric in psychopathy research. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Jecmen, D. J. (1994). Toward an integration of spirituality and psychology: A contribution from metaphysical tradition. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kaczynski, R. P. (1994). The structure and correlates of metaphysical beliefs among a sample of behaviorally committed participants. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Kelly, D. R. (2008). Projectivism psychologized: The philosophy and psychology of disgust. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Kuhar, R. M. (2006). An exploration of the impact of education and engagement in science on scientists' metaphysical beliefs and spirituality. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Lizza, J. P. (1992). Metaphysical and cultural aspects of persons: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lyon, K. (1992). Context effects and the structure of concepts: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McGarry, K., Garfield, S., & Morris, N. (2006). Recent trends in knowledge and data integration for the life sciences: Expert Systems: International Journal of Knowledge Engineering and Neural Networks Vol 23(5) Nov 2006, 330-341.
  • McGrattan, C. (2006). The psychology of "A Course in Miracles" in secular and metaphysical contexts. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Mellick, D. C. (1974). The metaphysics of behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Milne, A. (1997). The alienation of content: Truth, rationality and mind. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences
  • Pascoe, J. P. (1979). A metatheoretical analysis of psychological and Christian thought for the purpose of formulating an integrative psychology: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Prane, J. Z. (2000). Multiple Personality Disorder/Dissociated Identity Disorder: The client as actor model. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Ray, C. (1999). Identity and universals: A conceptualist approach to logical, metaphysical, and epistemological problems of contemporary identity theory. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Reginster, B. M. (1992). Nietzsche on the nature and necessity of a psychological critique of metaphysics: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ross, P. W. (1998). Being red and seeing red: Sensory and perceptible qualities. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Schroll, M. A. (1998). The philosophical legacy of David Bohm, its relationship to transpersonal psychology and the emergence of ecopsychology: Searching for a coherent, co-evolutionary, sustainable culture. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Simmons, A. J. (1995). Making sense: The problem of phenomenal qualities in late scholastic Aristotelianism and Descartes. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Szendre, E. N. (1996). Children's assignment of intentionality to people, animals, plants, and objects: Challenges to theory of mind and animism. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Thompson, D. F. (1982). Ethics of metaphysics and ethics of value: A study in the thought of Bernard Lonergan: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Vernon, R. F. (2003). The therapy relationship: Developing a sound metaphysical description of personal relations. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Wachsberg, M. M. (1983). Personal identity, the nature of persons, and ethical theory: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Wang, W.-F. (1997). Non-actualism. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Yun, D. Y. (1998). Quine's criterion of ontological reduction. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
  • Zelman, R. P. (2003). Experiential philosophy: Metaphysics and altered states of consciousness. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.

External linksEdit


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