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{{CogPsy}}
 
{{CogPsy}}
 
{{Emotion}}
 
{{Emotion}}
'''Meta-emotion''' refers to second-order [[feelings]] or [[emotions]] about first-order [[emotions]].
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'''Meta-emotion''' is "an organized and structured set of emotions and cognitions about the emotions, both one’s own emotions and the emotions of others".<ref name=Gottmanetal>Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1997). Meta-emotion: How families communicate emotionally. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.</ref> This broad definition of meta-emotion sparked psychologists’ interest in the topic, particularly regarding parental meta-emotion philosophy.
   
Meta-emotions can be short-term or long-term. The latter can be a source of discouragement or even [[psychological repression]], or encouragement of specific emotions, having implications for personality traits, [[psychodynamics]], family and [[group dynamics]], [[organizational climate]], emotional disorders, but also emotional [[awareness]], and [[emotional intelligence]].
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Meta-emotion refers to the idea that whenever we elicit a certain emotion, we also deal with subsequent emotions regarding how we experienced the primary emotion. While some psychologists have examined the influence of meta-emotions on how individuals interpret and deal with their own and others’ emotions, much of the literature regarding meta-emotion has focused on how parental meta-emotion impacts the social-emotional development of their children.<ref>Ferrari, M., & Koyama, E. (2002). Meta-emotions about anger and amae: A cross-cultural comparison. Consciousness & Emotion, 3(2), 197-211. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/620031891?accountid=12874</ref> Meta-emotions can be short-term or long-term. The latter can be a source of discouragement or even [[psychological repression]], or encouragement of specific emotions, having implications for personality traits, [[psychodynamics]], family and [[group dynamics]], [[organizational climate]], emotional disorders, but also emotional [[awareness]], and [[emotional intelligence]].
{{wiktionary}}
 
   
 
==Linkage to awareness and emotional intelligence==
 
==Linkage to awareness and emotional intelligence==
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One of the basic emotions -- namely [[interest (emotion)|interest]] -- at meta-emotional level (or metainterest) that is defined as ''being interested in'' what one feels at the moment is also a locus of emotional [[awareness]] and [[emotional intelligence]], enabling one not to be slave to one's own emotions, nor repressing them, but dealing with them with awareness, intelligence and creativity.
 
One of the basic emotions -- namely [[interest (emotion)|interest]] -- at meta-emotional level (or metainterest) that is defined as ''being interested in'' what one feels at the moment is also a locus of emotional [[awareness]] and [[emotional intelligence]], enabling one not to be slave to one's own emotions, nor repressing them, but dealing with them with awareness, intelligence and creativity.
   
==History of the concept==
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==Research by Gottman==
'''Meta-emotion''' as a new concept was first defined by Gottman et al. (1996) as encompassing both feelings and thoughts about emotion, not only feelings about feelings, but as Nancy Eisenberg (1996) noticed it was not a very good definition because "...it is likely that thoughts about emotions and feelings about emotion sometimes play different roles in parental behavior. As one example, parents may not always be aware of their feelings about their own and their children's emotions. Yet parents' feelings about emotions may have effects on their behavior - effects that are not consistent with some of their conscious beliefs and values about emotions. It may be premature to consider thoughts and feelings about emotions as complementary or equivalent processes, although their interrelations and joint effects are of obvious importance". (Eisenberg, 1996)
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In 1997, Gottman, Katz, & Hooven used the term '''meta-emotion''' to describe parents' reactions to their children's emotional displays.<ref>Mitmansgruber, H., Beck, T. N., Höfer, S., & Schüßler, G. (2009). When you don’t like what you feel: Experiential avoidance, mindfulness and meta-emotion in emotion regulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(4), 448-453. {{doi|10.1016/j.paid.2008.11.013}}</ref> Baker, Fenning, & Crnic (2010)<ref>Baker, J. K., Fenning, R. M., & Crnic, K. A. (2011). Emotion socialization by mothers and fathers: Coherence among behaviors and associations with parent attitudes and childrens social competence. Social Development, 20(2), 412-430. {{doi|10.1111/j.1467-9507.2010.00585.x}}</ref> defined meta-emotion philosophy as "parental attitudes toward emotion."
   
As Gottman writes in his book ''Meta-Emotion: How Families Communicate Emotionally'' (Gottman et al, 1997) before 1984 he "... visited Robert Levenson, who was then on sabbatical in [[Paul Ekman]]'s laboratory, and Ekman introduced him to Hochschild's (1983) book ''The Managed Heart''. This book inspired Gottman to think of the idea of '''meta-emotion''', and to the development of a 'meta-emotion interview' in conjunction with Lynn Fainsilber Katz (Katz and Gottman 1986)".
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Broadly speaking, meta-emotion encompasses both feelings and thoughts about emotion. According to Gottman et al. (2006),<ref name=Gottman>Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1996). Parental meta-emotion philosophy and the emotional life of families: Theoretical models and preliminary data. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(3), 243-268. {{doi|10.1037/0893-3200.10.3.243}}</ref> the term meta-emotion does not merely refer to an individual’s emotional reactions to his or her own emotions, but refers also to the "executive functions of emotion" (243). Greenberg (2002)<ref>Greenberg, L. S. (2002). Emotion-focused therapy: Coaching clients to work through their feelings. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. {{doi|10.1037/10447-000}}</ref> suggested that meta-emotions are to be considered a type of "secondary emotion," a temporal concept in which a secondary emotion follows a primary emotion. For example, anxiety (the secondary emotion) may follow anger (the primary emotion).
<blockquote>
 
In this first study we planned for our family psychophysiology laboratory, each parent was to be separately interviewed about their own experience of sadness and anger, their philosophy of emotional expression and control, and their attitudes and behavior about their children's anger and sadness. Their behavior during this interview was audiotaped and later coded with a meta-emotion coding system designed by a central member of our laboratory staff, Carole Hooven , a coauthor of this book. Initially, the goal of the meta-emotion interview was to examine each parent's feelings about being emotionally expressive, but this idea was later expanded.
 
   
In pilot work for our first study of the effects of the parents' marriage on children, we discovered a great variety in the experiences, philosophies, and attitudes that parents had about their emotions and the emotions of their children. One pair of parents said that they viewed anger as 'from the devil', and that they would not permit themselves or their children to express anger. Their child was quite docile in her interactions with her parents but appeared quite angry and bossy in her interactions with her best friend. A similar negative view toward anger was echoed by other parents. Some parents in our study said that they put their children in Time Out for being angry, even if there was no child misbehavior. Other parents felt that anger was natural, but ignored the experience of anger in their children. Other parents encouraged the expression and exploration of anger. There was similar variety with respect to sadness, and the information we gathered about sadness was not redundant with the information we gathered about anger. Some parents minimized sadness in themselves and in their children, saying such things as, ''I can't afford to be sad'', and ''What does a kid have to be sad about?'' Other parents thought that emotions like sadness in themselves and in their children were important and viewed themselves as emotion coaches of their children about the world of emotion. In our pilot work there also appeared to be gender differences: Fathers seemed less likely to be aware of their own sadness or to assist when their children were sad; fathers who were oriented toward emotion seemed more interested in their children's anger than in their sadness. Mothers seemed to be more concerned with their children's sadness than fathers. These were our initial impressions.</blockquote>
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The term meta-emotion was unexpectedly coined as a result of the initial work of Gottman et al. (1996). For years, developmental psychology research has focused on parental affect, responsiveness, and parenting style. Gottman, Katz, & Hooven (1996) believed that there was not enough attention given to parents' feelings and thoughts about their own emotions and their children's emotions. While researching the effects of parents' marital relationship on children, Gottman et al. (1996) found that there was a large variety of attitudes and philosophies that parents held about their own emotions and their children's emotions.<ref name=Gottman /> In order to examine these differences, Katz & Gottman (1986) developed a meta-emotion interview and deemed the term "meta-emotion structure," to refer to parents' feelings about feelings. They believed that meta-emotion was a "pervasive and understudied dimension in emotion research" (250). Katz & Gottman (1986) paralleled their concept of meta-emotion with that of the meta-cognition construct [[Metacognition]].<ref name=KatzGottman>Katz, L. F., & Gottman, J. M. (1999). Parent meta-emotion interview. Seattle, WA: University of Washington.</ref> Hooven, Gottman, & Katz (1995)<ref name=HoovenGottmanKatz>Hooven, C., Gottman, J. M., & Katz, L. F. (1995). Parental meta-emotion structure predicts family and child outcomes. Cognition and Emotion, 9(2-3), 229-264. {{doi|10.1080/02699939508409010}}</ref> used the term "meta-emotion structure" to refer to "the parents' awareness of specific emotions, their awareness and acceptance of these emotions in their child, and their coaching of the emotion in their child" (231). The results of their study demonstrated that parental meta-emotion variables were related to their abilities to both interact with their children and resolve marital conflict. Gottman, Katz & Hooven (1996) suggested that parents' own feelings and thoughts about their emotions strongly influence the ways in which they parent.<ref name=Gottman />
   
In the same book, he acknowledges:
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===Types of Parental Meta-Emotion Philosophy===
<blockquote> At that time we did not expect the concept of meta-emotion to become the centerpiece of our work. That result was entirely serendipitous. The data led us to modify our initial theorizing and to realize that we had a particularly appealing and parsimonious theory and set of initial findings. Once we made meta-emotion the centerpiece of our work, this became a data set that said yes to almost all the theoretical questions we asked of it in building our theoretical model. Lynn Fainsilber Katz's thinking was instrumental to the development of the theoretical models. We also wish to acknowledge the help and feedback of Stephen Porges in building our theoretical model.</blockquote>
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In their paper published in 1996, Gottman, Katz & Hooven outlined different types of parental meta-emotion philosophy. These include emotion-coaching philosophy and a dismissing meta-emotion philosophy.<ref name=Gottman /> That there are two major meta-emotion philosophies continues to be the general consensus among psychologists studying meta-emotion: emotion-coaching philosophy, in which the parents are comfortable with the emotions of themselves and their children, and an emotion-dismissing philosophy in which parents view negative emotions as harmful.<ref>Baker, J. K., Fenning, R. M., & Crnic, K. A. (2011). Emotion socialization by mothers and fathers: Coherence among behaviors and associations with parent attitudes and childrens social competence. Social Development, 20(2), 412-430. {{doi|10.1111/j.1467-9507.2010.00585.x}}</ref>
   
==Prehistory of the concept==
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====Emotion-Coaching Philosophy====
Becker (1964) presented a 2 x 2 table of 'permissive versus restrictive' as one factor, and 'warmth versus hostility' as the other factor. Becker noted that specific kinds of child outcomes had been related to each of the four cells of his table:
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Parents who follow an emotion-coaching philosophy tend to be aware of their emotions and the emotions of others. They are able to talk about these emotions and help their children understand and express their emotions, particularly sadness and anger. The authors found a distinction between emotion-coaching philosophy and parental warmth.<ref name=Gottman />
# the warm-and-restrictive cell tended to have positive child outcomes,
 
# the hostile-and-restrictive cell had social withdrawal, quarreling, and shyness, with self-aggression as child outcomes,
 
# the warm-and-permissive cell was omitted or deleted, and, finally,
 
# the hostile-and-permissive cell tended to have noncompliance, aggression, and delinquency as child outcomes.
 
   
Later, Baumrind (1967, 1971, 1987) distinguished three parenting styles, ''authoritarian'' (restrictive and cold), ''authoritative'' (restrictive and warm) and ''permissive'', where the first ones (authoritarian) had conflicted-irritable children (fearful, apprehensive, moody, unhappy, easily annoyed, passively hostile, vulnerable to stress, aimless, sulky, and unfriendly), the second ones (authoritative) had energetic-friendly children (self-reliant, self-controlled, cheerful, friendly, able to cope well with stress, cooperative with adults, curious, purposive, and achievement-oriented), and the third ones (permissive) had impulsive-aggressive children (rebellious, low in self-reliance and self-control, impulsive, aggressive, domineering, aimless, and low in achievement). Other research has found that the combination of permissive and rejecting is a good predictor of delinquent and antisocial behavior (Patterson, 1982), whereas the combination of restrictive and rejecting is predictive of withdrawn and inhibited behavior and other internalizing disorders.
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There are five major characteristics of the emotion-coaching philosophy:
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* The parent is aware of the child's emotion.
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* The parent sees the child's emotion as an opportunity for intimacy or teaching.
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* The parent helps the child to verbally label the emotions the child is having.
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* The parent empathizes with or validates the child's emotion.
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* The parent helps the child to problem solve (280).<ref name=Gottman />
   
==External links==
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A crucial aspect of the emotion-coaching philosophy is that the parent utilizes the child's negative emotions to form an emotional connection with their child, primarily for the reasons of intimacy and teaching.<ref name=Gottman />
* [http://metainterest.googlepages.com/home An application of meta-emotion theory]
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====Dismissive Philosophy====
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Parents with a dismissing meta-emotion philosophy feel as though their child's anger or sadness could be harmful to their child, that their primary job is to alleviate these harmful emotions as quickly as possible, and that their child should know that these negative emotions will not last. Although parents with a dismissing philosophy may be sensitive to their child's emotions and truly want to be helpful, these parents believe that ignoring or denying negative emotions is the best approach to helping their children. Parents with a dismissing meta-emotion philosophy are often unable to provide insight into their child's emotions and do not view negative emotions as an opportunity for growth or intimacy.<ref name=Gottman /> Parents may partake in a dismissing approach by attempting to distract the child or belittling the causes of the negative emotions.<ref name=Gottman />
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====Disapproving Philosophy====
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Another possible type of parental meta-emotion is the disapproving philosophy. These parents reprimand their children for any type of emotional expression, even if the child's actions are appropriate. As a result, these children start to view their emotions as inappropriate and invalid, and have a difficult time with emotion regulation.<ref>Gottman, J. & DeClaire, J. (1997). Raising an emotionally intelligent child: The heart of parenting. Fireside; New York.</ref> For disapproving parents, negative emotions require a disciplinary response. Some disapproving parents may view their child's negative emotions as a means by which the child is attempting to manipulate or control the parent.<ref name=Gottman />
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===Impact of Parental Meta-Emotion on Children and Adolescents===
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There have been many studies examining the impact of different parental meta-emotion philosophies on adolescents. For example, researchers have studied the relation between meta-emotion philosophy and adolescent depression, as well as the impact of parental meta-emotion on adolescent affect and coping skills. Other psychologists have examined the impact of maternal meta-emotion philosophy on children's [[Attachment theory|attachment inclination]].<ref>Yeh, K., Cheng, S., & Yang, Y. (2005). The influence of maternal meta-emotion philosophy on childrens. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 47(2), 195-196. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/620834431?accountid=12874emotion intelligence</ref>
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Gottman et al. (1997)<ref name="Gottmanetal"/> highlighted two specific aspects of parental meta-emotion that impact children and family outcomes: 1) emotional awareness, and 2) emotion coaching. Gottman, Katz, & Hooven— among the leading psychologists regarding meta-emotion— firmly believe in the significant impact of parental meta-emotion on many aspects of their children’s lives: "There is evidence that from the beginning of a child’s life, parents’ interaction with the child has implications for the child’s ability to self-regulate, focus attention, share intersubjective meaning, for the essential affectional bonds with parents, and be able to interact with a changing environment" (87).<ref name=Gottmanetal />
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There has been a growing interest in examining the impact of the various types of parental meta-emotion philosophies on children’s emotional states and [[Child depression|depressive symptoms]]. For example, Hunter et al. (2011)<ref>Hunter, E. C., Katz, L. F., Shortt, J. W., Davis, B., Leve, C., Allen, N. B., & Sheeber, L. B. (2011). How do I feel about feelings? Emotion socialization in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(4), 428-441. {{doi|10.1007/s10964-010-9545-2}}</ref> examined the associations between the meta-emotion philosophies of fathers, mothers, and adolescents. They found that when parents held an emotion-coaching philosophy, the adolescents tended to have fewer behavioral and emotional issues. They concluded that: "The quality of the meta-emotion philosophy developed by adolescents may have implications for their mental health. In particular, evidence suggests that beliefs about emotion are relevant to depressive disorders, with negative beliefs associated with an increased risk for adolescent depression." Similarly, Katz & Hunter (2007)<ref>Katz, L. F., & Hunter, E. C. (2007). Maternal meta-emotion philosophy and adolescent depressive symptomatology. Social Development, 16(2), 343-360. {{doi|10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00388.x}}</ref> examined the effects of maternal meta-emotion on adolescent depressive symptoms. The authors found that adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms tended to have mothers who were less accepting of their own emotions. Mothers who were more accepting of their own emotions tended to have adolescents with higher self-esteem, fewer externalizing problems, and fewer depressive symptoms. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a strong correlation between maternal meta-emotion philosophy and adolescent depression. Thus, these authors suggest that meta-emotion philosophy is related to adolescent [[Depression (mood)|depression]] and [[Affect (psychology)|affect]].
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Another study found that mothers with a meta-emotion philosophy that is higher in both awareness and acceptance were correlated with fewer negative social behaviors during mother-child interactions.<ref>Yap, M. B. H., Allen, N. B., Leve, C., & Katz, L. F. (2008). Maternal meta-emotion philosophy and socialization of adolescent affect: The moderating role of adolescent temperament. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(5), 688-700. {{doi|10.1037/a0013104}}</ref> This suggests that maternal meta-emotion philosophy also influences the interactions between the mother and her adolescent. It would be interesting to examine whether or not this holds true for fathers and their adolescents as well.
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Aside from examining the impact of parental meta-emotion on children’s affect and depressive symptomatology, some psychologists have researched the influence of meta-emotion on the development of children’s coping strategies. Lagacé-Séguin & Gionet (2009)<ref>Lagacé-Séguin, D., & Gionet, A. (2009). Parent meta-emotion and temperament predict coping skills in early adolescence. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 14, 367-382.</ref> were interested in studying the nature versus nurture debate regarding children’s development of coping strategies. To do so, they examined the impact of both temperament (nature) and parental meta-emotion philosophy (nurture) on the development of coping skills in early adolescents. The authors found many interactions between parental meta-emotion and the adolescent’s temperament. For example, they found that emotion-coaching parenting was related to distraction coping strategies for children with lower negative affect and higher [[surgency]]. The authors concluded that parental meta-emotion philosophy styles can interact with a child’s temperament and predict the adolescents’ coping styles.
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=== Impact of Meta-Emotion on Marital Conflict or Stability ===
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Gottman et al.<ref name =Gottmanetal /> examined whether meta-emotion variables applied solely to parenting styles or if these variables also impacted a couple's marriage. To examine this question, Gottman et al. examined the longitudinal stability of the participants' marriage and how the couples resolved their conflicts. They assessed both parents' sadness and anger meta-emotions.
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==== Fathers ====
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Gottman et al. found that fathers who are more aware of their sadness were more affectionate and have wives who were "less contemptuous and belligerent"<ref name= Gottmanetal /> (198). Fathers who followed an emotion-coaching philosophy with concern to both sadness and anger were less defensive and more affectionate, but fathers who were merely aware of their own anger and their child's anger were more defensive and belligerent. Thus, the father's awareness of his anger was not necessarily a positive quality with concern to his marriage. On the other hand, fathers who maintained an emotion-coaching philosophy were more affectionate with their spouses and have wives who were also more affectionate and less contemptuous.
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==== Mothers ====
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Gottman et al.<ref name =Gottmanetal /> examined mothers' sadness and anger meta-emotions as well. They found that mothers who were aware of their own sadness and their children's sadness were less belligerent, and had husbands who were also less belligerent and contemptuous. Mothers who followed an emotion-coaching philosophy with concern to sadness tended to have husbands were "less disgusted and less belligerent" (201). Gottman et al. found that mothers who were aware of their children's anger were less contemptuous, but also less affectionate toward their husbands. They concluded that for mothers, awareness of their child's emotions had a positive impact on marital interaction, but for fathers, awareness of his child's anger did not have positive implications for his marriage.<ref name= Gottmanetal />
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===Measuring Meta-Emotion Philosophy===
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The Meta-Emotion Interview is the most widely used measurement tool of meta-emotion. Each parent is separately interviewed about their own encounters with anger and sadness, their beliefs about emotional expression, and their attitudes and responses to their children’s sadness and anger. This interview was semi-structured, allowing for flexibility for both the interviewer and the interviewee. The interview was audio-taped and designed to evaluate three dimensions of meta-emotion for sadness and anger: the parent’s awareness of their own emotion, their awareness of the child’s emotion, and the coaching of the child’s emotion.<ref name =Gottmanetal />
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Gottman, Katz, & Hooven updated their first meta-emotion interview<ref name=Gottmanetal /> to target parents' awareness of their own emotions and their children's emotions, as well as the parents' method of interacting with their children when the child is actively experiencing emotions. The interview outlines four types of [[parenting styles]]: emotion-coaching, laissez-faire, dismissing, and disapproving. It is an hour-long structured interview that is scored from audio-tapes<ref>Hakim-Larson, J., Parker, A., Lee, C., Goodwin, J., & Voelker, S. (2006). Measuring parental meta-emotion: Psychometric properties of the emotion-related parenting styles self-test. Early Education and Development, 17(2), 229-251. {{doi|10.1207/s15566935eed1702_2}}</ref>
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The primary goal of the most recent Meta-Emotion Interview (MEI) is to gain a clear idea of how an individual experiences a particular emotion. Although it was first used to examine the emotions of sadness and anger, it has since been expanded to include pride and love/affection. The MEI focuses on one emotion at a time—all the questions are answered about one particular emotion (i.e.: sadness) before the interviewer moves on to the next emotion. For each emotion, the individual is first asked about their childhood and how their family handled and expressed each emotion. Then, they are asked about how they experience the emotion now. The questions particularly target how they experience each emotion in their relationships with their spouse and/or child. The MEI also addresses nonverbal expressions of emotion. For example, the interviewer asks what the individual looks like when he or she experiences a particular emotion (i.e.: "What do you look like when you are sad?"). The MEI is videotaped and then coded using the MEI Coding System, which focuses on four main dimensions of emotion: awareness, acceptance, dysregulation, and coaching. Awareness refers to the extent to which the individual acknowledges that they are experiencing an emotion. Acceptance refers to whether the individual not only allows himself to experience the emotion, but also feels comfortable expressing it. Dysregulation relates to the individual’s reported difficulties regulating their expression of the particular emotion. Finally, coaching refers to the degree to which individuals are able to identify and accept others’ (i.e.: spouse or child) emotional experience in a positive manner.<ref>Manusov, V. L. (2005). The sourcebook of nonverbal measures: Going beyond words. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum.</ref>
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==See also==
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* [[Awareness]]
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* [[Consciousness]]
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* [[Unconscious mind]]
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* [[Psychological repression]]
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* [[Psychodynamics]]
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* [[Metacognition]]
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==Notes==
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{{reflist}}
   
==References==
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==Further reading==
 
* Becker, W. C. (1964). "Consequences of different kinds of parental discipline". In: M. L. Hoffman & L. W. Hoffman (Eds.), ''Review of child development research (Vol. 1)''. New York: Russell Sage.
 
* Becker, W. C. (1964). "Consequences of different kinds of parental discipline". In: M. L. Hoffman & L. W. Hoffman (Eds.), ''Review of child development research (Vol. 1)''. New York: Russell Sage.
 
* Baumrind D. (1967). "Child care practices anteceding 3 patterns of preschool behavior", ''Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75'', 43-88.
 
* Baumrind D. (1967). "Child care practices anteceding 3 patterns of preschool behavior", ''Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75'', 43-88.
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{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
   
==See also==
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==External links==
* [[Awareness]]
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* [http://metainterest.googlepages.com/home An application of meta-emotion theory]
* [[Consciousness]]
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* [[Unconscious mind]]
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* [[Psychological repression]]
 
* [[Psychodynamics]]
 
* [[Metacognition]]
 
   
[[Category:Cognitive science]]
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[[Category:Emotion]]
[[Category:Emotion
 
 
[[Category:Philosophy of mind]]
 
[[Category:Philosophy of mind]]
 
[[Category:Theories of emotion]]
 
[[Category:Theories of emotion]]

Latest revision as of 00:32, November 28, 2012

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Meta-emotion is "an organized and structured set of emotions and cognitions about the emotions, both one’s own emotions and the emotions of others".[1] This broad definition of meta-emotion sparked psychologists’ interest in the topic, particularly regarding parental meta-emotion philosophy.

Meta-emotion refers to the idea that whenever we elicit a certain emotion, we also deal with subsequent emotions regarding how we experienced the primary emotion. While some psychologists have examined the influence of meta-emotions on how individuals interpret and deal with their own and others’ emotions, much of the literature regarding meta-emotion has focused on how parental meta-emotion impacts the social-emotional development of their children.[2] Meta-emotions can be short-term or long-term. The latter can be a source of discouragement or even psychological repression, or encouragement of specific emotions, having implications for personality traits, psychodynamics, family and group dynamics, organizational climate, emotional disorders, but also emotional awareness, and emotional intelligence.

Linkage to awareness and emotional intelligenceEdit

One of the basic emotions -- namely interest -- at meta-emotional level (or metainterest) that is defined as being interested in what one feels at the moment is also a locus of emotional awareness and emotional intelligence, enabling one not to be slave to one's own emotions, nor repressing them, but dealing with them with awareness, intelligence and creativity.

Research by GottmanEdit

In 1997, Gottman, Katz, & Hooven used the term meta-emotion to describe parents' reactions to their children's emotional displays.[3] Baker, Fenning, & Crnic (2010)[4] defined meta-emotion philosophy as "parental attitudes toward emotion."

Broadly speaking, meta-emotion encompasses both feelings and thoughts about emotion. According to Gottman et al. (2006),[5] the term meta-emotion does not merely refer to an individual’s emotional reactions to his or her own emotions, but refers also to the "executive functions of emotion" (243). Greenberg (2002)[6] suggested that meta-emotions are to be considered a type of "secondary emotion," a temporal concept in which a secondary emotion follows a primary emotion. For example, anxiety (the secondary emotion) may follow anger (the primary emotion).

The term meta-emotion was unexpectedly coined as a result of the initial work of Gottman et al. (1996). For years, developmental psychology research has focused on parental affect, responsiveness, and parenting style. Gottman, Katz, & Hooven (1996) believed that there was not enough attention given to parents' feelings and thoughts about their own emotions and their children's emotions. While researching the effects of parents' marital relationship on children, Gottman et al. (1996) found that there was a large variety of attitudes and philosophies that parents held about their own emotions and their children's emotions.[5] In order to examine these differences, Katz & Gottman (1986) developed a meta-emotion interview and deemed the term "meta-emotion structure," to refer to parents' feelings about feelings. They believed that meta-emotion was a "pervasive and understudied dimension in emotion research" (250). Katz & Gottman (1986) paralleled their concept of meta-emotion with that of the meta-cognition construct Metacognition.[7] Hooven, Gottman, & Katz (1995)[8] used the term "meta-emotion structure" to refer to "the parents' awareness of specific emotions, their awareness and acceptance of these emotions in their child, and their coaching of the emotion in their child" (231). The results of their study demonstrated that parental meta-emotion variables were related to their abilities to both interact with their children and resolve marital conflict. Gottman, Katz & Hooven (1996) suggested that parents' own feelings and thoughts about their emotions strongly influence the ways in which they parent.[5]

Types of Parental Meta-Emotion PhilosophyEdit

In their paper published in 1996, Gottman, Katz & Hooven outlined different types of parental meta-emotion philosophy. These include emotion-coaching philosophy and a dismissing meta-emotion philosophy.[5] That there are two major meta-emotion philosophies continues to be the general consensus among psychologists studying meta-emotion: emotion-coaching philosophy, in which the parents are comfortable with the emotions of themselves and their children, and an emotion-dismissing philosophy in which parents view negative emotions as harmful.[9]

Emotion-Coaching PhilosophyEdit

Parents who follow an emotion-coaching philosophy tend to be aware of their emotions and the emotions of others. They are able to talk about these emotions and help their children understand and express their emotions, particularly sadness and anger. The authors found a distinction between emotion-coaching philosophy and parental warmth.[5]

There are five major characteristics of the emotion-coaching philosophy:

  • The parent is aware of the child's emotion.
  • The parent sees the child's emotion as an opportunity for intimacy or teaching.
  • The parent helps the child to verbally label the emotions the child is having.
  • The parent empathizes with or validates the child's emotion.
  • The parent helps the child to problem solve (280).[5]

A crucial aspect of the emotion-coaching philosophy is that the parent utilizes the child's negative emotions to form an emotional connection with their child, primarily for the reasons of intimacy and teaching.[5]

Dismissive PhilosophyEdit

Parents with a dismissing meta-emotion philosophy feel as though their child's anger or sadness could be harmful to their child, that their primary job is to alleviate these harmful emotions as quickly as possible, and that their child should know that these negative emotions will not last. Although parents with a dismissing philosophy may be sensitive to their child's emotions and truly want to be helpful, these parents believe that ignoring or denying negative emotions is the best approach to helping their children. Parents with a dismissing meta-emotion philosophy are often unable to provide insight into their child's emotions and do not view negative emotions as an opportunity for growth or intimacy.[5] Parents may partake in a dismissing approach by attempting to distract the child or belittling the causes of the negative emotions.[5]

Disapproving PhilosophyEdit

Another possible type of parental meta-emotion is the disapproving philosophy. These parents reprimand their children for any type of emotional expression, even if the child's actions are appropriate. As a result, these children start to view their emotions as inappropriate and invalid, and have a difficult time with emotion regulation.[10] For disapproving parents, negative emotions require a disciplinary response. Some disapproving parents may view their child's negative emotions as a means by which the child is attempting to manipulate or control the parent.[5]

Impact of Parental Meta-Emotion on Children and AdolescentsEdit

There have been many studies examining the impact of different parental meta-emotion philosophies on adolescents. For example, researchers have studied the relation between meta-emotion philosophy and adolescent depression, as well as the impact of parental meta-emotion on adolescent affect and coping skills. Other psychologists have examined the impact of maternal meta-emotion philosophy on children's attachment inclination.[11]

Gottman et al. (1997)[1] highlighted two specific aspects of parental meta-emotion that impact children and family outcomes: 1) emotional awareness, and 2) emotion coaching. Gottman, Katz, & Hooven— among the leading psychologists regarding meta-emotion— firmly believe in the significant impact of parental meta-emotion on many aspects of their children’s lives: "There is evidence that from the beginning of a child’s life, parents’ interaction with the child has implications for the child’s ability to self-regulate, focus attention, share intersubjective meaning, for the essential affectional bonds with parents, and be able to interact with a changing environment" (87).[1]

There has been a growing interest in examining the impact of the various types of parental meta-emotion philosophies on children’s emotional states and depressive symptoms. For example, Hunter et al. (2011)[12] examined the associations between the meta-emotion philosophies of fathers, mothers, and adolescents. They found that when parents held an emotion-coaching philosophy, the adolescents tended to have fewer behavioral and emotional issues. They concluded that: "The quality of the meta-emotion philosophy developed by adolescents may have implications for their mental health. In particular, evidence suggests that beliefs about emotion are relevant to depressive disorders, with negative beliefs associated with an increased risk for adolescent depression." Similarly, Katz & Hunter (2007)[13] examined the effects of maternal meta-emotion on adolescent depressive symptoms. The authors found that adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms tended to have mothers who were less accepting of their own emotions. Mothers who were more accepting of their own emotions tended to have adolescents with higher self-esteem, fewer externalizing problems, and fewer depressive symptoms. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a strong correlation between maternal meta-emotion philosophy and adolescent depression. Thus, these authors suggest that meta-emotion philosophy is related to adolescent depression and affect.

Another study found that mothers with a meta-emotion philosophy that is higher in both awareness and acceptance were correlated with fewer negative social behaviors during mother-child interactions.[14] This suggests that maternal meta-emotion philosophy also influences the interactions between the mother and her adolescent. It would be interesting to examine whether or not this holds true for fathers and their adolescents as well.

Aside from examining the impact of parental meta-emotion on children’s affect and depressive symptomatology, some psychologists have researched the influence of meta-emotion on the development of children’s coping strategies. Lagacé-Séguin & Gionet (2009)[15] were interested in studying the nature versus nurture debate regarding children’s development of coping strategies. To do so, they examined the impact of both temperament (nature) and parental meta-emotion philosophy (nurture) on the development of coping skills in early adolescents. The authors found many interactions between parental meta-emotion and the adolescent’s temperament. For example, they found that emotion-coaching parenting was related to distraction coping strategies for children with lower negative affect and higher surgency. The authors concluded that parental meta-emotion philosophy styles can interact with a child’s temperament and predict the adolescents’ coping styles.

Impact of Meta-Emotion on Marital Conflict or Stability Edit

Gottman et al.[1] examined whether meta-emotion variables applied solely to parenting styles or if these variables also impacted a couple's marriage. To examine this question, Gottman et al. examined the longitudinal stability of the participants' marriage and how the couples resolved their conflicts. They assessed both parents' sadness and anger meta-emotions.

Fathers Edit

Gottman et al. found that fathers who are more aware of their sadness were more affectionate and have wives who were "less contemptuous and belligerent"[1] (198). Fathers who followed an emotion-coaching philosophy with concern to both sadness and anger were less defensive and more affectionate, but fathers who were merely aware of their own anger and their child's anger were more defensive and belligerent. Thus, the father's awareness of his anger was not necessarily a positive quality with concern to his marriage. On the other hand, fathers who maintained an emotion-coaching philosophy were more affectionate with their spouses and have wives who were also more affectionate and less contemptuous.

Mothers Edit

Gottman et al.[1] examined mothers' sadness and anger meta-emotions as well. They found that mothers who were aware of their own sadness and their children's sadness were less belligerent, and had husbands who were also less belligerent and contemptuous. Mothers who followed an emotion-coaching philosophy with concern to sadness tended to have husbands were "less disgusted and less belligerent" (201). Gottman et al. found that mothers who were aware of their children's anger were less contemptuous, but also less affectionate toward their husbands. They concluded that for mothers, awareness of their child's emotions had a positive impact on marital interaction, but for fathers, awareness of his child's anger did not have positive implications for his marriage.[1]

Measuring Meta-Emotion PhilosophyEdit

The Meta-Emotion Interview is the most widely used measurement tool of meta-emotion. Each parent is separately interviewed about their own encounters with anger and sadness, their beliefs about emotional expression, and their attitudes and responses to their children’s sadness and anger. This interview was semi-structured, allowing for flexibility for both the interviewer and the interviewee. The interview was audio-taped and designed to evaluate three dimensions of meta-emotion for sadness and anger: the parent’s awareness of their own emotion, their awareness of the child’s emotion, and the coaching of the child’s emotion.[1]

Gottman, Katz, & Hooven updated their first meta-emotion interview[1] to target parents' awareness of their own emotions and their children's emotions, as well as the parents' method of interacting with their children when the child is actively experiencing emotions. The interview outlines four types of parenting styles: emotion-coaching, laissez-faire, dismissing, and disapproving. It is an hour-long structured interview that is scored from audio-tapes[16]

The primary goal of the most recent Meta-Emotion Interview (MEI) is to gain a clear idea of how an individual experiences a particular emotion. Although it was first used to examine the emotions of sadness and anger, it has since been expanded to include pride and love/affection. The MEI focuses on one emotion at a time—all the questions are answered about one particular emotion (i.e.: sadness) before the interviewer moves on to the next emotion. For each emotion, the individual is first asked about their childhood and how their family handled and expressed each emotion. Then, they are asked about how they experience the emotion now. The questions particularly target how they experience each emotion in their relationships with their spouse and/or child. The MEI also addresses nonverbal expressions of emotion. For example, the interviewer asks what the individual looks like when he or she experiences a particular emotion (i.e.: "What do you look like when you are sad?"). The MEI is videotaped and then coded using the MEI Coding System, which focuses on four main dimensions of emotion: awareness, acceptance, dysregulation, and coaching. Awareness refers to the extent to which the individual acknowledges that they are experiencing an emotion. Acceptance refers to whether the individual not only allows himself to experience the emotion, but also feels comfortable expressing it. Dysregulation relates to the individual’s reported difficulties regulating their expression of the particular emotion. Finally, coaching refers to the degree to which individuals are able to identify and accept others’ (i.e.: spouse or child) emotional experience in a positive manner.[17]


See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1997). Meta-emotion: How families communicate emotionally. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  2. Ferrari, M., & Koyama, E. (2002). Meta-emotions about anger and amae: A cross-cultural comparison. Consciousness & Emotion, 3(2), 197-211. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/620031891?accountid=12874
  3. Mitmansgruber, H., Beck, T. N., Höfer, S., & Schüßler, G. (2009). When you don’t like what you feel: Experiential avoidance, mindfulness and meta-emotion in emotion regulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(4), 448-453. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2008.11.013
  4. Baker, J. K., Fenning, R. M., & Crnic, K. A. (2011). Emotion socialization by mothers and fathers: Coherence among behaviors and associations with parent attitudes and childrens social competence. Social Development, 20(2), 412-430. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2010.00585.x
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1996). Parental meta-emotion philosophy and the emotional life of families: Theoretical models and preliminary data. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(3), 243-268. DOI:10.1037/0893-3200.10.3.243
  6. Greenberg, L. S. (2002). Emotion-focused therapy: Coaching clients to work through their feelings. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. DOI:10.1037/10447-000
  7. Katz, L. F., & Gottman, J. M. (1999). Parent meta-emotion interview. Seattle, WA: University of Washington.
  8. Hooven, C., Gottman, J. M., & Katz, L. F. (1995). Parental meta-emotion structure predicts family and child outcomes. Cognition and Emotion, 9(2-3), 229-264. DOI:10.1080/02699939508409010
  9. Baker, J. K., Fenning, R. M., & Crnic, K. A. (2011). Emotion socialization by mothers and fathers: Coherence among behaviors and associations with parent attitudes and childrens social competence. Social Development, 20(2), 412-430. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2010.00585.x
  10. Gottman, J. & DeClaire, J. (1997). Raising an emotionally intelligent child: The heart of parenting. Fireside; New York.
  11. Yeh, K., Cheng, S., & Yang, Y. (2005). The influence of maternal meta-emotion philosophy on childrens. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 47(2), 195-196. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/620834431?accountid=12874emotion intelligence
  12. Hunter, E. C., Katz, L. F., Shortt, J. W., Davis, B., Leve, C., Allen, N. B., & Sheeber, L. B. (2011). How do I feel about feelings? Emotion socialization in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(4), 428-441. DOI:10.1007/s10964-010-9545-2
  13. Katz, L. F., & Hunter, E. C. (2007). Maternal meta-emotion philosophy and adolescent depressive symptomatology. Social Development, 16(2), 343-360. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00388.x
  14. Yap, M. B. H., Allen, N. B., Leve, C., & Katz, L. F. (2008). Maternal meta-emotion philosophy and socialization of adolescent affect: The moderating role of adolescent temperament. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(5), 688-700. DOI:10.1037/a0013104
  15. Lagacé-Séguin, D., & Gionet, A. (2009). Parent meta-emotion and temperament predict coping skills in early adolescence. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 14, 367-382.
  16. Hakim-Larson, J., Parker, A., Lee, C., Goodwin, J., & Voelker, S. (2006). Measuring parental meta-emotion: Psychometric properties of the emotion-related parenting styles self-test. Early Education and Development, 17(2), 229-251. DOI:10.1207/s15566935eed1702_2
  17. Manusov, V. L. (2005). The sourcebook of nonverbal measures: Going beyond words. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Further readingEdit

  • Becker, W. C. (1964). "Consequences of different kinds of parental discipline". In: M. L. Hoffman & L. W. Hoffman (Eds.), Review of child development research (Vol. 1). New York: Russell Sage.
  • Baumrind D. (1967). "Child care practices anteceding 3 patterns of preschool behavior", Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88.
  • Baumrind D. (1971). "Current patterns of parental authority", Developmental Psychology Monograph, 4.
  • Baumrind D. (1987). "A developmental perspective on adolescent risk-taking in contemporary America". In: C. Irwin (Ed.), New directions for child development, Vol. 37, pp. 93-126, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Baumrind D., & Black A. E. (1967). "Socialization practices associated with dimensions of competence in preschool boys and girls". Child Development, 38, 291-327.
  • Eisenberg, N. (1996), "Meta-Emotion and Socialization of Emotion in the Family -- a Topic Whose Time Has Come: Comment on Gottman Et Al. (1996)", Journal of Family Psychology, 10, 3, page 269
  • Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1992). "Emotion, regulation, and the development of social competence". In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology, Vol. 14. Emotion and social behavior (pp. 119-150). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1994). "Mothers' reactions to children's negative emotions: Relations to children's temperament and anger behavior". Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40, 138-156.
  • Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1995). "The relation of young children's vicarious emotional responding to social competence, regulation, and emotionality", Cognition and Emotion, 9, 203-229.
  • Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Bernzweig, J., Karbon, M. , Poulin, R., & Hanish, L. (1993). "The relations of emotionality and regulation to preschoolers' social skills and sociometric status", Child Development, 64, 1418-1438.
  • Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Karbon, M., Murphy, B. C. , Carlo, G., & Wosinski, M. (in press). "Relations of school children's comforting behavior to empathy-related reactions and shyness", Social Development.
  • Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Murphy, B. C. (in press). "Parents' reactions to children's negative emotions: Relations to children's social competence and comforting behavior", Child Development.
  • Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Murphy, B., Karbon, M., Maszk, P., Smith, M., O'Boyle, C., & Suh, K. ( 1994 ). "The relations of emotionality and regulation to dispositional and situational empathyrelated responding". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 776-797.
  • Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Murphy, B., Karbon, M., Smith, M., & Maszk, P. (1996). "The relations of children's dispositional empathy-related responding to their emotionality, regulation, and social functioning". Developmental Psychology, 32, 195209.
  • Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Murphy, M., Maszk, P., Smith, M., & Karbon, M. (1995). "The role of emotionality and regulation in children's social functioning: A longitudinal study", Child Development, 66, 1239-1261.
  • Eisenberg, N., & Okun, M. (1996). "The relations of dispositional regulation and emotionality to elders' empathy-related responding and affect while volunteering". Journal of Personality, 64, 157-183.
  • Ekman P. (1984). "Expression and the nature of emotion". In: K. R. Scherer & P. Ekman (Eds.), Approaches to emotion (pp. 319-344). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Fabes, R. A., Eisenberg, N., Karbon, M., Bernzweig, J. , Speer, A. L., & Carlo, G. (1994). "Socialization of children's vicarious emotional responding and prosocial behavior: Relations with mothers' perceptions of children's emotional reactivity". Developmental Psychology, 30, 44-55.
  • Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Dunkel-Schetter, C., DeLongis, A., & Gruen, R. (1986). "Dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 992-1003.
  • Fox, N. A. ( 1989 ). "Psychophysiological correlates of emotional reactivity during the first year of life". Developmental Psychology, 25, 364-372.
  • Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1996). "Parental meta-emotion philosophy and the emotional life of families: Theoretical models and preliminary data". Journal of Family Psychology, 10, 243-268.
  • Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1997). "Meta-emotion: How families communicate emotionally", Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Hakim-Larson J., Parker A., Lee C., Goodwin J., Voelker S. (2006), "Measuring Parental Meta-Emotion: Psychometric Properties of the Emotion-Related Parenting Styles Self-Test", Early Education and Development, 17, 2, pages 229-251
  • Jaeger, C., & Bartsch, A. (2006), "Meta-emotions". Grazer Philosophische Studien, 73, 179–204.
  • Jaeger, C., & Bartsch, A. (2000), "Unconscious emotions – black holes in the Cartesian theatre?" Consciousness and Cognition, 9, 54.
  • Kochanska, G. (1993). "Toward a synthesis of parental socialization and child temperament in early development of conscience", Child Development, 64, 325-347.
  • Patterson, G. R. (1982). "Coercive family process". Eugene, OR: Castalia.
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1997). Meta-emotion: How families communicate emotionally. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  2. Ferrari, M., & Koyama, E. (2002). Meta-emotions about anger and amae: A cross-cultural comparison. Consciousness & Emotion, 3(2), 197-211. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/620031891?accountid=12874
  3. Mitmansgruber, H., Beck, T. N., Höfer, S., & Schüßler, G. (2009). When you don’t like what you feel: Experiential avoidance, mindfulness and meta-emotion in emotion regulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(4), 448-453. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2008.11.013
  4. Baker, J. K., Fenning, R. M., & Crnic, K. A. (2011). Emotion socialization by mothers and fathers: Coherence among behaviors and associations with parent attitudes and childrens social competence. Social Development, 20(2), 412-430. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2010.00585.x
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1996). Parental meta-emotion philosophy and the emotional life of families: Theoretical models and preliminary data. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(3), 243-268. DOI:10.1037/0893-3200.10.3.243
  6. Greenberg, L. S. (2002). Emotion-focused therapy: Coaching clients to work through their feelings. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. DOI:10.1037/10447-000
  7. Katz, L. F., & Gottman, J. M. (1999). Parent meta-emotion interview. Seattle, WA: University of Washington.
  8. Hooven, C., Gottman, J. M., & Katz, L. F. (1995). Parental meta-emotion structure predicts family and child outcomes. Cognition and Emotion, 9(2-3), 229-264. DOI:10.1080/02699939508409010
  9. Baker, J. K., Fenning, R. M., & Crnic, K. A. (2011). Emotion socialization by mothers and fathers: Coherence among behaviors and associations with parent attitudes and childrens social competence. Social Development, 20(2), 412-430. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2010.00585.x
  10. Gottman, J. & DeClaire, J. (1997). Raising an emotionally intelligent child: The heart of parenting. Fireside; New York.
  11. Yeh, K., Cheng, S., & Yang, Y. (2005). The influence of maternal meta-emotion philosophy on childrens. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 47(2), 195-196. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/620834431?accountid=12874emotion intelligence
  12. Hunter, E. C., Katz, L. F., Shortt, J. W., Davis, B., Leve, C., Allen, N. B., & Sheeber, L. B. (2011). How do I feel about feelings? Emotion socialization in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(4), 428-441. DOI:10.1007/s10964-010-9545-2
  13. Katz, L. F., & Hunter, E. C. (2007). Maternal meta-emotion philosophy and adolescent depressive symptomatology. Social Development, 16(2), 343-360. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00388.x
  14. Yap, M. B. H., Allen, N. B., Leve, C., & Katz, L. F. (2008). Maternal meta-emotion philosophy and socialization of adolescent affect: The moderating role of adolescent temperament. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(5), 688-700. DOI:10.1037/a0013104
  15. Lagacé-Séguin, D., & Gionet, A. (2009). Parent meta-emotion and temperament predict coping skills in early adolescence. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 14, 367-382.
  16. Hakim-Larson, J., Parker, A., Lee, C., Goodwin, J., & Voelker, S. (2006). Measuring parental meta-emotion: Psychometric properties of the emotion-related parenting styles self-test. Early Education and Development, 17(2), 229-251. DOI:10.1207/s15566935eed1702_2
  17. Manusov, V. L. (2005). The sourcebook of nonverbal measures: Going beyond words. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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