Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Masturbation refers to sexual stimulation, especially of one's own genitals (self masturbation) and often to the point of orgasm which is performed manually, by other types of bodily contact (except for sexual intercourse), by use of objects or tools, or by some combination of these methods. Masturbation is the most common form of autoeroticism[How to reference and link to summary or text], and the two words are often used as synonyms, although masturbation with a partner (mutual masturbation) is also common. Animal masturbation has been observed in many species, both in the wild and in captivity.
The word masturbation is believed to derive from either the Greek word mezea (μεζεα, "penes") or the Latin manus ("hand") and the Latin turbare ("to disturb"). A competing etymology based on the Latin manu stuprare ("to defile with the hand") is said by the Oxford English Dictionary to be an "old conjecture".
Ways of masturbating common to members of both sexes include pressing or rubbing the genital area, either with the fingers or against an object such as a pillow; inserting fingers or an object into the anus (see anal masturbation); and stimulating the penis or vulva with electric vibrators, which may also be inserted into the vagina or anus. Members of both sexes may also enjoy touching, rubbing, or pinching the nipples or other erogenous zones while masturbating. Both sexes sometimes apply lubricating substances to intensify sensation.
Reading or viewing pornography, or sexual fantasy, are often common adjuncts to masturbation. Often people will call upon memories during masturbation. Masturbation activities are often ritualised. Various fetishes and paraphilias can also play a part in the masturbation ritual. Some potentially harmful or fatal activities include autoerotic asphyxiation and self-bondage.
Some people get sexual pleasure by inserting objects into the urethra (the tube through which urine and, in men, semen, flows).. Other objects such as ball point pens and thermometers are sometimes used, although this practice can lead to injury and/or infection. Some people masturbate by using machines that simulate intercourse.
Men and women may masturbate until they are close to orgasm, stop for a while to reduce excitement, and then resume masturbating. They may repeat this cycle multiple times. This "stop and go" build-up can achieve even stronger orgasms. Rarely, people quit stimulation just before orgasm to retain the heightened energy that normally comes down after orgasm. Doing this could lead to temporary discomfort due to pelvic congestion.
Austrian psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich in his 1922 essay Concerning Specific Forms of Masturbation tried to identify healthy and unhealthy forms of masturbation. He tried to relate the way people masturbated to their degree of inclination towards the opposite sex and to their psycho-sexual pathologies.
Female masturbation techniques include a woman stroking or rubbing her vulva, especially her clitoris, with her index and/or middle fingers. Sometimes one or more fingers may be inserted into the vagina to repeatedly stroke its frontal wall where the g-spot is located. Masturbation aids such as a vibrator, dildo or Ben Wa balls can also be used to stimulate the vagina and clitoris. Many women caress their breasts or stimulate a nipple with the free hand, if these are receptive areas for sexual stimulation. Anal stimulation is also enjoyed by some. Lubrication is sometimes used during masturbation, especially when penetration is involved, but this is not universal and many women find their natural lubrication sufficient.
Common positions include lying on back or face down, sitting, squatting, kneeling or standing. In a bath or shower a female may direct tap water at her clitoris and vulva. Lying face down one may use the hands, one may straddle a pillow, the corner or edge of the bed, a partner's leg or some scrunched-up clothing and rubbing the vulva and clitoris against it. Standing up a chair, the corner of an item of furniture or even a washing machine can be used to stimulate the clitoris through the labia and clothing.
Women can sexually stimulate themselves by crossing their legs tightly and clenching the muscles in their legs, creating pressure on the genitals. This can potentially be done in public without observers noticing. Some masturbate using only pressure applied to the clitoris without direct contact, for example by pressing the palm or ball of the hand against underwear or other clothing.
Thoughts, fantasies, and memories of previous instances of arousal and orgasm can produce sexual excitation. Some women can orgasm spontaneously by force of will alone, although this may not strictly qualify as masturbation as no physical stimulus is involved.
Male masturbation techniques are also influenced by a number of factors and personal preferences. Techniques may also differ between circumcised and uncircumcised males, as some techniques which may work for one can be quite painful for the other.
The most common male masturbation technique is simply to hold the penis with a loose fist and then to move the hand up and down the shaft until orgasm and ejaculation take place. The speed of the hand motion will vary from person to person, although it is not uncommon for the speed to increase as ejaculation nears and for it to decrease during the ejaculation itself. When uncircumcised, stimulation of the penis in this way comes from the "pumping" of the foreskin. This gliding motion of the foreskin reduces friction. When circumcised, there is more direct contact between the hand and the glans, thus a personal lubricant is sometimes used to reduce friction. Sometimes, if too much pressure is applied, it may be rubbed sore for a time.
Another technique is to place just the index finger and thumb around the penis about halfway along the penis and move the skin up and down. A variation on this is to place the fingers and thumb on the penis as if playing a flute, and then shuttle them back and forth. Another common technique is to lie face down on a comfortable surface such as a mattress or pillow and rub the penis against it until orgasm is achieved. This technique may include the use of a simulacrum, or artificial vagina.
There are many other variations on male masturbation techniques. Some men place both hands directly on their penis during masturbation, while others use their free hand to fondle their testicles, nipples, or other parts of their body. Some may keep their hand stationary while pumping into it with pelvic thrusts in order to simulate the motions of sexual intercourse. Others may also use vibrators and other sexual devices more commonly associated with female masturbation. A few extremely flexible males can reach and stimulate their penis with their tongue or lips, and so perform autofellatio.
The prostate gland is one of the organs that contributes fluid to semen. As the prostate is touch-sensitive, some directly stimulate it using a well-lubricated finger or dildo inserted through the anus into the rectum. Stimulating the prostate from outside, via pressure on the perineum, can be pleasurable as well. Some men, also, enjoy anal stimulation, with fingers or otherwise, without any prostate stimulation.
A somewhat controversial ejaculation control technique is to put pressure on the perineum, about halfway between the scrotum and the anus, just before ejaculating. This can, however, redirect semen into the bladder (referred to as retrograde ejaculation). If repeated on a regular basis, this technique could cause long term damage due to the pressure put on the nerves and blood vessels in the perineum.
- Main article: Mutual masturbation
Mutual masturbation is a sexual act where two or more people stimulate themselves or one another sexually, usually with the hands.
It is part of a full repertoire of sexual intercourse, where it may be used as an interlude, foreplay or as an alternative to penetration. For some people, non-penetrative sex or frottage is the primary sexual activity of choice above all others. Participants who do not want full sexual intercourse thus still enjoy a mutual sexual act.
Mutual masturbation is practiced by people of all sexual orientations. If used as an alternative to penile-vaginal penetration, the aim may be to preserve virginity or to prevent pregnancy. Some people choose it as it achieves sexual satisfaction without actual sex, possibly seeing it as an alternative to casual sex.
Masturbation frequency, age and sex
Frequency of masturbation is determined by many factors, e.g., one's resistance to sexual tension, hormone levels influencing sexual arousal, sexual habits, peer influences, health and one's attitude to masturbation formed by culture. Medical causes have also been associated with masturbation.
Different studies have found that masturbation is frequent in humans. Alfred Kinsey's studies have shown that 92% of men and 62% of women have masturbated during their lifespan. Similar results have been found in a British national probability survey. It was found that 95% of men and 71% of women masturbated at some point in their lives. 73% of men and 37% of women reported masturbating in the four weeks before their interview, while 53% of men and 18% of women reported masturbating in the previous seven days.
"Forty-eight female college students were asked to complete a sexual attitudes questionnaire in which a frequency of masturbation scale was embedded. Twenty-four of the women (the experimental group) then individually viewed an explicit modeling film involving female masturbation. One month later, all subjects again completed the same questionnaire. Subjects in the experimental group also completed a questionnaire evaluating aspects of the film. Results indicated that the experimental group reported a significant increase in the average monthly frequency of masturbation, as compared to the control group. This same group, however, reported that the film had no effect on sexual attitudes or behavior."
A 2004 survey by Toronto magazine NOW was answered by an unspecified number of thousands. The results show that an overwhelming majority of the males – 81% – began masturbating between the ages of 10 and 15. Among females, the same figure was a more modest majority of 55%. (Note that surveys on sexual practices are prone to self-selection bias.) It is not uncommon however to begin much earlier, and this is more frequent among females: 18% had begun by the time they turned 10, and 6% already by the time they turned 6. Being the main outlet of child sexuality, masturbation has been observed in very young children. In the book Human Sexuality: Diversity in Contemporary America, by Strong, Devault and Sayad, the authors point out, "A baby boy may laugh in his crib while playing with his erect penis (although he does not ejaculate). Baby girls sometimes move their bodies rhythmically, almost violently, appearing to experience orgasm." Italian gynecologists Giorgio Giorgi and Marco Siccardi observed via ultrasound a female fetus masturbate to orgasm.
The NOW magazine survey has it that the frequency of masturbation declines after the age of 17. Many males masturbate daily, or even more frequently, well into their 20s and sometimes far beyond. This decline is more drastic among females, and more gradual among males. While females aged 13–17 masturbated almost once a day on average (and almost as often as their male peers), adult women only masturbated 8–9 times a month, compared to the 18–22 among men. Adolescent youths report being able to masturbate to ejaculation around six times per day, though some men in older middle age report being hard pressed to ejaculate even once per day. On the other hand healthy 21-28 year old males are able to masturbate at least 8-10 times per day if they are not stressed. The survey does not give a full demographic breakdown of respondents, however, and the sexual history of respondents to this poll, who are readers of an urban Toronto lifestyle magazine, may not extend to the general population.
It appears that females are less likely to masturbate while in a heterosexual relationship than men. Popular belief asserts that individuals of either sex who are not in sexually active relationships tend to masturbate more frequently than those who are; however, much of the time this is not true as masturbation alone or with a partner is often a feature of a relationship. Contrary to conventional wisdom, several studies actually reveal a positive correlation between the frequency of masturbation and the frequency of intercourse. One study reported a significantly higher rate of masturbation in gay men and women who were in a relationship.
Among some cultures, such as the Hopi in Arizona, the Wogeno in Oceania, and the Dahomeans and Namu of Africa, masturbation is encouraged, including regular masturbation between males. In certain Melanesian communities this is expected between older and younger boys. One interesting twist is the Sambia tribe of New Guinea. This tribe has rituals and rites of passage surrounding manhood which involve frequent ejaculation through fellatio. Semen is valued and masturbation is seen as a waste of semen and is therefore frowned upon even though frequent ejaculation is encouraged. The capacity and need to ejaculate is nurtured for years from an early age through fellatio so that it can be consumed rather than wasted. Semen is ingested for strength and is considered in the same line as mothers' milk.
Other cultures have rites of passage into manhood that culminate in the first ejaculation of a male, usually by the hands of a tribal elder. In some tribes such as the Agta, Philippines, stimulation of the genitals is encouraged from an early age. Upon puberty, the young male is then paired off with a "wise elder" or "witch doctor" who uses masturbation to build his ability to ejaculate in preparation for a ceremony. The ceremony culminates in a public ejaculation before a celebration. The ejaculate is saved in a wad of animal skin and worn later to help conceive children. In this and other tribes, the measure of manhood is actually associated more with the amount of ejaculate and his need than penis size. Frequent ejaculation through masturbation from an early age fosters frequent ejaculation well into adulthood.
Masturbation is becoming accepted as a healthy practice and safe method for sharing pleasure without some of the dangers that can accompany intercourse. It is socially accepted and even celebrated in certain circles. Group masturbation events can be easily found online. Masturbation marathons are yearly events and are occurring across the globe. These events provide a supportive environment where masturbation can be performed openly among young and old without embarrassment. Participants talk openly with onlookers while masturbating to share techniques and describe their pleasure.
Masturbation may increase fertility during intercourse.
Female masturbation alters conditions in the vagina, cervix and uterus, in ways that can alter the chances of conception from intercourse, depending on the timing of the masturbation. A woman's orgasm between one minute before and up to 45 minutes after insemination favors the chances of that sperm reaching her egg. If, for example, she has had intercourse with more than one male, such an orgasm can increase the likelihood of a pregnancy by one of them. Female masturbation can also provide protection against cervical infections by increasing the acidity of the cervical mucus and by moving debris out of the cervix.
In males, masturbation flushes out old sperm with low motility from the male's genital tract. The next ejaculate then contains more fresh sperm, which have higher chances of achieving conception during intercourse. If more than one male has intercourse with a female, the sperm with the highest motility will compete more effectively.
Health and psychological effects
The physical benefits of masturbation and having an orgasm or ejaculating creates heightened arousal while epinephrine courses through the body, producing the flushed face, shallow breath and post-climactic euphoria. It is held in many mental health circles that masturbation can relieve depression[How to reference and link to summary or text], stress and lead to a higher sense of self-worth (Hurlbert & Whittaker, 1991). Masturbation can also be particularly useful in relationships where one partner wants more sex than the other – in which case masturbation provides a balancing effect and thus a more harmonious relationship.
Mutual masturbation, the act by which two or more partners stimulate themselves in the presence of each other, allows a couple to reveal the "map to [their] pleasure centers". Witnessing a partner masturbate is an educational activity to find out the method a partner pleases him- or herself, allowing each partner to learn exactly how the other enjoys being touched.
In 2003, an Australian research team led by Graham Giles of The Cancer Council Australia concluded that frequent masturbation by males appears to help prevent the development of prostate cancer. The study also indicated that this would be more helpful than ejaculation through sexual intercourse because intercourse can transmit diseases that may increase the risk of cancer instead. Also, frequent ejaculation is more easily obtained and sustained over time with the aid of masturbation.
A study published in 1997 found an inverse association between death from coronary heart disease and frequency of orgasm even given the risk that myocardial ischaemia and myocardial infarction can be triggered by sexual activity. Excerpt, "The association between frequency or orgasm and all cause mortality was also examined using the midpoint of each response category recoded as number of orgasms per year. The age adjusted odds ratio for an increase of 100 orgasms per year was 0.64 (0.44 to 0.95)." That is, a difference between any two subjects appeared when one subject ejaculated at around two or more more times per week than the other. Assuming a broad range average of between 3 to 5 ejaculations per week for healthy males, this would mean 5 to 7 ejaculations per week. This is consistent with a 2003 Australia article on the benefits against prostate cancer.
Masturbation is also seen as a sexual technique that protects individuals from the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Support for such a view, and for making it part of the American sex education curriculum, led to the dismissal of US Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders during the Clinton administration.
Sexual climax, from masturbation or otherwise, leaves one in a relaxed and contented state. This is frequently followed closely by drowsiness and sleep – particularly when one masturbates in bed.
Some professionals consider masturbation to function as a cardiovascular workout. Though research is still as yet scant, those suffering from cardiovascular disorders (particularly those recovering from myocardial infarction, or heart attacks) should resume physical activity (including sexual intercourse and masturbation) gradually and with the frequency and rigor which their physical status will allow. This limitation can serve as encouragement to follow through with physical therapy sessions to help improve endurance.
Both sex and masturbation lower blood pressure. A small study has shown that in one test group, recent full intercourse resulted in the lowest average blood pressure in stressful situations. Masturbation then led to lower blood pressure than did no recent sexual activity.
Objects inserted into the vagina, anus/rectum or urethra should be clean and of a kind that will not scratch or break. Care should be taken not to fully insert anything into the anus – any object used should have a flared or flanged base; otherwise retrieval can require medical intervention. Modern dildos and anal plugs are designed with this feature.
Masturbation involving both a man and a woman (see mutual masturbation) can result in pregnancy only if semen contacts the vulva. Masturbation with a partner can also theoretically result in transmission of sexually transmitted diseases by contact with bodily fluids.
Problems for males
A man whose penis has suffered a blunt trauma or injury during intercourse may rarely sustain a penile fracture or suffer from Peyronie's disease. Phimosis is "a contracted foreskin (that) may cause trouble by hurting when an attempt is made to pull the foreskin back". In these cases, any energetic manipulation of the penis can be problematic.
Sigmund Freud argued that every normal child usually experiments with many types of autoerotic sexual stimulation. Social repressions of sexuality reached their peak in the Victorian era when popular authors wrote books threatening young children with mental deficiency or insanity if they indulged in any form of masturbation. Actually there is no scientific evidence of any causative relationship between autoeroticism and any form of mental disorder. Though mentally disturbed persons characteristically show poor judgment in expressing sexuality, this may be understood as a symptom rather than a cause. Each child however, must learn the appropriate social and legal limitations relating to expressing sexuality. Masturbating frequently presents no physical, mental or emotional risk in itself, but masturbation can be used to relieve boredom or stress. In either case, as with any "nervous habit", it is more helpful to consider the causes of the boredom or of the stress, rather than try to repress the masturbation.
There is some discussion between professionals and other interested parties as to the existence or validity of sexual addictions. Nevertheless, there are lists of warning signs such as when sexual activity affects a person's ability to function in everyday life, or is placing them at risk, for example, of pursuing illegal or destructive activities. Very frequent and compulsive masturbation may be seen as a sign of sexual addiction.
Masturbation in history and society
There are depictions of male masturbation in prehistoric rock paintings around the world. Most early people seem to have connected human sexuality with abundance in nature. A clay figurine of the 4th millennium BC from a temple site on the island of Malta, depicts a woman masturbating. However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common.
Male masturbation became an even more important image in ancient Egypt: when performed by a god it could be considered a creative or magical act: the god Atum was believed to have created the universe by masturbating to ejaculation, and the ebb and flow of the Nile was attributed to the frequency of his ejaculations. Egyptian pharaohs, in response to this, were at one time required to masturbate ceremonially into the Nile.
The ancient Greeks had a more relaxed attitude toward masturbation than the Egyptians did, regarding the act as a normal and healthy substitute for other forms of sexual pleasure. They considered it a safety valve against destructive sexual frustration. The Greeks also dealt with female masturbation in both their art and writings. One common term used for it was anaphlan, which roughly translates as "up-fire".
Diogenes, speaking in jest, credited the god Hermes with its invention: he allegedly took pity on his son Pan, who was pining for Echo but unable to seduce her, and taught him the trick of masturbation in order to relieve his suffering. Pan in his turn taught the habit to young shepherds.
- Main article: Religious views on masturbation
- Also see Sexuality and Religion for broad coverage of this topic
Religions vary broadly in their views of masturbation, from completely impermissible to encouraged as a way to achieve greater spirituality (see, for example Tantric sexuality and Taoist sexual practices). In the modern St. Priapus Church, group male masturbation is a form of worship.
Immanuel Kant regarded masturbation as a violation of the moral law. In the Metaphysics of Morals (1797) he made the a posteriori argument that 'such an unnatural use of one's sexual attributes' strikes 'everyone upon his thinking of it' as 'a violation of one's duty to himself', and suggested that it was regarded as immoral even to give it its proper name (unlike the case of the similarly undutiful act of suicide). He went on, however, to acknowledge that 'it is not so easy to produce a rational demonstration of the inadmissibility of that unnatural use', but ultimately concluded that its immorality lay in the fact that 'a man gives up his personality … when he uses himself merely as a means for the gratification of an animal drive'.
Subsequent critics of masturbation tended to argue against it on more physiological grounds, however (see medical attitudes).
| This section needs additional citations for verification.|
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
This section has been tagged since March 2008.
The first use of the word "onanism" to consistently and specifically refer to masturbation appears to be Onania, an anonymous pamphlet first distributed in London in 1716. It drew on familiar themes of sin and vice, this time in particular against the "heinous sin" of "self-pollution". After dire warnings that those who so indulged would suffer impotence, gonorrhea, epilepsy and a wasting of the faculties (included were letters and testimonials supposedly from young men ill and dying from the effects of compulsive masturbation) the pamphlet then goes on to recommend as an effective remedy a "Strengthening Tincture" at 10 shillings a bottle and a "Prolific Powder" at 12 shillings a bag, available from a local shop.
One of the many horrified by the descriptions of malady in Onania was the notable Swiss physician Samuel-Auguste Tissot. In 1760, he published L'Onanisme, his own comprehensive medical treatise on the purported ill-effects of masturbation. Citing case studies of young male masturbators amongst his patients in Lausanne, Switzerland as basis for his reasoning, Tissot argued that semen was an "essential oil" and "stimulus" that, when lost from the body in great amounts, would cause "a perceptible reduction of strength, of memory and even of reason; blurred vision, all the nervous disorders, all types of gout and rheumatism, weakening of the organs of generation, blood in the urine, disturbance of the appetite, headaches and a great number of other disorders."
Though Tissot's ideas are now considered conjectural at best, his treatise was presented as a scholarly, scientific work in a time when experimental physiology was practically nonexistent. The authority with which the work was subsequently treated – Tissot's arguments were even acknowledged and echoed by luminaries such as Kant and Voltaire – arguably turned the perception of masturbation in Western medicine over the next two centuries into that of a debilitating illness.
This continued well into the Victorian Era, where such medical censure of masturbation was in line with the widespread social conservatism and opposition to open sexual behavior common at the time. There were recommendations to have boys' pants constructed so that the genitals could not be touched through the pockets, for schoolchildren to be seated at special desks to prevent their crossing their legs in class and for girls to be forbidden from riding horses and bicycles because the sensations these activities produce were considered too similar to masturbation. Boys and young men who nevertheless continued to indulge in the practice were branded as "weak-minded." Many "remedies" were devised, including eating a bland, meatless diet. This approach was promoted by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (inventor of corn flakes) and Rev. Sylvester Graham (inventor of Graham crackers). The medical literature of the times describes procedures for electric shock treatment, infibulation, restraining devices like chastity belts and straitjackets, cauterization or – as a last resort – wholesale surgical excision of the genitals. Routine neonatal circumcision was widely adopted in the United States and the UK at least partly because of its believed preventive effect against masturbation (see also History of male circumcision). In later decades, the more drastic of these measures were increasingly replaced with psychological techniques, such as warnings that masturbation led to blindness, hairy hands or stunted growth. Some of these persist as myths even today.
At the same time, the supposed medical condition of hysteria—from the Greek hystera or uterus—was being treated by what would now be described as medically administered or medically prescribed masturbation for women. Techniques included use of the earliest vibrators and rubbing the genitals with placebo creams.
Medical attitudes toward masturbation began to change at the beginning of the 20th century when H. Havelock Ellis, in his seminal 1897 work Studies in the Psychology of Sex, questioned Tissot's premises, cheerfully named famous men of the era who masturbated and then set out to disprove (with the work of more recent physicians) each of the claimed diseases of which masturbation was purportedly the cause. "We reach the conclusion", he wrote, "that in the case of moderate masturbation in healthy, well-born individuals, no seriously pernicious results necessarily follow."
Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of The Scout Association, incorporated a passage in the 1914 edition of Scouting for Boys warning against the dangers of masturbation. This passage stated that the individual should run away from the temptation by performing physical activity which was supposed to tire the individual so that masturbation could not be performed. By 1930, however, Dr. F. W. W. Griffin, editor of The Scouter, had written in a book for Rover Scouts that the temptation to masturbate was "a quite natural stage of development" and, citing Ellis' work, held that "the effort to achieve complete abstinence was a very serious error."
The works of Sexologist Alfred Kinsey during the 1940s and 1950s insisted that masturbation was an instinctive behavior for both males and females, citing the results of Gallup Poll surveys indicating how common it was in the United States. Some critics of this theory held that his research was biased and that the Gallup Poll method was redundant for defining "natural behavior".
In 1994, when the Surgeon General of the United States, Dr. Joycelyn Elders, mentioned as an aside that it should be mentioned in school curricula that masturbation was safe and healthy, she was forced to resign, with opponents asserting that she was promoting the teaching of how to masturbate. Many believe this was the result of her long history of promoting controversial viewpoints and not due solely to her public mention of masturbation.
Masturbation in other animal species
- Main article: Animal sexuality#Autoeroticism (masturbation)
Masturbatory behavior has been documented in a very wide range of species. Individuals of some species have been known to create tools for masturbation purposes.
- ↑ Based on "masturbation" in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2003
- ↑ Breeding Soundness Examination of the Stallion
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Bruce Bagemihl: Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-19239-8
- ↑ For further references, see also the main article Animal sexuality#Autoeroticism (masturbation).
- ↑ Dally, Peter (1975). The Fantasy Factor, 135, George Weidenfeld and Nicolson Limited.
- ↑ OED, s.v. masturbation
- ↑ Go ask Alice!: Cock-stuffing. (html) Columbia University, New York. URL accessed on 2006-07-29.
- ↑ McPartlin, Daniel, Adam P. Klausner, MD; Tristan T. Berry, MD Case report: A foreign body in the urethra. (html) Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. URL accessed on 2006-07-29.
- ↑ Masturbation, Tantra and Self-love
- ↑ Keesling, Barbara Beyond Orgasmatron. (html) Psychology Today. URL accessed on 2006-07-29.
- ↑ Ellis, Havelock (1927), Studies in the Psychology of Sex (3rd edition), Volume I,; Auto-Erotism: A Study of the Spontaneous Manifestations of the Sexual Impulse; section I; "The Sewing-machine and the Bicycle:" quotes one Pouillet as saying "it is a well-recognized fact that to work a sewing-machine with the body in a certain position produces sexual excitement leading to the orgasm. The occurrence of the orgasm is indicated to the observer by the machine being worked for a few seconds with uncontrollable rapidity. This sound is said to be frequently heard in large French workrooms, and it is part of the duty of the superintendents of the rooms to make the girls sit properly." Studies in the Psychology of Sex, v. I, by Havelock Ellis, available freely at Project Gutenberg
- ↑ Koedt, Anne (1970). The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm. (html) Chicago Women's Liberation Union. URL accessed on 2006-07-29.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 The Kinsey Institute Data from Alfred Kinsey's studies. Published online.
- ↑ Shuman, Tracy Your Guide to Masturbation. (html) WebMD, Inc./The Cleveland Clinic Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. URL accessed on 2006-07-29.
- ↑ Knowles, Jon Masturbation — From Stigma to Sexual Health. (html) Katharine Dexter McCormick Library/Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc.. URL accessed on 2006-07-29.
- ↑ E. Heiby and J. Becker examined the latter. 
- ↑ "Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation." Ceylon Med. J. 2006 Sept., 51(3):121-2.
- ↑ "Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery." Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Feb., 5(1):133-6.
- ↑ "Severe impulsiveness as the primary manifestation of multiple sclerosis in a young female." Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2005 Dec., 59(6):739-42.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Gerressu, M., Mercer, C.H., Graham, C.A., Wellings, K. and Johnson, A.M. (2007). Prevalence of Masturbation and Associated Factors in a British National Probability Survey. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Published online.
- ↑ NOW's Love and Sex Guide 2004
- ↑ "Ultrasonographic observation of a female fetus' sexual behavior in utero." American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1996 Sept;175(3):753.
- ↑ Heilborn, M.L. and Cabral, C.S. (2006). Sexual practices in youth: analysis of lifetime sexual trajectory and last sexual intercourse. Cad Saude Publica, 22, 7, pp. 1471-81. Epub 2006 Jun 14.
- ↑ Menon, A., McAllister, R.H., Watson, W. and Watson, S. (2006). Increased libido associated with quetiapine. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 1, pp. 125-7.
- ↑ Sexual behavior in lesbian and heterosexual women: relations with menstrual cycle phase and partner availability. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2002 May;27(4):489-503.
- ↑ The Sambia
- ↑ Cited by Hewlett, B. S. (1996) Diverse contexts of human infancy, in Ember, C. & Ember, M. (Eds.) Cross-Cultural Research for Social Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
- ↑ The clinical outcome of childhood masturbation. Turk J Pediatr. 2000 Oct-Dec;42(4):304-7.
- ↑ Masturbate-a-thon by The Center For Sex & Culture
- ↑ viewlondon.co.uk article on Masturbation Marathon London
- ↑ Baker, Robin (June 1996). Sperm Wars: The Science of Sex, Diane Books Publishing Company.
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 Baker, Robin R., Bellis, Mark A. (November 1993). Human sperm competition: Ejaculate manipulation by females and a function for the female orgasm.. Animal Behaviour 46 (5): p887, 23p.
- ↑ Thomsen, Ruth (October 2000). "Sperm Competition and the Function of Masturbation in Japanese Macaques". Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.
- ↑ Baker, Robin R., Bellis, Mark A. (November 1993). Human sperm competition: Ejaculate adjustment by males and the function of masturbation.. Animal Behaviour 46 (5): p861, 25p.
- ↑ Shackelford, Todd K., Goetz, Aaron T. (February 2007). Adaptation to Sperm Competition in Humans.. Current Directions in Psychological Science 16 (1): p47-50.
- ↑ Masturbation key to healthy, functional sexual relationships, April 19, http://badgerherald.com/oped/2007/04/19/masturbation_key_to_.php, retrieved on July 2007
- ↑ Masturbation key to healthy, functional sexual relationships, April 19, http://badgerherald.com/oped/2007/04/19/masturbation_key_to_.php, retrieved on July 2007 However, the alleged benefits of masturbation must be qualified with the acknowledgment that the practice is just as likely to exacerbate feelings of loneliness.
- ↑ Masturbation key to healthy, functional sexual relationships, April 19, http://badgerherald.com/oped/2007/04/19/masturbation_key_to_.php, retrieved on September 2007
- ↑ Sexual factors and prostate cancer
- ↑ Sex and death: are they related? Findings from the Caerphilly cohort study, December 20, http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/315/7123/1641, retrieved on July 2007
- ↑ , Benjamin Graber, Scott Balogh, Denis Fitzpatrick and Shelton Hendricks (June 1991). Cardiovascular changes associated with sexual arousal and orgasm in men. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment 4 (2): 151-165. 1079-0632 (Print) 1573-286X (Online).
- ↑ Brody, Stuart. "Blood pressure reactivity to stress is better for people who recently had penile-vaginal intercourse than for people who had other or no sexual activity." Biological Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 2, February 2006, pages 214-222.
- ↑ eMedicine article on Penile Fracture and Trauma
- ↑ American Academy of Family Physicians article on Peyronie's Disease: Current Management
- ↑ netdoctor.co.uk article on Foreskin contraction (phimosis)
- ↑ University of Pennsylvania Office of Health Education article on masturbation
- ↑ Childrens Medical Office of North Andover, P.C. article on Masturbation in Early Childhood
- ↑ BBC Relationships: Addicted to sex
- ↑ "The Ħaġar Qim woman is... masturbating, with one hand languidly supporting her head. " Taylor, Timothy. Uncovering the prehistory of sex, British Archaeology, no 15, June 1996: .
- ↑ Dening, Sarah. The Mythology of Sex. Macmillian 1996, ISBN 978 0028612072
- ↑ Dening, Sarah, The Mythology of Sex Chapter 3
- ↑ Johnathan Margolis, "O: The intimate history of the orgasm", 2003. p134
- ↑ Dio Crysostom, Discourses, iv.20
- ↑ Catechism of the Catholic Church. URL accessed on 2007-10-08.
- ↑ Wayne Dynes (ed., 1990). Encyclopedia of Homosexuality (New York: Garland) p. 779.
- ↑ The Ritual of Circumcision
- ↑ Stengers, Jean; van Neck, Anne. Masturbation: the history of a great terror. New York: Palgrave, 2001. ISBN 0-312-22443-5.
- ↑ Surgical Appliance
- ↑ Rachel P. Maines (1999). The Technology of Orgasm: "Hysteria", the Vibrator, and Women's Sexual Satisfaction, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6646-4.
- ↑ JackinLibrary: Joycelyn Elders
- Apfelbaum, B. (2000). Retarded ejaculation: A much misunderstood syndrome. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
- Bertolini, M. (2001). Central masturbatory fantasy, fetish and transitional phenomenon. Philadelphia, PA: Whurr Publishers.
- Darby, R. (2001). "A source of serious mischief": The demonization of the foreskin and the rise of preventive circumcision in Australia. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Brody, Stuart. "Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency" Journal Of Sex & Marital Therapy Volume 30, Issue 4, July - September 2004, Pages 251-261
- DeMartino, Manfred F. Human Autoerotic Practices. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1979. ISBN 0-87705-373-1.
- Ablon, S. L. (1994). "How can we know the dancer from the dance?" The analysis of a five-year-old girl: The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child Vol 49 1994, 315-327.
- Abramson, P. R. (1973). The relationship of the frequency of masturbation to several aspects of personality and behavior: Journal of Sex Research Vol 9(2) May 1973, 132-142.
- Abramson, P. R., & et al. (1981). Negative attitudes toward masturbation and pelvic vasocongestion: A thermographic analysis: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 15(4) Dec 1981, 497-509.
- Abramson, P. R., & Mosher, D. L. (1975). Development of a measure of negative attitudes toward masturbation: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 43(4) Aug 1975, 485-490.
- Abramson, P. R., & Mosher, D. L. (1979). An empirical investigation of experimentally induced masturbatory fantasies: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 8(1) Jan 1979, 27-39.
- Ajzenstadt, M., & Cavaglion, G. (2002). The sexual body of the young Jew as an arena of ideological struggle, 1821-1948: Symbolic Interaction Vol 25(1) 2002, 93-116.
- Alario Bataller, S. (1989). Treatment of harmful habits in a clinical case: Analisis y Modificacion de Conducta Vol 15(43) 1989, 153-159.
- Aldridge, R. G. (1983). Masturbation during marriage: Corrective & Social Psychiatry & Journal of Behavior Technology, Methods & Therapy Vol 29(4) 1983, 112-115.
- Alford, G. S., Morin, C., Atkins, M., & Schoen, L. (1987). Masturbatory extinction of deviant sexual arousal: A case study: Behavior Therapy Vol 18(3) Sum 1987, 265-271.
- Amberson, J. I., & Hoon, P. W. (1985). Hemodynamics of sequential orgasm: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 14(4) Aug 1985, 351-360.
- Andersen, B. L. (1981). A comparison of systematic desensitization and directed masturbation in the treatment of primary orgasmic dysfunction in females: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 49(4) Aug 1981, 568-570.
- Arafat, I. S., & Cotton, W. L. (1974). Masturbation practices of males and females: Journal of Sex Research Vol 10(4) Nov 1974, 293-307.
- Aras, S., Orcin, E., Ozan, S., & Semin, S. (2007). Sexual behaviours and contraception among university students in Turkey: Journal of Biosocial Science Vol 39(1) Jan 2007, 121-135.
- Armstrong, K. J., & Drabman, R. S. (1998). Treatment of a nine year old girl's public masturbatory behavior: Child & Family Behavior Therapy Vol 20(1) 1998, 55-62.
- Arnett, J. J. (2006). G. Stanley Hall's Adolescence: Brilliance and nonsense: History of Psychology Vol 9(3) Aug 2006, 186-197.
- Aruffo, R. N., Ibarra, S., & Strupp, K. R. (2000). Encopresis and anal masturbation: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association Vol 48(4) 2000, 1327-1354.
- Asch, S. S. (1985). Suicide: Fantasies of internal object relations: International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Vol 11 1985-1986, 269-274.
- Atwood, J. D., & Gagnon, J. (1987). Masturbatory behavior in college youth: Journal of Sex Education & Therapy Vol 13(2) Fal-Win 1987, 35-42.
- Baker, R. R., & Bellis, M. A. (1993). Human sperm competition: Ejaculate adjustment by males and the function of masturbation: Animal Behaviour Vol 46(5) Nov 1993, 861-885.
- Bakwin, H. (1974). Erotic feelings in infants and young children: Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality Vol 8(10) Oct 1974, 200-215.
- Bancroft, J. (1999). Cardiovascular and endocrine changes during sexual arousal and orgasm: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 61(3) May-Jun 1999, 290-291.
- Bancroft, J. (2005). A History of Sexual Medicine in the United Kingdom: Journal of Sexual Medicine Vol 2(4) Jul 2005, 569-574.
- Barmann, B. C., & Murray, W. J. (1981). Suppression of inappropriate sexual behavior by facial screening: Behavior Therapy Vol 12(5) Nov 1981, 730-735.
- Basili, R. M., & Hamra, E. D. (1998). Anal masturbation in serious patients: Revista de Psicoanalisis Vol 55(3) Jul-Sep 1998, 509-528.
- Bentler, P. M., & Peeler, W. H. (1979). Models of female orgasm: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 8(5) Sep 1979, 405-423.
- Bergstrom-Walan, M.-B., & Nielsen, H. H. (1990). The sexuality of 60-80 year old adults: Nordisk Sexologi Vol 8(2) 1990, 137-144.
- Bertholf, S. D. (1999). Understanding changes in students' attitudes: A study of an undergraduate course in human sexuality. (college students, gender). Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Betchen, S. J. (1991). Male masturbation as a vehicle for the pursuer/distancer relationship in marriage: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 17(4) Win 1991, 269-278.
- Bielert, C., & Van der Walt, L. A. (1982). Male chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) sexual arousal: Mediation by visual cues from female conspecifics: Psychoneuroendocrinology Vol 7(1) Mar 1982, 31-48.
- Bilgic, A., Gurkan, K., & Turkoglu, S. (2007). Excessive masturbation and hypersexual behavior associated with methylphenidate: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Vol 46(7) Jul 2007, 789-790.
- Billingham, R. E., & Hockenberry, S. L. (1987). Gender conformity, masturbation fantasy, infatuation, and sexual orientation: A discriminant analysis investigation: Journal of Sex Research Vol 23(3) Aug 1987, 368-374.
- Binswanger, R. (1996). Child masturbation--a genetic viewpoint, with special reference to anorexia and bulimia nervosa: Psyche: Zeitschrift fur Psychoanalyse und ihre Anwendungen Vol 50(7) Jul 1996, 644-670.
- Bizouard, E. (1990). Autoeroticism: Vegetable metaphors: Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse Vol 54(6) Nov-Dec 1990, 1607-1614.
- Black, J. S. (2006). Review of Orgasmic Women: 13 Selfloving Divas: Sexual and Relationship Therapy Vol 21(4) Nov 2006, 481-482.
- Bockting, W. O. (2002). Introduction: Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality Vol 14(2-3) 2002, 1-4.
- Bogaert, A. F. (1992). Volunteer bias in sex research: An exploratory study of self-reported autoerotic experiences: Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality Vol 1(4) Win 1992, 207-211.
- Bohn, B. A. (1987). Masturbatory guilt and the cognitive effects of false heart-rate feedback: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Boies, S. C. (2002). University students' uses of and reactions to online sexual information and entertainment: Links to online and offline sexual behaviour: Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality Vol 11(2) Sum 2002, 77-89.
- Borissova, A. M., Kovatcheva, R., Shinkov, A., & Vukov, M. (2001). A study of the psychological status and sexuality in middle-aged Bulgarian women: Significance of the hormone replacement therapy (HRT): Maturitas Vol 39(2) Aug 2001, 177-183.
- Botella, C., & Botella, S. (1982). On the autoerotic deficiency of the paranoiac: Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse Vol 46(1) Jan-Feb 1982, 63-79.
- Bradlow, P. A., & Coen, S. J. (1984). Mirror masturbation: Psychoanalytic Quarterly Vol 53(2) Apr 1984, 267-285.
- Brandt, G. (1980). Symbolism and symptoms: From the analysis of a work-related impairment: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie Vol 29(3) Apr 1980, 79-83.
- Breiner, S. J. (1982). Masturbation and conception: Psychiatric Forum Vol 11(1) Sum-Fal 1982, 21-29.
- Brenot, P., Buck, P., & Petit, C. (2005). In praise of masturbation. London, England: Marion Boyars Publisher.
- Bridges, S. K., Lease, S. H., & Ellison, C. R. (2004). Predicting Sexual Satisfaction in Women: Implications for Counselor Education and Training: Journal of Counseling & Development Vol 82(2) Spr 2004, 158-166.
- Bridges, S. P. K. (2000). Predicting and describing sexual satisfaction in women: Physical affection in family of origin, sexual initiation and communication, and masturbatory practices. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Brindley, G. S., & Gillian, P. (1982). Men and women who do not have orgasms: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 140 Apr 1982, 351-356.
- Brissette, S., Montplaisir, J., Godbout, R., & Lavoisier, P. (1985). Sexual activity and sleep in humans: Biological Psychiatry Vol 20(7) Jul 1985, 758-763.
- Brockopp, G. W., & Lester, D. (2002). The obscene caller. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher.
- Brody, S. (2004). Slimness is Associated with Greater Intercourse and Lesser Masturbation Frequency: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 30(4) Jul-Sep 2004, 251-261.
- Brody, S. (2006). Penile-vaginal intercourse is better: Evidence trumps ideology: Sexual and Relationship Therapy Vol 21(4) Nov 2006, 393-403.
- Brody, S. (2007). Vaginal orgasm is associated with better psychological function: Sexual and Relationship Therapy Vol 22(2) May 2007, 173-191.
- Brody, S., Fischer, A. H., & Hess, U. (2008). Women's finger sensitivity correlates with partnered sexual behavior but not solitary masturbation frequencies: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 34(4) Jul 2008, 343-352.
- Brody, S., & Kruger, T. H. C. (2006). The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety: Biological Psychology Vol 71(3) Mar 2006, 312-315.
- Brooks, J. O., III, & Waikar, M. V. (2000). Inappropriate masturbation and schizophrenia: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 61(6) Jun 2000, 451.
- Brown, C. M., Traverso, G., & Fedoroff, J. P. (1996). Masturbation prohibition in sex offenders: A crossover study: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 25(4) Aug 1996, 397-408.
- Brunacci, R., Pezzoni, F., & Moretti, D. (1984). On obsessional neuroses from a psychoanalytic viewpoint: Some historical-clinical surveys: Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria e Medicina Legale delle Alienazioni Mentali Vol 108(4) Aug 1984, 1321-1347.
- Bullough, V. (2006). Much ado about nothing-a reply to Christensen: Sexuality & Culture: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Vol 10(3) Sum 2006, 98-99.
- Bullough, V. L. (2002). Masturbation: A historical overview: Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality Vol 14(2-3) 2002, 17-33.
- Bullough, V. L. (2005). Masturbation: 100 Years Ago and Now: Journal of Sex Research Vol 42(2) May 2005, 175-176.
- Buntman, A. D. (1979). The effects of a masturbation education program on beliefs and attitudes towards masturbation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Burg, B. R. (1988). Nocturnal emission and masturbatory frequency relationships: A 19th-century account: Journal of Sex Research Vol 24 1988, 216-220.
- Burland, J. A. (1990). The infantile neurosis and neuroses in childhood. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
- Burstein, A. G. (1979). Review of Human autoerotic practices: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 24 (8), Aug, 1979.
- Cambridge, P., Carnaby, S., & McCarthy, M. (2003). Responding to masturbation in supporting sexuality and challenging behaviour in services for people with learning disabilities: A practice and research overview: Journal of Learning Disabilities Vol 7(3) Sep 2003, 251-266.
- Campagna, A. F. (1985). Fantasy and sexual arousal in college men: Normative and functional aspects: Imagination, Cognition and Personality Vol 5(1) 1985-1986, 3-20.
- Campione, U. (1973). A case of strong masturbation originated by an iatrogenic complex of guilt, resolved in three hypnotherapeutic meetings: Rivista Internazionale di Psicologia e Ipnosi Vol 14(4) Oct-Dec 1973, 417-422.
- Canino, J. T. (2003). Review of The joy of self-pleasuring: Why feel guilty about feeling good? : Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 32(4) Aug 2003, 395-396.
- Capps, D. (2003). From masturbation to homosexuality: A case of displaced moral disapproval: Pastoral Psychology Vol 51(4) Mar 2003, 249-272.
- Catania, J. A., & White, C. B. (1982). Sexuality in an aged sample: Cognitive determinates of masturbation: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 11(3) Jun 1982, 237-245.
- Cavenar, J. O., Spaulding, J. G., & Butts, N. T. (1977). Autofellatio: A power and dependency conflict: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 165(5) Nov 1977, 356-360.
- Chakrabarti, N., Chopra, V. K., & Sinha, V. K. (2002). Masturbatory guilt leading to severe depression and erectile dysfunction: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 28(4) Jul-Sep 2002, 285-288.
- Christensen, C. (1995). Prescribed masturbation in sex therapy: A critique: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 21(2) Sum 1995, 87-99.
- Christensen, F. (2006). Will the saints go marching in? (commentary on Malan and Bullough's article): Sexuality & Culture: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Vol 10(3) Sum 2006, 91-97.
- Chromy, K., & Janik, A. (1977). A case of unusual sexual behaviour in senium: Cesko-Slovenska Psychiatrie Vol 73(3) 1977, 195-198.
- Clark, C. (2005). Hands down! The best darn book on masturbation: Journal of Sex Research Vol 42(3) Aug 2005, 270-271.
- Clement, U., Schmidt, G., & Kruse, M. (1984). Changes in sex differences in sexual behavior: A replication of a study on West German students (1966-1981): Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 13(2) Apr 1984, 99-120.
- Clifford, R. (1978). Development of masturbation in college women: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 7(6) Nov 1978, 559-573.
- Clifford, R. E. (1978). Subjective sexual experience in college women: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 7(3) May 1978, 183-197.
- Clower, V. L. (1977). Theoretical implications in current views of masturbation in latency girls. Oxford, England: International Universities Press.
- Cocchi, R. (1977). The hypothesis of adrenergic-noradrenergic substitution in habitual childhood masturbation: Two cases: Rassegna di Studi Psichiatrici Vol 66(1) Jan-Feb 1977, 9-16.
- Cocchi, R., & Rocca, R. G. (1977). "Neurotic" masturbation and infantile depression: Clinical-therapeutic approach and possible neuro-psychological interpretation: Acta Neurologica Vol 32(2) Mar-Apr 1977, 229-241.
- Cohen, H. D., Rosen, R. C., & Goldstein, L. (1976). Electroencephalograhic laterality changes during human sexual orgasm: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 5(3) May 1976, 189-199.
- Coleman, E. (2002). Masturbation as a means of achieving sexual health: Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality Vol 14(2-3) 2002, 5-16.
- Condron, M. K., & Nutter, D. E. (1988). A preliminary examination of the pornography experience of sex offenders, paraphiliacs, sexual dysfunction patients, and controls based on Meese Commission recommendations: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 14(4) Win 1988, 285-298.
- Cook, J. W., Altman, K., Shaw, J., & Blaylock, M. (1978). Use of contingent lemon juice to eliminate public masturbation by a severely retarded boy: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 16(2) 1978, 131-134.
- Coopersmith, S. E. (1981). Object-instinctual and developmental aspects of perversion: Psychoanalytic Review Vol 68(3) Fal 1981, 371-383.
- Cornog, M. (2004). The Decloseting of Masturbation? : Journal of Sex Research Vol 41(3) Aug 2004, 310-312.
- Costa, R. M., & Brody, S. (2007). Women's relationship quality is associated with specifically penile-vaginal intercourse orgasm and frequency: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 33(4) Jul 2007, 319-327.
- Cotten-Huston, A. L. (1983). Comparisons of sex offenders with non-offenders on attitudes toward masturbation and female fantasy as related to participation in human sexuality sessions: Journal of Offender Counseling, Services & Rehabilitation Vol 8(1-2) Fal-Win 1983, 13-26.
- Couper, R. T. L., & Huynh, H. (2002). Female masturbation masquerading as abdominal pain: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health Vol 38(2) Apr 2002, 199-200.
- Crowther, M. R., & Zeiss, A. M. (1999). Cognitive-behavior therapy in older adults: A case involving sexual functioning: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 55(8) Aug 1999, 961-975.
- Crozier, I. (2004). Review of Solitary Sex: A Cultural History of Masturbation: History of Psychiatry Vol 15(60,Pt4) Dec 2004, 505-508.
- Daldin, H. J. (1988). A contribution to the understanding of self-mutilating behaviour in adolescence: Journal of Child Psychotherapy Vol 14(1) 1988, 61-66.
- Dalley, T., Davies, M., & Urwin, C. (2006). Clinical Commentary: Journal of Child Psychotherapy Vol 32(3) Dec 2006, 365-379.
- Darling, C. A., Davidson, J. K., & Jennings, D. A. (1991). The female sexual response revisited: Understanding the multiorgasmic experience in women: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 20(6) Dec 1991, 527-540.
- Das, A. (2007). Masturbation in the United States: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 33(4) Jul 2007, 301-317.
- Davidson, J. K. (1984). Autoeroticism, sexual satisfaction, and sexual adjustment among university females: Past and current patterns: Deviant Behavior Vol 5(1-4) 1984, 121-140.
- Davidson, J. K., & Darling, C. A. (1988). Changing autoerotic attitudes and practices among college females: A two-year follow-up study: Adolescence Vol 23(92) Win 1988, 773-792.
- Davidson, J. K., & Darling, C. A. (1989). Self-perceived differences in the female orgasmic response: Family Practice Research Journal Vol 8(2) Spr-Sum 1989, 75-84.
- Davidson, J. K., & Darling, C. A. (1990). The influence of college-level sexuality education on female masturbatory attitudes and behaviours: A longitudinal analysis: Australian Journal of Marriage & Family Vol 11(1) Mar 1990, 36-51.
- Davidson, J. K., & Darling, C. A. (1993). Masturbatory guilt and sexual responsiveness among post-college-age women: Sexual satisfaction revisited: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 19(4) Win 1993, 289-300.
- Davidson, J. K., & Moore, N. B. (1994). Masturbation and premarital sexual intercourse among college women: Making choices for sexual fulfillment: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 20(3) Fal 1994, 178-199.
- Davis, C. M., Blank, J., Lin, H.-Y., & Bonillas, C. (1996). Characteristics of vibrator use among women: Journal of Sex Research Vol 33(4) 1996, 313-320.
- Dawood, K., Kirk, K. M., Bailey, J. M., Andrews, P. W., & Martin, N. G. (2005). Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Frequency of Orgasm in Women: Twin Research Vol 8(1) Feb 2005, 27-33.
- de Bruijn, G. (1982). From masturbation to orgasm with a partner: How some women bridge the gap--and why others don't: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 8(2) Sum 1982, 151-167.
- De Pereda, M. C. (2004). The adolescent's resignification: Kinderanalyse Vol 12(4) Oct 2004, 342-356.
- De Silva, P. (2006). Review of Dirty words: The story of sex talk: Sexual and Relationship Therapy Vol 21(1) Feb 2006, 110.
- Dekker, A., & Schmidt, G. (2002). Patterns of masturbatory behaviour: Changes between the sixties and the nineties: Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality Vol 14(2-3) 2002, 35-48.
- Dekker, J., Dronkers, J., & Staffeleu, J. (1985). Treatment of sexual dysfunctions in male-only groups: Predicting outcome: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 11(2) Sum 1985, 80-90.
- Dekker, J., & Everaerd, W. (1984). The treatment of orgasmic dysfunction in heterosexual women: An individual and relational approach: Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie en haar Grensgebieden Vol 39(7) Oct 1984, 411-426.
- DeMartino, M. F. (1980). Masturbation as an Aid to Personality Development and Heterosexual Loving Relationships: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 25 (2), Feb, 1980.
- Dodson, B. (2004). We Are All Quite Queer: Journal of Bisexuality Vol 4(3-4) 2004, 155-163.
- Dow, M. G. (1981). Retarded ejaculation as a function of nonaversive conditioning and discrimination: A hypothesis: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 7(1) Spr 1981, 49-53.
- Downey, L. (1980). Intergenerational change in sex behavior: A belated look at Kinsey's males: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 9(4) Aug 1980, 267-317.
- Downing, J., Jenkins, S. J., & Fisher, G. L. (1988). A comparison of psychodynamic and reinforcement treatment with sexually abused children: Elementary School Guidance & Counseling Vol 22(4) Apr 1988, 291-298.
- Dranoff, S. M. (1974). Masturbation and the male adolescent: Adolescence Vol 9(34) Sum 1974, 169-176.
- Dufrene, B. A., Watson, T. S., & Weaver, A. (2005). Response blocking with guided compliance and reinforcement for a habilitative replacement behavior: Effects on public masturbation and on-task behavior: Child & Family Behavior Therapy Vol 27(4) 2005, 73-84.
- Durham, T. W., & Grossnickle, W. F. (1982). Attitudes toward masturbation: Psychological Reports Vol 51(3, Pt 1) Dec 1982, 932-934.
- Dutton, W. A., & Newlon, B. J. (1988). Early recollections and sexual fantasies of adolescent sex offenders: Individual Psychology: Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research & Practice Vol 44(1) Mar 1988, 85-94.
- Dziegielewski, M., & Tyler, J. P. (1989). The influence of attitude and psychogenic factors on the quality of semen collected by masturbation: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology Vol 7(3) Jul-Sep 1989, 161-169.
- Eber, M., & Rotondo, D. J. (1988). Androgynous masturbatory behavior as a schizoid phenomenon: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic Vol 52(5) Sep 1988, 404-409.
Edwards, D. W. (1983). Adolescents and masturbation: Journal of Social Work & Human Sexuality Vol 1(3) Spr 1983, 53-57.
- Ellis, R. G. (1980). The corona-frenulum trigger: Sexuality and Disability Vol 3(1) Spr 1980, 50-56.
- Engelhardt, H. T., Jr. (1992). The disease of masturbation: Values and the concept of disease. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Esman, A. H. (2005). Review of History and Psychoanalysis Solitary Sex: A Cultural History of Masturbation: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association Vol 53(1) Win 2005, 325-328.
- Exton, M. S., Bindert, A., Kruger, T., Scheller, F., Hartman, U., & Schedlowski, M. (1999). Cardiovascular and endocrine alterations after masturbation-induced orgasm in women: Psychosomatic Medicine Vol 61(3) May-Jun 1999, 280-289.
- Fabi, M. (2004). Review of Cybersex: The dark side of the force: International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies Vol 1(2) 2004, 208-209.
- Fabricius, J. (1999). Internal 'soul murder': An impediment to psychic development: British Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 15(4) Sum 1999, 476-487.
- Farrell, W. (1978). A Tapestry of Alternatives: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 23 (4), Apr, 1978.
- Faught, E., Falgout, J., Nidiffer, D., & Dreifuss, F. E. (1986). Self-induced photosensitive absence seizures with ictal pleasure: Archives of Neurology Vol 43(4) Apr 1986, 408-410.
- Ferguson, L. N., & Rekers, G. A. (1979). Non-aversive intervention in public childhood masturbation: A case study: Journal of Sex Research Vol 15(3) Aug 1979, 213-223.
- Ferrero, G. F. (1973). Enuresis and masturbation with a strong Oedipus complex in a nine year old boy, remarkably recovered in five hypnotherapeutic meetings: Rivista Internazionale di Psicologia e Ipnosi Vol 14(4) Oct-Dec 1973, 413-415.
- Finkelstein, E., Amichai, B., Jaworowski, S., & Mukamel, M. (1996). Masturbation in prepubescent children: A case report and review of the literature: Child: Care, Health and Development Vol 22(5) Sep 1996, 323-326.
- Fishbain, D. A. (1987). Kleptomania as risk-taking behavior in response to depression: American Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 41(4) Oct 1987, 598-603.
- Foote, W. E., & Laws, D. R. (1981). A daily alternation procedure for orgasmic reconditioning with a pedophile: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 12(3) Sep 1981, 267-273.
- Fortier, P., Mottard, J.-P., Trudel, G., & Even, S. (2003). Study of Sexuality-Related Characteristics in Young Adults With Schizophrenia Treated With Novel Neuroleptics and in a Comparison Group of Young Adults: Schizophrenia Bulletin Vol 29(3) 2003, 559-572.
- Foxx, R. M., McMorrow, M. J., Fenlon, S., & Bittle, R. G. (1986). The reductive effects of reinforcement procedures on the genital stimulation and stereotypy of a mentally retarded adolescent male: Analysis & Intervention in Developmental Disabilities Vol 6(3) 1986, 239-248.
- Francis, E. (2004). From Self to Self: Masturbation as the Future of Sex: Journal of Bisexuality Vol 4(3-4) 2004, 167-176.
- Francoeur, R. T. (2007). Catholic Culture and Sexual Health. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
- Frenkel, R. S. (1993). Problems in female development: Comments on the analysis of an early latency-age girl: The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child Vol 48 1993, 171-192.
- Freud, S. (1994). Masturbation as the original addiction. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
- Friedman, J. M. (1983). Kinsey's Sex History of Historical Interest: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 28 (7), Jul, 1983.
- Gadpaille, W. J. (1972). What is acceptable sexual behavior? : Sexual Behavior Vol 2(7) Jul 1972, 36-41.
- Gadpaille, W. J. (1974). Masturbation in preadolescent girls: Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality Vol 8(9) Sep 1974, 179-180.
- Gagnon, J. H. (1985). Attitudes and responses of parents to pre-adolescent masturbation: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 14(5) Oct 1985, 451-466.
- Gagnon, J. H. (2005). Review of Solitary Sex: A Cultural History of Masturbation: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 34(4) Aug 2005, 471-473.
- Galenson, E., & Roiphe, H. (1974). The emergence of genital awareness during the second year of life. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.
- Gana, K., Trouillet, R., Martin, B., & Toffart, L. (2001). The relationship between boredom proneness and solitary sexual behaviors in adults: Social Behavior and Personality Vol 29(4) 2001, 385-389.
- Geer, J. H., & Quartaaro, J. D. (1976). Vaginal blood volume responses during masturbation: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 5(5) Sep 1976, 403-413.
- Gellman, R., & Gellman-Barroux, C. (2003). The adolescent's questions to the sexologist and psychiatrist pratician: Annales Medico-Psychologiques Vol 161(5) 2003, 393-399.
- Gerressu, M., Mercer, C. H., Graham, C. A., Wellings, K., & Johnson, A. M. (2008). Prevalence of masturbation and associated factors in a British national probability survey: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 37(2) Apr 2008, 266-278.
- Ghanem, H., & El-Sakka, A. (2007). Sex and Sexual Dysfunctions in the Middle Eastern Culture. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
- Gibney, H. A. (1972). Masturbation: An invitation for an interpersonal relationship: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Vol 10(3) 1972, 128-134.
- Gilbert, A. N. (1975). Doctor, patient, and onanist diseases in the nineteenth century: Journal of the History of Medicine & Allied Sciences Vol 30(3) Jul 1975, 217-234.
- Glenn, J. (1974). The analysis of masturbatory conflicts of an adolescent boy with a note on "actual neurosis." Oxford, England: Quadrangle.
- Goldberg, A. (2000). Errant selves: A casebook of misbehavior. Mahwah, NJ: Analytic Press.
- Goldsmith, L. (1988). Treatment of sexual dysfunction. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
- Good, M. I. (1994). The reconstruction of early childhood trauma: Fantasy, reality, and verification: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association Vol 42(1) 1994, 79-101.
- Graber, B., & et al. (1985). EEG during masturbation and ejaculation: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 14(6) Dec 1985, 491-503.
- Green, S. E., & Mosher, D. L. (1985). A causal model of sexual arousal to erotic fantasies: Journal of Sex Research Vol 21(1) Feb 1985, 1-23.
- Greenberg, J. S. (1972). The masturbatory behavior of college students: Psychology in the Schools Vol 9(4) Oct 1972, 427-432.
- Greenberg, J. S., & Archambault, F. X. (1973). Masturbation, self-esteem and other variables: Journal of Sex Research Vol 9(1) Feb 1973, 41-51.
- Griffitt, W. (1975). Sexual experience and sexual responsiveness: Sex differences: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 4(5) Sep 1975, 529-540.
- Groenendijk, L. F. (1997). Masturbation and neurasthenia: Freud and Stekel in debate on the harmful effects of autoerotism: Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality Vol 9(1) 1997, 71-94.
- Grumet, G. W. (1985). Pathologic masturbation with drastic consequences: Case report: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 46(12) Dec 1985, 537-539.
- Gudelunas, D. (2005). Talking taboo: Newspaper advice columns and sexual discourse: Sexuality & Culture: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Vol 9(1) Win 2005, 62-87.
- Gutmann, P. (2006). 'About confusions of the mind due to abnormal conditions of the sexual organs.' History of Psychiatry Vol 17(1) Mar 2006, 107-111.
- Hagenbach, A. W. (2002). Historical note: Sex and sanity, 1879: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 190(11) Nov 2002, 782.
- Hagglund, T.-B. (1980). Some viewpoints on the ego ideal: International Review of Psycho-Analysis Vol 7(2) 1980, 207-218.
- Haidt, J., & Hersh, M. A. (2001). Sexual morality: The cultures and emotions of conservatives and liberals: Journal of Applied Social Psychology Vol 31(1) Jan 2001, 191-221.
- Halpern, C. J. T., Udry, J. R., Suchindran, C., & Campbell, B. (2000). Adolescent males' willingness to report masturbation: Journal of Sex Research Vol 37(4) Nov 2000, 327-332.
- Halpert, E. (1973). On a particular form of masturbation in women: Masturbation with water: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association Vol 21(3) 1973, 526-542.
- Hansen, J. T. (1991). Autoerotism to secondary narcissism: Clarifying the developmental line: Psychoanalytic Review Vol 78(2) Sum 1991, 225-236.
- Harbet, S. C. (1979). Attitudes and behaviors of college women concerning female masturbation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Haroian, L. M. (1992). Sexual problems of children. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons.
- Harvey, S. M. (1987). Female sexual behavior: Fluctuations during the menstrual cycle: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 31(1) 1987, 101-110.
- Hatfield, E., Sprecher, S., & Traupmann, J. (1978). Men's and women's reactions to sexually explicit films: A serendipitous finding: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 7(6) Nov 1978, 583-592.
- Hazelwood, R. R., Dietz, P. E., & Burgess, A. W. (1981). The investigation of autoerotic fatalities: Journal of Police Science & Administration Vol 9(4) Dec 1981, 404-411.
- Heiby, E. M., & Becker, J. D. (1980). Effect of filmed modeling on the self-reported frequency of masturbation: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 9(2) Apr 1980, 115-121.
- Heine, R. (1968). Review of Sexual Self-stimulation: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 13 (8), Aug, 1968.
- Hekma, G. (2006). Sade, Masculinity, and Sexual Humiliation: Men and Masculinities Vol 9(2) Oct 2006, 236-251.
- Hensley, C., Tewksbury, R., & Koscheski, M. (2001). Masturbation uncovered: Autoeroticism in a female prison: The Prison Journal Vol 81(4) Dec 2001, 491-501.
- Hensley, C., Tewksbury, R., & Wright, J. (2001). Exploring the dynamics of masturbation and consensual same-sex activity within a male maximum security prison: The Journal of Men's Studies Vol 10(1) Fal 2001, 59-71.
- Henson, D. E., Rubin, H. B., & Henson, C. (1982). Labial and vaginal blood volume responses to visual and tactile stimuli: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 11(1) Feb 1982, 23-31.
- Hessellund, H. (1976). Masturbation and sexual fantasies in married couples: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 5(2) Mar 1976, 133-147.
- Hingsburger, D. (1994). Masturbation: A consultation for those who support individuals with developmental disabilities: Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality Vol 3(3) Fal 1994, 278-282.
- Hodges, F. M. (2005). The Antimasturbation Crusade in Antebellum American Medicine: Journal of Sexual Medicine Vol 2(5) Sep 2005, 722-731.
- Hofstede, G. (1998). Comparative studies of sexual behavior: Sex as achievement or as relationship? Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Holstein, K., & Schutze, G. (1983). The pathogenesis of sexual deviation in adolescence: Zeitschrift fur Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie Vol 11(4) 1983, 310-316.
- Hooker, E. (1971). Peak Experience or Natural Response? : PsycCRITIQUES Vol 16 (8), Aug, 1971.
- Hopper, E. (1995). A psychoanalytical theory of "drug addiction": Unconscious fantasies of homosexuality, compulsions and masturbation within the context of traumatogenic processes: International Journal of Psycho-Analysis Vol 76(6) Dec 1995, 1121-1142.
- Horne, A. (2001). Of bodies and babies: Sexuality and sexual theories in childhood and adolescence. New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
- Houck, E. L., & Abramson, P. R. (1986). Masturbatory guilt and the psychological consequences of sexually transmitted diseases among women: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 20(3) Sep 1986, 267-275.
- Houpt, K. A., & Wollney, G. (1989). Frequency of masturbation and time budgets of dairy bulls used for semen production: Applied Animal Behaviour Science Vol 24(3) Oct 1989, 217-225.
- Hull, J. W., & Lane, R. C. (1988). Autoerotism in patients with borderline personality organization: A case of wristcutting and bulimia: Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy Vol 18(3) Fal 1988, 205-216.
- Hull, J. W., & Lane, R. C. (1996). Repetitive dreams and the central masturbation fantasy: Psychoanalytic Review Vol 83(5) Oct 1996, 673-684.
- Hulter, B., & Lundberg, P. O. (1994). Sexual function in women with hypothalamo-pituitary disorders: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 23(2) Apr 1994, 171-183.
- Hulverscheidt, M. A. (2005). "A strange story regarding the prevention of masturbation": On the history of the genital mutilation of women in German-speaking countries: Zeitschrift fur Sexualforschung Vol 18(3) Sep 2005, 215-242.
- Hunter, J. A., Ram, N., & Ryback, R. (2008). Use of satiation therapy in the treatment of adolescent-manifest sexual interest in male children: A single-case, repeated measures design: Clinical Case Studies Vol 7(1) Feb 2008, 54-74.
- Hurlbert, D. F., & Apt, C. (1995). The coital alignment technique and directed masturbation: A comparative study on female orgasm: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 21(1) Spr 1995, 21-29.
- Hurlbert, D. F., & Whittaker, K. E. (1991). The role of masturbation in marital and sexual satisfaction: A comparative study of female masturbators and nonmasturbators: Journal of Sex Education & Therapy Vol 17(4) Win 1991, 272-282.
- Hurley, A. D., & Sovner, R. (1983). Treatment of sexual deviation in mentally retarded persons: Psychiatric Aspects of Mental Retardation Newsletter Vol 2(4) Apr 1983, 13-16.
- Iencarelli, A. B. (1988). Masturbation and mothering: Regarding the treatment of 18-mo-old Mariana: Revista Brasileira de Psicanalise Vol 22(4) 1988, 583-593.
- Impallari, J., & de Impallari, M. G. (1988). Antecedents of, and correlates between, masturbation techniques and types of associated erotic fantasies in premature and controlled ejaculators: Revista Latinoamericana de Sexologia Vol 3(1) 1988, 13-24.
- Izner, S. M. (1992). Some defensive aspects of the masturbation fantasy and the necessity to work it through. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, Inc.
- Janzen, W. B., & Peacock, R. (1978). Treatment of public masturbation by behavioral management: American Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 32(2) Apr 1978, 300-306.
- Joachim, M. J. (1980). Social support, masturbatory guilt, and success of education treatment groups for primary orgasmic dysfunction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Johnson, J. R. (1982). Toward a biblical approach to masturbation: Journal of Psychology & Theology Vol 10(2) Sum 1982, 137-146.
- Johnston, P., Hudson, S. M., & Marshall, W. L. (1992). The effects of masturbatory reconditioning with nonfamilial child molesters: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 30(5) Sep 1992, 559-561.
- Jones, J. C., & Barlow, D. H. (1990). Self-reported frequency of sexual urges, fantasies and masturbatory fantasies in heterosexual males and females: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 19(3) Jun 1990, 269-279.
- Jovic, N. (1972). On the castration complex: Neuropsihijatrija Vol 20(3-4) 1972, 273-280.
- Kaeser, F. (1996). Developing a philosophy of masturbation training for persons with severe or profound mental retardation: Sexuality and Disability Vol 14(4) Win 1996, 295-308.
- Kaeser, F., & O'Neill, J. (1987). Task analyzed masturbation instruction for a profoundly mentally retarded adult male: A data based case study: Sexuality and Disability Vol 8(1) Spr 1987, 17-24.
- Kaeser, F. E. (1996). Masturbation and the quality of life, health, and sexual expression of people with profound mental retardation: A philosophical study. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Kar, N., & Koola, M. M. (2007). A pilot survey of sexual functioning and preferences in a sample of English-speaking adults from a small South Indian town: Journal of Sexual Medicine Vol 4(5) Sep 2007, 1254-1261.
- Karthikeyan, R., & Swaminathan, V. D. (1992). Behavioural management of masturbatory guilt: Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 19(2) Sep 1992, 41-43.
- Kay, D. S. (1992). Masturbation and mental health: Uses and abuses: Sexual & Marital Therapy Vol 7(1) 1992, 97-107.
- Kelley, K. (1985). Sex, sex guilt, and authoritarianism: Differences in responses to explicit heterosexual and masturbatory slides: Journal of Sex Research Vol 21(1) Feb 1985, 68-85.
- Kilborne, B. (2006). Review of Solitary Sex: A Cultural History of Masturbation: The American Journal of Psychoanalysis Vol 66(1) Mar 2006, 97-100.
- Kittler, E. (2005). We three in the castle of ghosts: The difficulty to install a psychotherapy with a child, or: The effects of the central masturbation fantasy of the mother on the mother-child relation. Some considerations about interpretation techniques in the work with a child and its parents: Kinderanalyse Vol 13(2) Apr 2005, 147-174.
- Klar, H. (1974). The Luscher test colour-preferences of children under the influence of neurotic masturbation: British Journal of Projective Psychology & Personality Study Vol 19(2) Dec 1974, 15-20.
- Knafo, D., & Jaffe, Y. (1984). Sexual fantasizing in males and females: Journal of Research in Personality Vol 18(4) Dec 1984, 451-462.
- Kohl, M. L. (1980). Situation, gender, and sex role as they relate to the frequency of various sexual fantasies reported by college men and women: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Kohlenberg, R. J. (1974). Directed masturbation and the treatment of primary orgasmic dysfunction: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 3(4) Jul 1974, 349-356.
- Kontula, O., & Haavio-Mannila, E. (2002). Masturbation in a generational perspective: Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality Vol 14(2-3) 2002, 49-83.
- Kornreich, C., Dulk, A. D., Verbanck, P., & Pelc, I. (1995). Fluoxetine treatment of compulsive masturbation in a schizophrenic patient: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 56(7) Jul 1995, 334.
- Koznar, J. (1990). Attitudes to masturbation: Psychologia a Patopsychologia Dietata Vol 25(5) 1990, 463-469.
- Krac, A. (1979). Social scripts and female masturbatory behavior: A causal model: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Kremsdorf, R. B., Holmen, M. L., & Laws, D. R. (1980). Orgasmic reconditioning without deviant imagery: A case report with a pedophile: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 18(3) 1980, 203-207.
- Krop, H., & Burgess, D. (1993). Use of covert conditioning to treat excessive masturbation. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
- Kruger, T. H. C., Haake, P., Hartmann, U., Schedlowski, M., & Exton, M. S. (2002). Orgasm-induced prolactin secretion: Feedback control of sexual drive? : Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Vol 26(1) Jan 2002, 31-44.
- Kulish, N. (2003). Conflicted gender: The case of a woman who believed she was half male and half female: The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child Vol 58 2003, 60-84.
- Kuriansky, J. B., Sharpe, L., & O'Connor, D. (1982). The treatment of anorgasmia: Long-term effectiveness of a short-term behavioral group therapy: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 8(1) Spr 1982, 29-43.
- Kuruvilla, K. (1984). Treatment of single impotent males: Indian Journal of Psychiatry Vol 26(2) Apr 1984, 160-163.
- Kwee, A. W., Dominguez, A. W., & Ferrell, D. (2007). Sexual addiction and Christian college men: Conceptual, assessment, and treatment challenges: Journal of Psychology and Christianity Vol 26(1) Spr 2007, 3-13.
- Laan, E., Everaerd, W., Van Aanhold, M.-T., & Rebel, M. (1993). Performance demand and sexual arousal in women: Behaviour Research and Therapy Vol 31(1) Jan 1993, 25-35.
- Lachkepiani, A. N. (1990). A little-known epileptic phenomenon: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S S Korsakova Vol 90(6) 1990, 23-25.
- LaFemina, R. (1977). The use of an auditory stimulus to arouse masturbatory fantasy in an impotent male: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 8(4) Dec 1977, 433-435.
- Lafuente Benaches, M. J., & Valcarcel Gonzalez, M. P. (1984). Attitudes about sexuality in a sample of Valencian university students: Psicologica Vol 5(1) 1984, 81-99.
- Lande, S. D. (1980). A combination of orgasmic reconditioning and covert sensitization in the treatment of a fire fetish: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 11(4) Dec 1980, 291-296.
- Lang, L. H. (1991). The effects of masturbatory satiation on sexual arousal to children: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Lange, E. (1989). Slitting clothes while cycling: A fetishistic patient with communication problems displays great adroitness: Psychiatrie, Neurologie und Medizinische Psychologie Vol 41(9) Sep 1989, 550-552.
- Langstrom, N., Grann, M., & Lichtenstein, P. (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on problematic masturbatory behavior in children: A study of same-sex twins: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 31(4) Aug 2002, 343-350.
- Langstrom, N., & Zucker, K. J. (2005). Transvestic Fetishism in the General Population: Prevalence and Correlates: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 31(2) 2005, 87-95.
- Laqueur, T. W. (2003). Solitary sex: A cultural history of masturbation. Brooklyn, NY: Zone Books.
- Lassen, C. L., & Held, M. L. (1974). Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex Films: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 19 (6), Jun, 1974.
- Laufer, M. (1976). The central masturbation fantasy, the final sexual organization, and adolescence: The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child Vol 31 29 1976, 7-316.
- Laufer, M., & Laufer, M. E. (1984). Adolescence and developmental breakdown: A psychoanalytic view. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
- Laufer, M. E. (1982). Female masturbation in adolescence and the development of the relationship to the body: International Journal of Psycho-Analysis Vol 63(3) 1982, 295-302.
- Laws, D. R., & Marshall, W. L. (1991). Masturbatory reconditioning with sexual deviates: An evaluative review: Advances in Behaviour Research & Therapy Vol 13(1) 1991, 13-25.
- Lazarus, D. (1976). An exploratory study of male masturbation fantasies: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Leff, J. J. (1979). Relationship between mode of masturbatory activity and subsequent mode of achieving orgasm during coitus in women: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Leff, J. J., & Israel, M. (1983). The relationship between mode of female masturbation and achievement of orgasm in coitus: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 12(3) Jun 1983, 227-236.
- Leitenberg, H., Detzer, M. J., & Srebnik, D. (1993). Gender differences in masturbation and the relation of masturbation experience in preadolescence and/or early adolescence to sexual behavior and sexual adjustment in young adulthood: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 22(2) Apr 1993, 87-98.
- Lester, D. (1973). Telephone counseling and the masturbator: A dilemma: Clinical Social Work Journal Vol 1(4) Win 1973, 257-260.
- Leung, A. K., & Robson, W. L. (1993). Childhood masturbation: Clinical Pediatrics Vol 32(4) Apr 1993, 238-241.
- Levin, R. J. (2007). Sexual activity, health and well-being--the beneficial roles of coitus and masturbation: Sexual and Relationship Therapy Vol 22(1) Feb 2007, 135-148.
- Lipsith, J., McCann, D., & Goldmeier, D. (2003). Male psychogenic sexual dysfunction: The role of masturbation: Sexual and Relationship Therapy Vol 18(4) Nov 2003, 448-471.
- Liu, T., Zhang, H., & Zang, D. (1997). Sex differences of masturbation behavior and its influence on mental health of adolescents: Chinese Mental Health Journal Vol 11(3) 1997, 148-150.
- lo Presto, C. T., Sherman, M. F., & Sherman, N. C. (1985). The effects of a masturbation seminar on high school males' attitudes, false beliefs, guilt, and behavior: Journal of Sex Research Vol 21(2) May 1985, 142-156.
- Loe, D. C. (1982). A clinical report of a case of sexual-religious perversion: Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry & Medicine Vol 29(3) 1982, 104-106.
- Looft, W. R. (1973). Development through the Ages: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 18 (11), Nov, 1973.
- LoPiccolo, J. (1978). Review of The Shanor Study: The Sexual Sensitivity of the American Male: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 23 (12), Dec, 1978.
- LoPiccolo, J. (1982). Review of Sexual Choices: An Introduction to Human Sexuality: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 27 (1), Jan, 1982.
- Love-Trescott, E. (1987). Intervention strategies for public masturbation and homosexuality among institutionalized handicapped individuals: Recommendations of sex therapists: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Low, W.-Y., Ng, C.-J., Fadzil, K. S., & Ang, E.-S. (2007). Sexual issues: Let's hear it from the Malaysian boys: Journal of Men's Health & Gender Vol 4(3) Sep 2007, 283-291.
- Luiselli, J. K., Helfen, C. S., Pemberton, B. W., & Reisman, J. (1977). The elimination of a child's in-class masturbation by overcorrection and reinforcement: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 8(2) Jun 1977, 201-204.
- Lunde, I., Larsen, G. K., Fog, E., & Garde, K. (1991). Sexual desire, orgasm, and sexual fantasies: A study of 625 Danish women born in 1910, 1936, and 1958: Journal of Sex Education & Therapy Vol 17(2) Sum 1991, 111-115.
- Lundervold, D. A., & Young, L. G. (1992). Treatment acceptability ratings for sexual offenders: Effects of diagnosis and offense: Research in Developmental Disabilities Vol 13(3) May-Jun 1992, 229-237.
- MacCulloch, M. J., Snowden, P. R., Wood, P. J., & Mills, H. E. (1983). Sadistic fantasy, sadistic behaviour and offending: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 143 Jul 1983, 20-29.
- MacKnight, C., & Rojas-Fernandez, C. (2000). Quetiapine for sexually inappropriate behavior in dementia: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Vol 48(6) Jun 2000, 707.
- Mah, K., & Binik, Y. M. (2005). Are Orgasms in the Mind or the Body? Psychosocial Versus Physiological Correlates of Orgasmic Pleasure and Satisfaction: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 31(3) May-Jun 2005, 187-200.
- Makari, G. J. (1997). Dora's hysteria and the maturation of Sigmund Freud's transference theory: A new historical interpretation: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association Vol 45(4) 1997, 1061-1096.
- Malan, M. K. (2004). The Enlightenment as Genesis of 18th-Century Masturbation Degeneracy Hysteria: Journal of Sex Research Vol 41(3) Aug 2004, 313-315.
- Malan, M. K. (2006). Understanding methods of change in Mormon cultural attitudes beyond "official" doctrinal views and popular public image-a reply to Christensen: Sexuality & Culture: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Vol 10(3) Sum 2006, 100-112.
- Malan, M. K., & Bullough, V. (2005). Historical development of new masturbation attitudes in Mormon culture: Silence, secular conformity, counterrevolution, and emerging reform: Sexuality & Culture: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Vol 9(4) Fal 2005, 80-127.
- Malatesta, V. J. (1979). The effects of alcohol on ejaculation latency in human males: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Malatesta, V. J., Pollack, R. H., Wilbanks, W. A., & Adams, H. E. (1979). Alcohol effects on the orgasmic-ejaculatory response in human males: Journal of Sex Research Vol 15(2) May 1979, 101-107.
- Maldonado, J. L. (1999). Narcissistic resistances in the analytic experience: International Journal of Psycho-Analysis Vol 80(6) Dec 1999, 1131-1145.
- Maldonado, J. L. (2000). Narcissistic resistance in the analytic experience: Psicoanalisis: Revista de la asociacion Psicoanalitica de Buenos Aires Vol 22(2) 2000, 387-413.
- Maliszewski, M. (1990). Masturbatory cephalalgia: The need for medical and therapeutic intervention: Headache Quarterly Vol 1(1) 1990, 85-86.
- Marcus, I. M., & Francis, J. J. (1975). Masturbation: From infancy to senescence. Oxford, England: International Universities Press.
- Markociejski, B., & Sorensen, K. (1991). Autoerotic behavior (?) in a mentally retarded male without a penis: Nordisk Sexologi Vol 9(2) Sep 1991, 121-124.
- Marshall, G. L. (1974). A combined treatment approach to the reduction of multiple fetish-related behaviors: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 42(4) Aug 1974, 613-616.
- Marshall, W. L. (1975). Reducing masturbatory guilt: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 6(3) Oct 1975, 260-261.
- Marshall, W. L. (2006). Olfactory Aversion and Directed Masturbation in the Modification of Deviant Preferences: A Case Study of a Child Molester: Clinical Case Studies Vol 5(1) Jan 2006, 3-14.
- Marshall, W. L., & Lippens, K. (1977). The clinical value of boredom: A procedure for reducing inappropriate sexual interests: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Vol 165(4) Oct 1977, 283-287.
- Martin, C. E. (1978). An investigation of erotic self-stimulation: The relationship between masturbation activities, personality style, parental identification, and object relations variables in adult males: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Martinez, R. (2005). Prostate Cancer and Sex: Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy Vol 9(1-2) 2005, 91-99.
- Matthiesen, S., & Hauch, M. (2004). Will gender differences disappear? Dissolution, reversal, or continuity of traditional gender differences in sexual behaviour: An empirical study with three generations: Verhaltenstherapie & Psychosoziale Praxis Vol 36(3) 2004, 491-508.
- Maybrey, C. (2005). Review of The Big Book of Masturbation: From Angst to Zeal: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 34(4) Aug 2005, 473-475.
- McDermott, G. W. (1982). An examination of the relationship between androgyny and the use of fantasy by females during masturbation: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- McDonnell, S. M., Garcia, M. C., & Kenney, R. M. (1987). Imipramine-induced erection, masturbation, and ejaculation in male horses: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 27(1) May 1987, 187-191.
- McGuire, B. E., Choon, G. L., Nayer, P., & Sanders, J. (1998). An unusual paraphilia: Case report of oral partialism: Sexual & Marital Therapy Vol 13(2) May 1998, 207-210.
- McKinney, F. (1941). Social conventions and affections. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
- McKinney, F. (1949). Affections and conventions: McKinney, Fred.
- McMullen, S., & Rosen, R. C. (1979). Self-administered masturbation training in the treatment of primary orgasmic dysfunction: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 47(5) Oct 1979, 912-918.
- McMullen, S. J. (1977). Automated procedures for treatment of primary orgasmic dysfunction: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- McNab, W. L. (1976). Sexual attitude development in children and the parents' role: Journal of School Health Vol 46(9) Nov 1976, 537-542.
- McNally, R. J., & Lukach, B. M. (1991). Behavioral treatment of zoophilic exhibitionism: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 22(4) Dec 1991, 281-284.
- Mednick, R. A. (1977). Death anxiety and sexual fantasy: Omega: Journal of Death and Dying Vol 8(2) 1977-1978, 117-127.
- Mednick, R. A. (1977). Gender-specific variances in sexual fantasy: Journal of Personality Assessment Vol 41(3) Jun 1977, 248-254.
- Mehta, M. D. (2001). Pornography in Usenet: A study of 9,800 randomly selected images: CyberPsychology & Behavior Vol 4(6) Dec 2001, 695-703.
- Meltzer, D. (1988). The relation of anal masturbation to projective identification. Florence, KY: Taylor & Frances/Routledge.
- Meo, R., Bilo, L., & Striano, S. (1985). A unique case of "masturbatory" seizures in primary generalized epilepsy: Acta Neurologica Vol 7(5) Oct 1985, 409-415.
- Mercuri, G. (1974). Brief remarks on masturbation: Lavoro Neuropsichiatrico Vol 55(1-2) Jul-Oct 1974, 269-273.
- Miller, W. R., & Lief, H. I. (1976). Masturbatory attitudes, knowledge, and experience: Data from the Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT): Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 5(5) Sep 1976, 447-467.
- Mims, F. H. (1974). An interdisciplinary course in human sexuality for medical and nursing students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Money, J. (1996). Sexology of ictal masturbation in infancy: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 22(4) Win 1996, 280-283.
- Money, J., & Bohmer, C. (1980). Prison sexology: Two personal accounts of masturbation, homosexuality, and rape: Journal of Sex Research Vol 16(3) Aug 1980, 258-266.
- Money, J., Joshi, V. N., & Prakasam, K. S. (1992). "Kama Sutra": Women's sexology versus semen conservation theory in Sanskrit teachings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Money, J., Wainwright, G., & Hingsburger, D. (1991). The breathless orgasm: A lovemap biography of asphyxiophilia. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
- Mootnick, A. R., & Baker, E. (1994). Masturbation in captive Hylobates (gibbons): Zoo Biology Vol 13(4) 1994, 345-353.
- Mora Anto, A., Munoz Cuartas, L., Stella Ayala Chaves, L., & Pedraza Saavedra, L. (1987). A descriptive study of the sexual experiences of delinquent and predelinquent adolescent boys at a reformatory in Cali: Revista Latinoamericana de Sexologia Vol 2(2) 1987, 173-200.
- Morales, H. H. (1998). Attitudes of adolescents toward sexuality: Archivos Hispanoamericanos de Sexologia Vol 4(2) 1998, 229-258.
- Mosher, D. L. (1979). Negative attitudes toward masturbation in sex therapy: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 5(4) Win 1979, 315-333.
- Mosher, D. L., & Abramson, P. R. (1977). Subjective sexual arousal to films of masturbation: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 45(5) Oct 1977, 796-807.
- Mosher, D. L., & O'Grady, K. E. (1979). Homosexual threat, negative attitudes toward masturbation, sex guilt, and males' sexual and affective reactions to explicit sexual films: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 47(5) Oct 1979, 860-873.
- Mosher, D. L., & Vonderheide, S. G. (1985). Contributions of sex guilt and masturbation guilt to women's contraceptive attitudes and use: Journal of Sex Research Vol 21(1) Feb 1985, 24-39.
- Myers, W. A. (1977). Micropsia and testicular retractions: Psychoanalytic Quarterly Vol 46(4) Oct 1977, 580-604.
- Nairne, K. D., & Hemsley, D. R. (1983). The use of directed masturbation training in the treatment of primary anorgasmia: British Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 22(4) Nov 1983, 283-294.
- Narchi, H. (2003). Infantile masturbation mimicking paroxysmal disorders: Journal of Pediatric Neurology Vol 1(1) Jul-Sep 2003, 43-45.
- Neu, J. (2002). An ethics of fantasy? : Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology Vol 22(2) Fal 2002, 133-157.
- Noble, H., & Goh, B. T. (2004). Chronic penile oedema secondary to chronic masturbation: International Journal of STD & AIDS Vol 15(7) Jul 2004, 489-490.
- O'Halloran, R. L., & Dietz, P. E. (1993). Autoerotic fatalities with power hydraulics: Journal of Forensic Sciences Vol 38(2) Mar 1993, 359-364.
- Oropeza, B. J. (2006). What Is Sex? Christians and Erotic Boundaries. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
- Ortega, V., Ojeda, P., Sutil, F., & Sierra, J. C. (2005). Sex guilt in adolescents: Studying some related factors: Anales de Psicologia Vol 21(2) Dec 2005, 268-275.
- Ozmen, M., Erdogan, A., Duvenci, S., Ozyurt, E., & Ozkara, C. (2004). Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery: Epilepsy & Behavior Vol 5(1) Feb 2004, 133-136.
- Pallavicini, J. (1984). Sexuality in normal adolescent university students: Revista de Psiquiatria Clinica Vol 21(1) 1984, 47-56.
- Pasche, F. (1983). To define perversion: Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse Vol 47(1) Jan-Feb 1983, 396-402.
- Patton, M. S. (1985). Masturbation from Judaism to Victorianism: Journal of Religion & Health Vol 24(2) Sum 1985, 133-146.
- Patton, M. S. (1986). Twentieth-century attitudes toward masturbation: Journal of Religion & Health Vol 25(4) Win 1986, 291-302.
- Paul, R. A. (2006). Purloining Freud: Dora's Letter to Posterity: American Imago Vol 63(2) Sum 2006, 159-182.
- Payn, N. M. (1977). Beyond orgasm: A study of the effect on couple systems of group treatment for preorgasmic women: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Peeler, W. H. (1978). Women's subjective responses to sexual orgasm: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Pelaccio, J. (1996). Masturbation fantasies in a prelatency girl: Early female body fantasy conflicts as a major determinant in the experience of primary femininity: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association Vol 44(Suppl ) 1996, 333-350.
- Pelletier, L. A., & Herold, E. S. (1988). The relationship of age, sex guilt, and sexual experience with female sexual fantasies: Journal of Sex Research Vol 24 1988, 250-256.
- Penner, C. L. (1982). A reaction to Johnson's biblical approach to masturbation: Journal of Psychology & Theology Vol 10(2) Sum 1982, 147-149.
- Peralta Sanchez, A. (1998). Menopause and sexuality: Archivos Hispanoamericanos de Sexologia Vol 4(1) 1998, 97-121.
- Pereda, M. C. d. (2001). Adolescent resignification. Philadelphia, PA: Whurr Publishers.
- Perelman, M. A. (1994). Masturbation revisited: Contemporary Urology Vol 6(11) November 1994, 68-70.
- Perman, J. M. (1979). The search for the mother: Narcissistic regression as a pathway of mourning in childhood: Psychoanalytic Quarterly Vol 48(3) 1979, 448-464.
- Petrelli, D. (2006). Psychogenesis of a case of female homosexuality: Rivista di Psicoanalisi Vol 52(4) Oct-Dec 2006, 1013-1033.
- Petrelli, D. (2007). A case of female homosexuality. Notes and comments on a case with no name. Rome, Italy: Borla Edizioni SRL.
- Philippsohn, S., Heiser, K., & Hartmann, U. (2003). Sexual satisfaction and sexual myths among women: Results of a survey on the determinants of sexual satisfaction: Sexuologie Vol 9(4) 2003, 148-154.
- Phipps, W. E. (1977). Masturbation: Vice or virtue? : Journal of Religion & Health Vol 16(3) Jul 1977, 183-195.
- Piliero, C. A. (1995). Cognitive re-structuring and the mental states of adolescent sex offenders: A quasi-experimental study of the effects of three interventions. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
- Pinkerton, S. D., Bogart, L. M., Cecil, H., & Abramson, P. R. (2002). Factors associated with masturbation in collegiate sample: Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality Vol 14(2-3) 2002, 103-121.
- Polonsky, D. C. (2006). Review of The Big Book of Masturbation: From Angst to Zeal: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 32(1) Jan-Feb 2006, 75-78.
- Pomerantz, S. M. (1991). Quinelorane (LY163502), a D2 dopamine receptor agonist, acts centrally to facilitate penile erections of male rhesus monkeys: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior Vol 39(1) May 1991, 123-128.
- Potamianou, A. (1983). To touch from a distance: Revue Francaise de Psychanalyse Vol 47(1) Jan-Feb 1983, 403-408.
- Proulx, J., McKibben, A., & Lusignan, R. (1996). Relationships between affective components and sexual behaviors in sexual aggressors: Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment Vol 8(4) Oct 1996, 279-289.
- Pryke, S. (2005). The control of sexuality in the early British Boy Scouts movement: Sex Education Vol 5(1) Feb 2005, 15-28.
- Raboch Jun, J., Zverina, J., Raboch, J., Sindlar, M., & et al. (1994). Masturbation in adolescents: Ceska a Slovenska Psychiatrie Vol 90(2) Apr 1994, 97-100.
- Radbill, S. X. (1987). Children in a world of violence: A history of child abuse. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
- Rangaswami, K., & Palaniappun, V. (1995). Analysis and management of sexual compulsion in an adult unmarried female: Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 22(2) Sep 1995, 61-64.
- Reading, A. E., & Wiest, W. M. (1984). An analysis of self-reported sexual behavior in a sample of normal males: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 13(1) Feb 1984, 69-83.
- Reinberg, A., & Lagoguey, M. (1978). Circadian and circannual rhythms in sexual activity and plasma hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone) of five human males: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 7(1) Jan 1978, 13-30.
- Reisinger, J. J. (1974). Masturbatory training in the treatment of primary orgasmic dysfunction: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 5(2) Sep 1974, 179-183.
- Reisinger, J. J. (1978). Effects of erotic stimulation and masturbatory training upon situational orgasmic dysfunction: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 4(3) Fal 1978, 177-185.
- Reisinger, J. J. (1979). Generalization of treatment effects following masturbatory training with erotic stimuli: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 10(3) Sep 1979, 247-250.
- Resnik, H. L. P. (1988). Erotized repetitive hangings. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
- Rice, E. (1973). Fantasy, masturbation, and suicide: International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Vol 2(2) May 1973, 194-220.
- Rice, E. (1985). The role of the oedipal fantasy in masturbatory and suicidal phenomena: International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Vol 11 1985-1986, 243-267.
- Riley, A. J., & Riley, E. J. (1978). A controlled study to evaluate directed masturbation in the management of primary orgasmic failure in women: British Journal of Psychiatry Vol 133 Nov 1978, 404-409.
- Riley, A. J., & Riley, E. J. (1986). The effect of single dose diazepam on female sexual response induced by masturbation: Sexual & Marital Therapy Vol 1(1) 1986, 49-53.
- Rinehart, N. J., & McCabe, M. P. (1998). An empirical investigation of hypersexuality: Sexual & Marital Therapy Vol 13(4) Nov 1998, 369-384.
- Ritvo, S. (1977). Adolescent to woman. Oxford, England: International Universities Press.
- Robinson, B. B. E., Bockting, W. O., & Harrell, T. (2002). Masturbation and sexual health: An exploratory study of low income African American women: Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality Vol 14(2-3) 2002, 85-102.
- Robinson, C. P., Conahan, F., & Brady, W. (1992). Reducing self-injurious masturbation using a least intrusive model and adaptive equipment: Sexuality and Disability Vol 10(1) Spr 1992, 43-55.
- Robinson, J. D., & Parks, C. W. (2003). Lesbian and Bisexual Women's Sexual Fantasies, Psychological Adjustment, and Close Relationship Functioning: Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality Vol 15(4) 2003, 185-203.
- Roller, C. G. (2004). Sex Addiction and Women: A Nursing Issue: Journal of Addictions Nursing Vol 15(2) 2004, 53-61.
- Rosenthal, M., Berkman, P., Shapira, A., Gil, I., & Abramovitz, J. (2003). Urethral masturbation and sexual disinhibition in dementia: A case report: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences Vol 40(1) 2003, 67-72.
- Rowan, E. L. (1989). Editorial: Masturbation according to the Boy Scout Handbook: Journal of Sex Education & Therapy Vol 15(2) Sum 1989, 77-81.
- Rowland, D. L., Strassberg, D. S., de Gouveia Brazao, C. A., & Slob, A. K. (2000). Ejaculatory latency and control in men with premature ejaculation: An analysis across sexual activities using multiple sources of information: Journal of Psychosomatic Research Vol 48(1) Jan 2000, 69-77.
- Rubino, I. A. (1984). The "selbst-"time: Analytic Psychotherapy & Psychopathology Vol 1(1) 1984, 49-56.
- Salsabili, N., Ziaei, A. M., Taheri, M., Akbari, K., & Jalaie, S. (2006). Impact of Sperm Collection Methods on Sperm Parameters in Spinal Cord Injured Men and Compared to Normal Controls in ICSI Program: Sexuality and Disability Vol 24(3) Sep 2006, 141-149.
- Sanford, K. (1994). Toward a masturbation ethic: Journal of Psychology & Theology Vol 22(1) Spr 1994, 21-28.
- Sank, L. I. (1998). Traumatic masturbatory syndrome: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 24(1) Jan-Mar 1998, 37-42.
- Sansone, R. A., & Ferlan, M. (2007). Pramipexole and compulsive masturbation: Psychiatry Vol 4(9) Sep 2007, 57-59.
- Sarnoff, S., & Sarnoff, I. (1979). Sexual excitement/sexual peace: The place of masturbation in adult relationships. Oxford, England: M Evans & Co.
- Saunders, E. J. (1989). Life-threatening autoerotic behavior: A challenge for sex educators and therapists: Journal of Sex Education & Therapy Vol 15(2) Sum 1989, 82-91.
- Schalin, L.-J. (1995). On autoerotism and object relations in the psycho-sexual development: Some viewpoints on Freud's drive theories: Scandinavian Psychoanalytic Review Vol 18(1) 1995, 22-40.
- Schuetz, C. W. (1978). Characteristics of masturbators and non-masturbators in a female population: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Schur, E. (1968). Sociological Perspectives on Sexual Deviance: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 13 (7), Jul, 1968.
- Schuster, M. A., Bell, R. M., & Kanouse, D. E. (1996). The sexual practices of adolescent virgins: Genital sexual activities of high school students who have never had vaginal intercourse: American Journal of Public Health Vol 86(11) Nov 1996, 1570-1576.
- Sgroi, S. M., Bunk, B. S., & Wabrek, C. J. (1988). Children's sexual behaviors and their relationship to sexual abuse. Lexington, MA, England: Lexington Books/D C Heath and Com.
- Shand, A. (2007). Semen anxiety: Materiality, agency and the Internet: Anthropology & Medicine Vol 14(3) Dec 2007, 241-250.
- Shapiro, T. (2008). Masturbation, sexuality, and adaptation: Normalization in adolescence: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association Vol 56(1) Mar 2008, 123-146.
- Sharma, V., & Sharma, A. (1998). The guilt and pleasure of masturbation: A study of college girls in Gujarat, India: Sexual & Marital Therapy Vol 13(1) Feb 1998, 63-70.
- Shengold, L. (1982). The symbol of telephoning: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association Vol 30(2) 1982, 461-470.
- Shepard, B. (2004). Masturbating Madness: Sexualities Vol 7(3) Aug 2004, 363-368.
- Shulman, J. L., & Home, S. G. (2003). The use of self-pleasure: Masturbation and body image among African American and women: Psychology of Women Quarterly Vol 27(3) Sep 2003, 262-269.
- Silbert, D. T. (1987). Masturbation in relation to sexual morality: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Siller, J. (1979). Ritualized symptom exacerbation as the final common path for reduction of tension: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice Vol 16(2) Sum 1979, 148-151.
- Singh, M. P., & Mishra, N. (2001). Diagnostic and therapeutic value of SIS-II test: Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health Vol 8(2) Jul 2001, 141-142.
- Sipski, M. L., Alexander, C. J., & Rosen, R. (2001). Sexual arousal and orgasm in women: Effects of spinal cord injury: Annals of Neurology Vol 49(1) Jan 2001, 35-44.
- Slimp, J. C. (1976). Effects of medial preoptic-anterior hypothalamic lesions on heterosexual behavior, masturbation, and social behavior of male rhesus monkeys: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Slimp, J. C., Hart, B. L., & Goy, R. W. (1978). Heterosexual, autosexual and social behavior of adult male rhesus monkeys with medial preoptic-anterior hypothalamic lesions: Brain Research Vol 142(1) Feb 1978, 105-122.
- Slimp, J. C., Hart, B. L., & Goy, R. W. (2007). Heterosexual, autosexual and social behavior of adult male Rhesus monkeys with medial preoptic-anterior hypothalamic lesions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Slosarz, W. (1992). Masturbation fixation and the problem of adaptation to heterosexual partnerships: A few implications: Sexual & Marital Therapy Vol 7(3) 1992, 275-281.
- Smallbone, S. W., & McCabe, B.-A. (2003). Childhood attachment, childhood sexual abuse, and onset of masturbation among adult sexual offenders: Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment Vol 15(1) Jan 2003, 1-10.
- Smith, A. M. A., Rosenthal, D. A., & Reichler, H. (1996). High schoolers' masturbatory practices: Their relationship to sexual intercourse and personal characteristics: Psychological Reports Vol 79(2) Oct 1996, 499-509.
- Soifer, R. (1990). Narcissism, autoerotism, symbiosis and incest: Their connection with two forms of objectal relation in the first years of life: Revista de Psicoanalisis Vol 47(2) Mar-Apr 1990, 335-338.
- Spak, D. J. (1982). An exploratory study of gay male sexual fantasies: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Spencer, S. L. (1982). Attitudes toward masturbation: A study in person perception: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Starin, E. D. (2004). Masturbation Observations in Temmnick's Red Colobus: Folia Primatologica Vol 75(2) 2004, 114-117.
- Stark, T. (2005). The masturbatory position and the exclusion of seduction. A situation-theoretic concept and its technical consequences: Psyche: Zeitschrift fur Psychoanalyse und ihre Anwendungen Vol 59(1) Jan 2005, 1-33.
- Stephanos, S. (1978). Pathological primary identifications and their effects on the psychosomatic economy of the individual: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 30(1) 1978, 56-67.
- Story, M. D. (1982). A comparison of university student experience with various sexual outlets in 1974 and 1980: Adolescence Vol 17(68) Win 1982, 737-747.
- Strager, S. (2003). What men watch when they watch pornography: Sexuality & Culture: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Vol 7(1) Win 2003, 50-61.
- Sue, D. (1978). Masturbation in the in vivo treatment of impotence: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Vol 9(1) Mar 1978, 75-76.
- Sullivan, G., & Reynolds, R. (2003). Homosexuality in Midlife: Narrative and Identity: Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services: Issues in Practice, Policy & Research Vol 15(3-4) 2003, 153-170.
- Sullivan, P. (1992). RMF (Radiant masturbatory fantasy): Psychiatrie de l'Enfant Vol 35(1) 1992, 33-42.
- Szasz, T. S. (1983). Speaking about sex: Sexual pathology and sexual therapy as rhetoric: Irish Journal of Psychotherapy Vol 2(2) Sep 1983, 51-54.
- Tarnai, B. (2006). Review of Effective Interventions for Socially Inappropriate Masturbation in Persons with Cognitive Disabilities: Sexuality and Disability Vol 24(3) Sep 2006, 151-168.
- Teicholz, J. G. (2002). Psychoanalytic treatment, or Folie a deux? : PsycCRITIQUES Vol 47 (4), Aug, 2002.
- Terrile, P. (1983). Freud and Spielrein: Footnotes to the death instinct concept: Giornale Storico di Psicologia Dinamica Vol 7(14) Jun 1983, 88-102.
- Thomsen, R., & Soltis, J. (2004). Male Masturbation in Free-Ranging Japanese Macaques: International Journal of Primatology Vol 25(5) Oct 2004, 1033-1041.
- Tiefer, L. (1998). Masturbation: Beyond caution, complacency and contradiction: Sexual & Marital Therapy Vol 13(1) Feb 1998, 9-14.
- Tiefer, L. (1999). Challenging sexual naturalism, the shibboleth of sex research and popular sexology. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
- Topiar, A., & Duskova, M. (1975). A case of sodomy: Cesko-Slovenska Psychiatrie Vol 71(6) 1975, 386-388.
- Torres, M. A. (1998). Erotic behavior in male and female adolescents: Archivos Hispanoamericanos de Sexologia Vol 4(2) 1998, 259-306.
- Tosquelles, F. (1985). Concerning narcissism and its relationship with personality development: Clinica y Analisis Grupal Vol 9(36) Apr-Jun 1985, 258-272.
- Trivedi, N., & Sabini, J. (1998). Volunteer bias, sexuality, and personality: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 27(2) Apr 1998, 181-195.
- Tromovitch, P. M. (2000). The multidimensional measure of comfort with sexuality (MMCS1): The development of a multidimensional objective measure of comfort with sexuality for use in the sexuality education and research. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Valedon, C. (2002). www.masturbation.com: Tropicos: Revista de Psicoanalisis Vol 10(2) 2002, 134-142.
- Valenca, M. M., Valenca, L. P. A. A., Bordini, C. A., da Silva, W. F., Leite, J. P., Antunes-Rodrigues, J., et al. (2004). Cerebral Vasospasm and Headache During Sexual Intercourse and Masturbatory Orgasms: Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Vol 44(3) Mar 2004, 244-248.
- Van Dyke, D. C., McBrien, D. M., & Mattheis, P. J. (1996). Psychosexual behaviour, sexuality and management issues in individuals with Down's syndrome. Philadelphia, PA: Whurr Publishers.
- Van Wyk, P. H. (1982). Relationship of time spent on masturbation assignments with orgasmic outcome in preorgasmic women's groups: Journal of Sex Research Vol 18(1) Feb 1982, 33-40.
- VanDeventer, A. D., & Laws, D. R. (1978). Orgasmic reconditioning to redirect sexual arousal in pedophiles: Behavior Therapy Vol 9(5) Nov 1978, 748-765.
- Vaught Godfrey, R. (2006). One-Man Show Misses the Mark: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 51 (2), 2006.
- Verma, K. K., Khaitan, B. K., & Singh, O. P. (1998). The frequency of sexual dysfunctions in patients attending a sex therapy clinic in North India: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 27(3) Jun 1998, 309-314.
- Vermorel, H. (1992). On the art of milking billy goats, from antiquity to our times: Psychanalyse a l'Universite Vol 17(68) Oct 1992, 153-156.
- Wade, L. D., Kremer, E. C., & Brown, J. (2005). The Incidental Orgasm: The Presence of Clitoral Knowledge and the Absence of Orgasm for Women: Women & Health Vol 42(1) 2005, 117-138.
- Wagner, N. N. (1978). Is masturbation still wrong? Comments on Bailey's comments: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 46(6) Dec 1978, 1507-1509.
- Wakefield, J. C. (1987). The semantics of success: Do masturbation exercises lead to partner orgasm? : Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 13(1) Spr 1987, 3-14.
- Wallace, D. H., & Barbach, L. G. (1974). Preorgasmic group treatment: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy Vol 1(2) Win 1974, 146-154.
- Walsh, A. (2000). IMPROVE and CARE: Responding to inappropriate masturbation in people with severe intellectual disabilities: Sexuality and Disability Vol 18(1) Spr 2000, 27-39.
- Walster, E. (1977). What Women Want: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 22 (7), Jul, 1977.
- Waltner, R. H. (1979). Rural-urban differences in selected aspects of expressed sexuality: Dissertation Abstracts International.
- Weizman, R., & Hart, J. (1987). Sexual behavior in healthy married elderly men: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 16(1) Feb 1987, 39-44.
- Whipple, B., Gerdes, C. A., & Komisaruk, B. R. (1996). Sexual responses to self-stimulation in women with complete spinal cord injury: Journal of Sex Research Vol 33(3) 1996, 231-240.
- Whipple, B., Martinez-Gomez, M., Oliva-Zarate, L., Pacheco, P., & et al. (1989). Inverse relationship between intensity of vaginal self-stimulation-produced analgesia and level of chronic intake of a dietary source of capsaicin: Physiology & Behavior Vol 46(2) Aug 1989, 247-252.
- Whipple, B., Ogden, G., & Komisaruk, B. R. (1992). Physiological correlates of imagery-induced orgasm in women: Archives of Sexual Behavior Vol 21(2) Apr 1992, 121-133.
- Wichowicz, H. M., Cubala, W. J., & Grabowski, K. (2006). Opinions on the subject of sex life among students of the Medical University in Gdansk: Psychiatria Polska Vol 40(1) Jan-Feb 2006, 153-164.
- Wiederman, M. W., & Pryor, T. (1997). Body dissatisfaction and sexuality among women with bulimia nervosa: International Journal of Eating Disorders Vol 21(4) May 1997, 361-365.
- Wiederman, M. W., Pryor, T., & Morgan, C. D. (1996). The sexual experience of women diagnosed with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa: International Journal of Eating Disorders Vol 19(2) Mar 1996, 109-118.
- Williams, G. J. (1976). From Immorality to Abnormality: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 21 (9), Sep, 1976.
- Williams, N. (2005). Review of The Big Book of Masturbation: From Angst to Zeal: Sex Roles Vol 52(3-4) Feb 2005, 267.
- Wilsnack, S. C., Vogeltanz, N. D., Klassen, A. D., & Harris, T. R. (1997). Childhood sexual abuse and women's substance abuse: National survey findings: Journal of Studies on Alcohol Vol 58(3) May 1997, 264-271.
- Wincze, J. P. (1978). Sound Advice for Men: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 23 (10), Oct, 1978.
- Withers, P. S., & Gaskell, S. L. (1998). A cognitive-behavioural intervention to address inappropriate masturbation in a boy with mild learning disabilities: British Journal of Learning Disabilities Vol 26(2) 1998, 58-61.
- Wood, K. (2005). Review of Masturbation as a Means of Achieving Sexual Health: Culture, Health & Sexuality Vol 7(2) Mar-Apr 2005, 182-184.
- Yan, Y. Y. (2006). Sexual Responses and Behaviors of University Students in Hong Kong: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth Vol 13(1-2) 2006, 43-54.
- Young, D. A. (2005). Knowing thyself...in private: Masturbation and philosophy: Sexuality & Culture: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly Vol 9(4) Fal 2005, 58-79.
- Yurtbay, T., & Gorker, I. (2004). The Associations of Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Children with Childhood Masturbation and Their Mothers' Attitudes and Psychological Symptoms: Cocuk ve Genclik Ruh Sagligi Dergisi Vol 11(2) 2004, 65-74.
- Zamboni, B. D., & Crawford, I. (2002). Using masturbation in sex therapy: Relationships between masturbation, sexual desire, and sexual fantasy: Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality Vol 14(2-3) 2002, 123-141.
- Zohar, J., Kaplan, Z., & Benjamin, J. (1994). Compulsive exhibitionism successfully treated with fluvoxamine: A controlled case study: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Vol 55(3) Mar 1994, 86-88.
- Zucker, K. J. (1979). Freud's early views on masturbation and the actual neuroses: Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis & Dynamic Psychiatry Vol 7(1) Jan 1979, 15-32.
- Masturbating may protect against prostate cancer, New Scientist, July 16, 2003.
- Masturbation Guide Masturbation articles by sexologists
- Health benefits of masturbation
- Clitical.com An educational site devoted to female masturbation
- JackinWorld Educational male masturbation website
- Male Masturbation Techniques Illustrations and written descriptions.
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|