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==Titles and abbreviations==
 
==Titles and abbreviations==
 
In some languages, a master's degree is called a ''magister'', which is [[Latin language|Latin]] for ''master'' (teacher), and ''magister'' or a [[cognate]] can also be used for a person who has the degree. Some universities use the Latin degree names, and because of the flexibility of [[Latin grammar|word order in Latin]], ''artium magister'' (A.M.) or ''scientiarum magister'' (S.M.) may be used; [[Harvard University]] and the [[University of Chicago]] for instance, use A.M. and S.M. for their master's degrees and [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology|MIT]] uses S.M. for its master of science degrees. Master of Science often is abbreviated MS or M.S. in the United States,<ref>[http://www.google.com/search?q=MS+PhD&btnG=Search Google search for "MS PhD"]</ref> and MSc or M.Sc. in [[Commonwealth of Nations|Commonwealth]] nations and Europe.
 
In some languages, a master's degree is called a ''magister'', which is [[Latin language|Latin]] for ''master'' (teacher), and ''magister'' or a [[cognate]] can also be used for a person who has the degree. Some universities use the Latin degree names, and because of the flexibility of [[Latin grammar|word order in Latin]], ''artium magister'' (A.M.) or ''scientiarum magister'' (S.M.) may be used; [[Harvard University]] and the [[University of Chicago]] for instance, use A.M. and S.M. for their master's degrees and [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology|MIT]] uses S.M. for its master of science degrees. Master of Science often is abbreviated MS or M.S. in the United States,<ref>[http://www.google.com/search?q=MS+PhD&btnG=Search Google search for "MS PhD"]</ref> and MSc or M.Sc. in [[Commonwealth of Nations|Commonwealth]] nations and Europe.
 
===List of master's degrees===
 
{{col-begin}}
 
{{col-break|width=25%}}
 
* [[Master of Accountancy]]
 
* [[Master of Administrative Science]]
 
* [[Master of Aeronautic Engineering]]
 
* [[Master of Agriculture]]
 
* [[Master of Applied Science]]
 
* [[Master of Architecture]]
 
* [[Master of Arts (postgraduate)|Master of Arts]]
 
* [[Master of Arts in Teaching]]
 
* [[Master of Arts in History]]
 
* [[Master of Business Administration]]
 
* [[Master of Business Studies]]
 
* [[Master of Business and Engineering]]
 
* [[Master of Business Informatics]]
 
* [[Master of Chemistry]]
 
* [[Master of City and Regional Planning]]
 
* [[Master of Commerce]]
 
* [[Master of Communication]]
 
* [[Master of Communication and Leadership Studies]]
 
* [[Master of Computational and Applied Mathematics]]
 
* [[Master of Computer Science]]
 
* [[Master of Computer Applications]]
 
* [[Master of Computing]]
 
{{col-break|width=25%}}
 
* [[Master of Criminal Justice]]
 
* [[Master of Customs Administration]]
 
* [[Master of Design]]
 
* [[Master of Divinity]]
 
* Master of Economics
 
* [[Master of Education]]
 
* [[Master of Engineering]]
 
* [[Master of Engineering Management]]
 
* [[Master of Enterprise]]
 
* [[Master of European Law]]
 
* [[Master of Finance]]
 
* [[Master of Financial Economics]]
 
* [[Master of Fine Arts]]
 
* [[Master of Forensic Science]]
 
* [[Master of Geography]]
 
* [[Master of Health Administration]]
 
* [[Master of Health Science]]
 
* [[Master of Higher Education]]
 
* [[Master of Historic Preservation]]
 
* [[Master of Human Relations]]
 
* [[Master of Information Systems]]
 
* [[Master of Information Tecnology]]
 
{{col-break|width=25%}}
 
* [[Master of Interior & Environmental Design]]
 
* [[Master of International Business]]
 
* [[Master of Journalism]]
 
* [[Master of Laws]]
 
* [[Master of Law and Business]]
 
* [[Master of Studies in Law]]
 
* [[Master of Letters]]
 
* [[Master of Liberal Arts]]
 
* [[Master of Library and Information Science]]
 
* [[Master of Management]]
 
* [[Master of Management Science]]
 
* [[Master of Mathematics]]
 
* [[Master of Missiology]]
 
* [[Master of Modern Languages]]
 
* [[Master of Museum Studies]]
 
* [[Master of Music]]
 
* [[Master of Neuroscience]]
 
* [[Master of Science in Nursing|Master of Nursing]]
 
* [[Master of Pharmacy]]
 
* [[Master of Philosophy]]
 
* [[Master of Physician Assistant Studies]]
 
* [[Master of Physics]]
 
* [[Master of Product Development]]
 
* [[Master of Professional Studies]]
 
* [[Master of Project Management]]
 
{{col-break|width=25%}}
 
* [[Master of Psychology]]
 
* [[Master of Public Administration]]
 
* [[Master of Public Health]]
 
* [[Master of Public Policy]]
 
* [[Master of Purchasing & Logistics]]
 
* [[Master of Quantitative Finance]]
 
* [[Master of Real Estate Development]]
 
* [[Master of Recreation Administration]]
 
* [[Master of Recreation, Sport and Tourism]]
 
* [[Master of Rehabilitation Counseling]]
 
* [[Master of Research]]
 
* [[Master of Sacred Music]]
 
* [[Master of Science]]
 
* [[Master of Science in Finance]]
 
* [[Master of Science in Information Technology]]
 
* [[Master of Science in Management]]
 
* [[Master of Science in Marketing Management]]
 
* [[Master of Social Science]]
 
* [[Master of Social Work]]
 
* [[Master of Sports Science]]
 
* [[Master of Statistics]]
 
* [[Master of Teaching]]
 
* [[Master of Technology Management]]
 
* [[Master of Theology]]
 
* [[Master of Therapeutic Recreation]]
 
* [[Master of Urban Planning]]
 
* [[Master of Veterinary Science]]
 
* [[Master of Vocal Performance]]
 
* [[Master of Science in Executive Fire Service Leadership ]]
 
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==Structure==
 
==Structure==

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For other degrees, see Academic degree
M.S. redirects here. For other uses, see MS (disambiguation).

A master's degree provides a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.[1] Within the area studied, graduates possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation and/or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently.[2]

The Master of Arts (magister artium) and Master of Science (magister scientiæ) degrees are the basic degree types in most subjects and may be course-based, research-based, or (more typically) a mixture of the two. A dissertation may or may not be required, depending on the program. There has recently been an increase in programs leading to these degrees in the United States; more than twice as many such degrees are now awarded as compared to the 1970s.[3]

Titles and abbreviationsEdit

In some languages, a master's degree is called a magister, which is Latin for master (teacher), and magister or a cognate can also be used for a person who has the degree. Some universities use the Latin degree names, and because of the flexibility of word order in Latin, artium magister (A.M.) or scientiarum magister (S.M.) may be used; Harvard University and the University of Chicago for instance, use A.M. and S.M. for their master's degrees and MIT uses S.M. for its master of science degrees. Master of Science often is abbreviated MS or M.S. in the United States,[4] and MSc or M.Sc. in Commonwealth nations and Europe.

StructureEdit

Further information: Master's degree in North America and Master's degree non-Euroamerican

There are a range of pathways to the degree, with entry based on evidence of a capacity to undertake higher degree studies in the proposed field. The master's is usually offered at a postgraduate level, although it is also offered as an undergraduate degree. Some university programmes provide for a joint bachelor's and master's degree after four or five years.

DurationEdit

In the recently standardized European System of higher education (Bologna process), a master's degree corresponds to a one- or two-year postgraduate program (60 to 120 ECTS credits) undertaken after at least three years of undergraduate studies. It provides higher qualification for employment or prepares for doctoral studies. In general, though, the structure and duration of a program of study leading to a master's degree will differ by country and by university:

  • In some systems, such as those of the USA and Japan, a master's degree is a postgraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to six years in duration.
  • In the systems of other countries, such as Denmark, a master's degree is an undergraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to five years.
  • In the systems of a limited number of countries, such as England, Scotland (students entering their education after July 2007), and Ireland, a master's degree can be both an undergraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of four (or sometimes five) years, or a postgraduate academic degree awarded after the completion of an academic program of one to two years.

AdmissionEdit

In countries in which a master's degree is a postgraduate degree, admission to a master's program normally requires holding a bachelor's degree (in the United Kingdom an 'honours' bachelor degree), although relevant work experience may qualify a candidate. Progressing to a doctoral program sometimes requires that the candidate first earn a master's degree. In some fields or postgraduate programs, work on a doctorate begins immediately after the bachelor's degree, but the master's may be earned along the way, as a result of the successful completion of coursework and certain examinations. In some cases the student's bachelor's degree must be in the same subject as the intended master's degree, or in a closely allied discipline; in others, the subject of the bachelor's degree is unimportant.

Comparable European degreesEdit

In some European countries, a magister is a first degree and may be considered equivalent to a modern (standardized) master's degree (e.g., the German university Diplom/Magister, or the similar 5-year diploma awarded in several subjects in Greek, Spanish, Italian, Polish, and other universities and polytechnics).

In the Francophone countries, a DEA is the postgraduate degree and considered equivalent to the master's degree (e.g., in France and the French-speaking Belgium, a DEA is a one- to two-year degree taken after the Licence), after the application of Bologna process, the DEA had been given a new name: MAS (Master of Advanced Studies).

In Switzerland, the old Licence (four to five years in duration) is considered equivalent to the master's degree.[5]

In Denmark the title candidatus or candidata (female) abbreviated cand. is used as a master's equivalent. Upon completion of for instance, a engineral master's degree, a person becomes cand.polyt. (polytechnical). Similar abbreviations, inspired by Latin, applies for a large number of educations, such as sociology (cand.scient.soc), economics (cand.polit. or cand.oecon), law (cand.jur), humanities (cand.mag) etc. A cand. title requires the obtainment of a bachelor's degree. In Sweden, the title of kand. equivalates to a bachelor's degree.

See also Edit

ReferencesEdit


Academic degrees
Associate's degrees (U.S.) AA, ABA, ABS, AS
Foundation degrees (U.K.) FdA, FdEd, FdEng, FdMus, FdBus, FdSc, FdTech
Bachelor's degrees B.Accty, AB or BA, BSc or SB, BBus, BCom or BComm, BCS, BEc, BEng or BE, BS or BSc, BFA, BD, BHE, BJ, BPharm, BPE, BHK, BCL, LL.B., MB ChB or MB BS or BM BS or MB BChir or MB BCh BAO, BMus, B.Math, BTech, BBA, BAdm, MA (Oxon.), MA (Cantab.), MA (Dubl.), MA (Hons)
Master's degrees MA, MS or MSc, MSt, MALD, MApol, MPhil, MRes, MFA, MTh, MTS, M.Div., MBA, MPA, MJ, MSW, MPAff, MLIS, MLitt, MPH, MPM, MPP, MPT, MRE, MTheol, LLM, MEng, MSci, MBio, MChem, MPhys, MMath, MMus, MESci, MGeol, MTCM, MSSc, BCL (Oxon), BPhil (Oxon), ThM
Specialist degrees Ed.S., SSP, B.Acc., C.A.S.
Doctoral degrees PhD, EdD, EngD, DNursSci, DBA, DC, DD, DSc, DLitt, DA, MD, DDS, DMD, DMA, DMus, DCL, ThD, JD, OD, DO, PharmD, DrPH, DPT, DPhil, DOM, OMD, DPM, PsyD, DSW, LL.D., J.S.D., S.J.D. S.T.D



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