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Marathon group therapy is an extended version of encounter group therapy in which participants would meet for longer than 2 hours, perhaps for a weekend or longer.


See alsoEdit


ReferencesEdit

  • Allen, M. G. (1990). Using extended sessions in ongoing group therapy: Psychiatric Annals Vol 20(7) Jul 1990, 368-371.
  • Andre, C. S. (1974). An exploration of the sex variable as a determinant in the interaction and outcome of marathon group sessions: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Andronico, M. P. (2001). Mythopoetic and weekend retreats to facilitate men's growth. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Bach, G. R. (1966). The Marathon group: Intensive practice of intimate interaction: Psychological Reports 18(3) 1966, 995-1002.
  • Bailey, J. S. (1974). The effects of marathon group counseling on selected self-concept factors of future teachers: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Barker, E. T., & McLaughlin, A. J. (1977). The Total Encounter Capsule: The Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal / La Revue de l'Association des psychiatres du Canada Vol 22(7) Nov 1977, 355-360.
  • Berlin, J. S., & Dies, R. R. (1974). Differential group structure: The effects on socially isolated college students: Small Group Behavior Vol 5(4) Nov 1974, 462-472.
  • Bowman, R. L. (1976). A study of the marathon group tension function via telemetered radioelectrocardiography and self-report: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Brancale, R., Vuocolo, A., & Prendergast, W. E. (1972). The New Jersey Program for sex offenders. Oxford, England: Little, Brown.
  • Brook, R. M. (1975). A note on two types of anxiety in the human potential group and marathon experience: Interpersonal Development Vol 6(1) 1975-1976, 38-41.
  • Byrne, R. C. (1990). The effectiveness of the Beginning Experience Workshop: A paraprofessional group marathon workshop for divorce adjustment: Journal of Divorce Vol 13(4) 1990, 101-120.
  • Byrne, R. C., & Overline, H. M. (1991). A study of divorce adjustment among paraprofessional group leaders and group participants: Journal of Divorce & Remarriage Vol 17(1-2) 1991, 171-192.
  • Campbell, L., & Page, R. (1993). The therapeutic effects of group process on the behavioral patterns of a drug-addicted group: Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling Vol 13(2) Apr 1993, 34-45.
  • Canino-Stolberg, G. (1976). The effects of physical contact exercises in marathon encounter leaderless groups, on dimensions of self-concept, self-disclosure and touching behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Cushman, P. (1989). Iron fists/velvet gloves: A study of a mass marathon psychology training: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training Vol 26(1) Spr 1989, 23-39.
  • Cutter, H. S., & et al. (1974). Emotional openness and mood change in marathon group psychotherapy: International Journal of the Addictions Vol 9(5) Oct 1974, 741-748.
  • Eddy, W. B., & Lubin, B. (1971). Laboratory training and encounter groups: Personnel & Guidance Journal Vol 49(8) Apr 1971, 625-635.
  • Eisman, E. J. (1975). The effects of leader sex and self-disclosure on member self-disclosure in marathon encounter groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ellis, A. (2003). A weekend of rational encounter: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive Behavior Therapy Vol 21(3-4) Win 2003, 155-168.
  • Fanger, M. (1978). A study of autonomy and client-subjects' expectations in a transactional analysis group therapy marathon: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Finando, S. J., Croteau, J. M., Sanz, D., & Woodson, R. (1977). The effects of group type on changes of self-concept: Small Group Behavior Vol 8(2) May 1977, 123-134.
  • Follingstad, D. R., Kilmann, P. R., & Robinson, E. A. (1976). Prediction of self-actualization in male participants in a group conducted by female leaders: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 32(3) Jul 1976, 706-712.
  • Foulds, M. L., & Guinan, J. F. (1973). Marathon group: Changes in ratings of self and others: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice Vol 10(1) Spr 1973, 30-32.
  • Foulds, M. L., Guinan, J. F., & Hannigan, P. (1974). Marathon group: Changes in scores on the California Psychological Inventory: Journal of College Student Personnel Vol 15(6) Nov 1974, 474-479.
  • Foulds, M. L., Guinan, J. F., & Warehime, R. G. (1974). Marathon group: Changes in a measure of dogmatism: Small Group Behavior Vol 5(4) Nov 1974, 387-392.
  • Foulds, M. L., Guinan, J. F., & Warehime, R. G. (1974). Marathon group: Changes in perceived locus of control: Journal of College Student Personnel Vol 15(1) Jan 1974, 8-11.
  • Foulds, M. L., & Hannigan, P. S. (1976). Effects of Gestalt marathon workshops on measured self-actualization: A replication and follow-up: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 23(1) Jan 1976, 60-65.
  • Foulds, M. L., & Hannigan, P. S. (1976). Gestalt marathon group: Does it increase reported self-actualization? : Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice Vol 13(4) Win 1976, 378-383.
  • Foulds, M. L., & Hannigan, P. S. (1976). A Gestalt marathon workshop: Effects on extraversion and neuroticism: Journal of College Student Personnel Vol 17(1) Jan 1976, 50-54.
  • Freeland, R. C. (1973). Some effects of verbal feedback on perceptions of members in two marathon encounter groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Freundlich, D. (1976). Marathon groups and psychotherapy: Small Group Behavior Vol 7(4) Nov 1976, 499-500.
  • Gadsden, C. (1981). Self-actualization and cohesiveness of college students in marathon or spaced short session groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Gebhart, J. F., & Criswell, G. E. (1974). The 24-hour marathon: Journal of Pastoral Care Vol 28(4) Dec 1974, 221-240.
  • Glaubman, H., & Hartmann, E. (1978). Daytime state and night-time sleep: A sleep study after a marathon group experience: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 46(3, Pt 1) Jun 1978, 711-715.
  • Goldenberg, I., Stier, S., & Preston, T. A. (1975). The use of multiple family marathon as a teaching device: Journal of Marital & Family Therapy Vol 1(4) Oct 1975, 343-349.
  • Goldman, A. P. (1973). Empathy, self-disclosure, confrontation and cohesiveness in marathon and conventional encounter groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Goodstein, M. (1972). A comparison of Gestalt and transactional analysis therapies in marathons: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Gordon, W. P. (1972). A method to study the effect of a marathon experience on counselor effectiveness with practicum students: A pilot study: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Gottschalk, L. A., & Davidson, R. S. (1972). Sensitivity groups, encounter groups, training groups, marathon groups, and the laboratory movement. New York, NY, England: E P Dutton.
  • Greenberg, H., Seeman, J., & Cassius, J. (1978). Personality changes in marathon therapy: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice Vol 15(1) Spr 1978, 61-67.
  • Greenberg, H. C. (1972). Self-concept changes in a therapy marathon: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Guinan, J. F., Foulds, M. L., & Wright, J. C. (1973). Do the changes last? A six-month follow-up of a marathon group: Small Group Behavior Vol 4(2) May 1973, 177-180.
  • Hannigan, P. S. (1976). An investigation of the comparative effects of a 16-hour and a 24-hour marathon Gestalt workshop on a measure of self-actualization: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Hoag, J., & Gissen, M. (1984). Marathon: A life-and-death experience: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs Vol 16(1) Jan-Mar 1984, 47-50.
  • Johnson, S., & Johnson, N. (1979). Effects of various group approaches on self-actualization of graduate counseling students: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 26(5) Sep 1979, 444-447.
  • Johnson, S. C. (1977). The effects of various group approaches upon the self-concepts of graduate counseling students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Jones, B. C. (1978). The effects of a marathon experience upon ongoing group psychotherapy: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Jones, D. D. (1973). Self-actualization effects of marathon growth group experience: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Jones, D. S., & Medvene, A. M. (1975). Self-actualization effects of a marathon growth group: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 22(1) Jan 1975, 39-43.
  • Kaplan, H. I., & Sadock, B. J. (1972). Sensitivity through encounter and marathon. New York, NY, England: E P Dutton.
  • Kilmann, P. R. (1973). The effects of structure of marathon group therapy and locus of control on therapeutic outcome: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Kilmann, P. R. (1974). Anxiety reactions to marathon group therapy: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 30(3) Jul 1974, 267-268.
  • Kilmann, P. R. (1974). Direct and nondirect marathon group therapy and internal-external control: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 21(5) Sep 1974, 380-384.
  • Kilmann, P. R. (1974). Marathon group therapy with female narcotic addicts: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice Vol 11(4) Win 1974, 339-342.
  • Kilmann, P. R., Albert, B. M., & Sotile, W. M. (1975). Relationship between locus of control, structure of therapy, and outcome: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 43(4) Aug 1975, 588.
  • Kilmann, P. R., & Auerbach, S. M. (1974). Effects of marathon group therapy on trait and state anxiety: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 42(4) Aug 1974, 607-612.
  • Kilmann, P. R., & et al. (1976). Effects of a marathon group on self-actualization and attitudes toward women: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 32(1) Jan 1976, 154-157.
  • Kilmann, P. R., & Howell, R. J. (1974). Effects of structure of marathon group therapy and locus of control on therapeutic outcome: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Vol 42(6) Dec 1974, 912.
  • Kilmann, P. R., & Sotile, W. M. (1976). The effects of structured and unstructured leader roles on internal and external group participants: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 32(4) Oct 1976, 848-856.
  • Kilmann, P. R., & Sotile, W. M. (1976). The marathon encounter group: A review of the outcome literature: Psychological Bulletin Vol 83(5) Sep 1976, 827-850.
  • Kilmann, P. R., Sotile, W. M., & Fritz, K. R. (1978). Marathon versus weekly encounter-group treatment on self-actualization: Two years later: Group & Organization Studies Vol 3(4) Dec 1978, 483-488.
  • Kimball, R., & Gelso, C. J. (1974). Self-actualization in a marathon growth group: Do the strong get stronger? : Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 21(1) Jan 1974, 38-42.
  • Kinder, B. N. (1976). The relationship of pre-therapy self-disclosure, the structure of group therapy, and locus of control on therapeutic outcome: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Kinder, B. N., & Kilmann, P. R. (1976). The impact of differential shifts in leader structure on the outcome of internal and external group participants: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 32(4) Oct 1976, 857-863.
  • King, M., Payne, D. C., & McIntire, W. G. (1973). The impact of marathon and prolonged sensitivity training on self-acceptance: Small Group Behavior Vol 4(4) Nov 1973, 414-423.
  • Kuch, K., Harrower, M., & Renick, J. R. (1972). Observations on a time-extended group with campus volunteers: International Journal of Group Psychotherapy Vol 22(4) Oct 1972, 471-487.
  • Kuppersmith, J. H. (1975). The relative effects of here-and-now versus there-and-then self-disclosure upon personality and cohesiveness in marathon-encounter groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Lawrence, S. B. (1969). Video tape and other therapeutic procedures with nude marathon groups: American Psychologist Vol 24(4) Apr 1969, 476-479.
  • Le Page, H. L. (1975). Group process and outcome: A study of interaction patterns and changes in self-actualization among three marathon encounter groups varying in levels of self-actualization: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Loomis, T. P. (1977). Skin conductance and the effects of time distribution on encounter group learning: Marathons vs spaced groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Loomis, T. P. (1988). Marathons versus spaced groups: Skin conductance and the effects of time distribution on encounter group learning: Small Group Behavior Vol 19(4) Nov 1988, 516-527.
  • Marks, S. E., Conry, R. F., & Foster, S. F. (1973). The marathon group hypothesis: An unanswered question: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 20(2) Mar 1973, 185-187.
  • Martin, C. V., & Banks, F. M. (1972). Marathon group therapy: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Vol 20(3-4) 1972, 191-199.
  • Maxwell, M. G. (1973). The effects of focused videotape feedback in marathon therapy groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McClain, G. R. (1974). The individual within: An instrumented case study analysis of a marathon encounter group: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McElroy, D. M. (1976). A modified marathon with voluntarily institutionalized substance abusers: Effects on psychopathology, self-actualization and ward behavior: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • McNeel, J. R. (1976). Redecisions in psychotherapy: A study of the effects of an intensive weekend group workshop: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Mermin, P. (2004). Encounterstreams: Reflections on the theory and practice of encounter. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering.
  • Messmore, D. W. (1973). An experimental study on the effects of 24-hour marathon encounter groups on self concept: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Miller, R. S. (1973). A comparative study of the marathon group experience in a university counseling center: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Mintz, E. E. (1971). Marathon groups: Reality and symbol. East Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  • Mintz, E. E. (1974). Mintz Speaks Out: PsycCRITIQUES Vol 19 (3), Mar, 1974.
  • Mote, A. O. (1974). A comparison of the effects of a marathon group and an encounter group on personal growth in college students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Napier, A. H. (1983). The unacceptability of marathon psychotherapy for some residents of rural Maine: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • O'Donnell, J. N. (1973). Marathon group therapy and marathon in vivo group desensitization: A comparison of treatments for interpersonal performance anxiety: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Owens, J. M. (1973). Personal orientation inventory real-ideal response set measures of self-actualization and congruency in an encounter and marathon group: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Page, R. C. (1982). Marathon group therapy with users of illicit drugs: Dimensions of social learning: International Journal of the Addictions Vol 17(7) Oct 1982, 1107-1115.
  • Page, R. C. (1983). Marathon group counseling with illicit drug users: A study of the effects of two groups for 1 month: Journal for Specialists in Group Work Vol 8(3) Sep 1983, 114-125.
  • Page, R. C. (1984). The effects of 16 hour long marathon groups on the ways that female drug users perceive women: Journal of Offender Counseling, Services & Rehabilitation Vol 8(4) Sum 1984, 13-26.
  • Page, R. C. (1985). The effects of marathon groups on the ways illicit drug users perceive counseling: International Journal of the Addictions Vol 20(11-12) 1985-1986, 1675-1684.
  • Page, R. C., & Bridges, N. (1983). Interpersonal relationship styles in marathon group therapy: A study with illicit drug users: Small Group Behavior Vol 14(2) May 1983, 253-259.
  • Page, R. C., Davis, K. C., Berkow, D. N., & O'Leary, E. (1989). Analysis of group process in marathon group therapy with users of illicit drugs: Small Group Behavior Vol 20(2) May 1989, 220-227.
  • Page, R. C., & Miehl, H. (1982). Marathon groups: Facilitating the personal growth of male illicit drug users: International Journal of the Addictions Vol 17(2) 1982, 393-397.
  • Page, R. C., Richmond, B. O., & de la Serna, M. (1987). Marathon group counseling with illicit drug abusers: Effects on self- perceptions: Small Group Behavior Vol 18(4) Nov 1987, 483-497.
  • Page, R. C., & Wills, J. (1983). Marathon group counseling with illicit drug users: Analysis of content: Journal for Specialists in Group Work Vol 8(2) May 1983, 67-75.
  • Patterson, G. E. (1975). Time duration in marathon groups: Effects upon self-concept and self-actualization: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Powell, C. (1979). The induction of acute psychosis in a group setting: The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry / La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie Vol 24(3) Apr 1979, 237-241.
  • Putman, A. O. (1974). Effects of marathon encounter groups on self-reported behavior in interpersonal contexts: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Ross, W. F., McReynolds, W. T., & Berzins, J. I. (1974). Effectiveness of marathon group psychotherapy with hospitalized female narcotics addicts: Psychological Reports Vol 34(2) Apr 1974, 611-616.
  • Schlafer, R. J. (1974). A comparison of selected test variables between structured vs unstructured marathon encounter group counseling: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Schott, J. F., Burtness, K. H., & Wilson, K. W. (1973). Breaking down barriers with alcoholics: Marathons: Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association 1973, 391-392.
  • Seldman, M. L., & McBrearty, J. F. (1975). Characteristics of marathon volunteers: Psychological Reports Vol 36(2) Apr 1975, 555-560.
  • Shavlik, F. H. (1976). The relationship of interpersonal and intragroup conditions to individual change in marathon encounter groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Smith, M. F. (1977). An investigation of the effects of a marathon group in a college dormitory setting on a measure of self-actualization: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Smith, R. L. (1977). The influence of a marathon group on the variable of internal-external locus of control with college commuter students: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Stanger, T., & Harris, R. S., Jr. (2005). Marathon Group Therapy: Potential for University Counseling Centers and Beyond: Journal for Specialists in Group Work Vol 30(2) Jun 2005, 145-157.
  • Stanton, H. E. (1975). Change in self-insight during an intensive group experience: Small Group Behavior Vol 6(4) Nov 1975, 487-493.
  • Steinhauer, J. C. (1972). Evaluation of a marathon encounter group by instrumented case studies and repeated measures: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Strean, H. S. (1971). Social change and the proliferation of regressive therapies: Psychoanalytic Review Vol 58(4) Win 1971-1972, 581-594.
  • Sutherland, S. H. (1973). A study of the effects of a marathon and a traditional encounter group experience on self esteem, defensive behavior and mood: Dissertation Abstracts International Vol.
  • Svensson, A. (1972). The marathon method according to Bach and Stoller: Gruppendynamik Vol 4(3) Dec 1972, 407-422.
  • Swan, W. S. (1973). Effects of leadership style and videotape mediated expectancies on affect and dependency in marathon encounter groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Tansey, F. M. (1979). Videotape focused feedback techniques in marathon group therapy: Effects on self-actualization and psychopathology: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Tharp, R. G. (1970). Therapies, buff and blue: Professional Psychology Vol 1(2) Win 1970, 202.
  • Thordal, B. K. (1976). The differential effects of group emotional climate in four types of counseling groups: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Treppa, J. A., & Fricke, L. (1972). Effects of a marathon group experience: Journal of Counseling Psychology Vol 19(5) Sep 1972, 466-467.
  • Tschumi, S. A. (1974). Changes in self concept resulting from a crisis intervention marathon group process treatment for non achieving two-year college freshmen: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Uhlemann, M. R., & Weigel, R. G. (1977). Behavior change outcomes of marathon group treatment: Small Group Behavior Vol 8(3) Aug 1977, 269-280.
  • Uhren, K. K. (1981). The effects of three types of group counseling on the self-actualization, self-concept, and level of dogmatism of adolescents: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Van Quekelberghe, R., & Droste, G. (1975). Bibliography of marathon group research: 1966-1975: Interpersonal Development Vol 6(1) 1975-1976, 42-47.
  • Vernalis, F. F., Holson, D. G., Shipper, J. C., & Butler, D. C. (1972). The treatment process in saturation group therapy: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice Vol 9(2) Sum 1972, 135-138.
  • Ward, C. A. (1980). An evaluation of short-term personality changes as a result of a marathon, large group encounter training: Dissertation Abstracts International.
  • Warehime, R. G. (1972). Review of Marathon groups: Reality and symbol: Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice Vol 9(1) Spr 1972, 94.
  • Watkins, J. T., Noll, G. A., & Breed, G. R. (1975). Changes toward self-actualization: Small Group Behavior Vol 6(3) Aug 1975, 272-281.
  • Weigel, R. G. (1977). The marathon encounter: Requiem for a social movement: Small Group Behavior Vol 8(2) May 1977, 201-222.
  • Weigel, R. G. (2002). The marathon encounter group--vision and reality: Exhuming the body for a last look: Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research Vol 54(3) Sum 2002, 186-198.
  • White, M., & White, J. (1986). Scripts and marathons: Transactional Analysis Journal Vol 16(1) Jan 1986, 47-49.
  • Worthen, V. K., & Malony, H. N. (1973). Potential strengths: A comparative study of positive and negative oriented marathon group experiences for couples: Interpersonal Development Vol 4(4) 1973-1974, 243-253.
  • Yalom, I. D., & et al. (1977). The impact of a weekend group experience on individual therapy: Archives of General Psychiatry Vol 34(4) Apr 1977, 399-415.

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