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In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert attractive or repulsive forces on other materials. Some well-known materials that exhibit easily detectable magnetic properties (called magnets) are nickel, iron, cobalt, and their alloys; however, all materials are influenced to greater or lesser degree by the presence of a magnetic field.

Magnetism also has other manifestations in physics, particularly as one of the two components of electromagnetic waves such as light.

Physics of magnetism Edit

Magnets and magnetic materialsEdit

Main article: Magnet

Every electron, by its nature, is a small magnet (see Electron magnetic dipole moment). Ordinarily, the countless electrons in a material are randomly oriented in different directions, leaving no effect on average, but in a bar magnet the electrons are aligned in the same direction, so they act cooperatively, creating a net magnetic field.

In addition to the electron's intrinsic magnetic field, there is sometimes an additional magnetic field that results from the electron's orbital motion about the nucleus. This effect is analogous to how a current-carrying loop of wire generates a magnetic field (see Magnetic dipole). Again, ordinarily, the motion of the electrons is such that there is no average field from the material, but in certain conditions, the motion can line up so as to produce a measurable total field.

The overall magnetic behavior of a material can vary widely, depending on the structure of the material, and particularly on its electron configuration. Several forms of magnetic behavior have been observed in different materials, including:

Magnetism, electricity, and special relativityEdit

Main article: Electromagnetism

As a consequence of Einstein's theory of special relativity, electricity and magnetism are understood to be fundamentally interlinked. Both magnetism lacking electricity, and electricity without magnetism, are inconsistent with special relativity, due to such effects as length contraction, time dilation, and the fact that the magnetic force is velocity-dependent. However, when both electricity and magnetism are taken into account, the resulting theory (electromagnetism) is fully consistent with special relativity[1][2]. In particular, a phenomenon that appears purely electric to one observer may be purely magnetic to another, or more generally the relative contributions of electricity and magnetism are dependent on the frame of reference. Thus, special relativity "mixes" electricity and magnetism into a single, inseparable phenomenon called electromagnetism (analogously to how special relativity "mixes" space and time into spacetime).

Magnetic fields and forcesEdit

Magnet0873

Magnetic lines of force of a bar magnet shown by iron filings on paper

Main article: Magnetic field

The phenomenon of magnetism is "mediated" by the magnetic field -- i.e., an electric current or magnetic dipole creates a magnetic field, and that field, in turn, imparts magnetic forces on other particles that are in the fields.

To an excellent approximation (but ignoring some quantum effects---see quantum electrodynamics), Maxwell's equations (which simplify to the Biot-Savart law in the case of steady currents) describe the origin and behavior of the fields that govern these forces. Therefore magnetism is seen whenever electrically charged particles are in motion---for example, from movement of electrons in an electric current, or in certain cases from the orbital motion of electrons around an atom's nucleus. They also arise from "intrinsic" magnetic dipoles arising from quantum effects, i.e. from quantum-mechanical spin.

The same situations which create magnetic fields (charge moving in a current or in an atom, and intrinsic magnetic dipoles) are also the situations in which a magnetic field has an effect, creating a force. Following is the formula for moving charge; for the forces on an intrinsic dipole, see magnetic dipole.

When a charged particle moves through a magnetic field B, it feels a force F given by the cross product:

\vec{F} = q \vec{v} \times \vec{B}

where q\, is the electric charge of the particle, \vec{v} \, is the velocity vector of the particle, and \vec{B} \, is the magnetic field. Because this is a cross product, the force is perpendicular to both the motion of the particle and the magnetic field. It follows that the magnetic force does no work on the particle; it may change the direction of the particle's movement, but it cannot cause it to speed up or slow down. The magnitude of the force is

F = q v B \sin\theta\,

where \theta \, is the angle between the \vec{v} \, and \vec{B} \, vectors.

One tool for determining the direction of the velocity vector of a moving charge, the magnetic field, and the force exerted is labeling the index finger "V", the middle finger "B", and the thumb "F" with your right hand. When making a gun-like configuration (with the middle finger crossing under the index finger), the fingers represent the velocity vector, magnetic field vector, and force vector, respectively. See also right hand rule.

Lenz's law gives the direction of the induced electromotive force (emf) and current resulting from electromagnetic induction. German physicist Heinrich Lenz formulated it in 1834.

Magnetic dipolesEdit

Main article: Magnetic dipole

A very common source of magnetic field shown in nature is a dipole, with a "South pole" and a "North pole"; terms dating back to the use of magnets as compasses, interacting with the Earth's magnetic field to indicate North and South on the globe. Since opposite ends of magnets are attracted, the north pole of a magnet is attracted to the south pole of another magnet. Interestingly, this concept of opposite polaraties attracting wasn't used in the naming convention for the earth's magnetic field, so the earth's magnetic north pole (in Canada) attracts the magnetic north pole of a compass see North Magnetic Pole.

A magnetic field contains energy, and physical systems stabilize into the configuration with the lowest energy. Therefore, when placed in a magnetic field, a magnetic dipole tends to align itself in opposed polarity to that field, thereby canceling the net field strength as much as possible and lowering the energy stored in that field to a minimum. For instance, two identical bar magnets placed side-to-side normally line up North to South, resulting in a much smaller net magnetic field, and resist any attempts to reorient them to point in the same direction. The energy required to reorient them in that configuration is then stored in the resulting magnetic field, which is double the strength of the field of each individual magnet. (This is, of course, why a magnet used as a compass interacts with the Earth's magnetic field to indicate North and South).

An alternative, equivalent formulation, which is often easier to apply but perhaps offers less insight, is that a magnetic dipole in a magnetic field experiences a torque and a force which can be expressed in terms of the field and the strength of the dipole (i.e., its magnetic dipole moment). For these equations, see magnetic dipole.

Magnetic monopolesEdit

Main article: Magnetic monopole

Since a bar magnet gets its ferromagnetism from electrons distributed evenly throughout the bar, when a bar magnet is cut in half, each of the resulting pieces is a smaller bar magnet. Even though a magnet is said to have a north pole and a south pole, these two poles cannot be separated from each other. A monopole — if such a thing exists — would be a new and fundamentally different kind of magnetic object. It would act as an isolated north pole, not attached to a south pole, or vice versa. Monopoles would carry "magnetic charge" analogous to electric charge. Despite systematic searches since 1931, as of 2006, they have never been observed, and could very well not exist.[3]

Nevertheless, some theoretical physics models predict the existence of these magnetic monopoles. Paul Dirac observed in 1931 that, because electricity and magnetism show a certain symmetry, just as quantum theory predicts that individual positive or negative electric charges can be observed without the opposing charge, isolated South or North magnetic poles should be observable. Using quantum theory Dirac showed that if magnetic monopoles exist, then one could explain the quantization of electric charge---that is, why the observed elementary particles carry charges that are multiples of the charge of the electron.

Certain grand unified theories predict the existence of monopoles which, unlike elementary particles, are solitons (localized energy packets). The initial results of using these models to estimate the number of monopoles created in the big bang contradicted cosmological observations — the monopoles would have been so plentiful and massive that they would have long since halted the expansion of the universe. However, the idea of inflation (for which this problem served as a partial motivation) was successful in solving this problem, creating models in which monopoles existed but were rare enough to be consistent with current observations.[4]

Units of electromagnetismEdit

SI units related to magnetismEdit

Other unitsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Furlani, Edward P. (2001). Permanent Magnet and Electromechanical Devices: Materials, Analysis and Applications, Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-269951-3.
  • Griffiths, David J. (1998). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.), Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-805326-X.
  • Kronmüller,Helmut. (2007). Handbook of Magnetism and Advanced Magnetic Materials, 5 Volume Set, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-02217-7.
  • Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Electricity, Magnetism, Light, and Elementary Modern Physics (5th ed.), W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0810-8.
  1. A. Einstein: "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", June 30, 1905. http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/specrel/www/.
  2. Griffiths, David J. (1998). Introduction to Electrodynamics, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-805326-X., chapter 12
  3. Milton mentions some inconclusive events (p.60) and still concludes that "no evidence at all of magnetic monopoles has survived" (p.3). Milton, Kimball A. (June 2006). Theoretical and experimental status of magnetic monopoles. Reports on Progress in Physics 69 (6): 1637-1711..
  4. Guth, Alan (1997). The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins, Perseus. ISBN 0-201-32840-2..

Further readingEdit

  • Able, K. P., & Able, M. A. (1990). Ontogeny of migratory orientation in the savannah sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis: Calibration of the magnetic compass: Animal Behaviour Vol 39(5) May 1990, 905-913.
  • Able, K. P., & Able, M. A. (1993). Magnetic orientation in the Savannah sparrow: Ethology Vol 93(4) Apr 1993, 337-343.
  • Akesson, S. (1993). Effect of geomagnetic field on orientation of the marsh warbler, Acrocephalus palustris, in Sweden and Kenya: Animal Behaviour Vol 46(6) Dec 1993, 1157-1167.
  • Akesson, S. (1994). Comparative orientation experiments with different species of passerine long-distance migrants: Effect of magnetic field manipulation: Animal Behaviour Vol 48(6) Dec 1994, 1379-1393.
  • Akesson, S., & Backman, J. (1999). Orientation in pied flycatchers: The relative importance of magnetic and visual information at dusk: Animal Behaviour Vol 57(4) Apr 1999, 819-828.
  • Akesson, S., Morin, J., Muheim, R., & Ottosson, U. (2002). Avian orientation: Effects of cue-conflict experiments with young migratory songbirds in the high Arctic: Animal Behaviour Vol 64(3) Sep 2002, 469-475.
  • Alerstam, T. (2003). The lobster navigators: Nature Vol 421(6918) Jan 2003, 27-28.
  • Al-Maliki, S. J. (1994). The behavioural and reproductive consequences in offspring (first generation) of mice continuously exposed to a strong magnetic field: Behavioural Processes Vol 32(3) Nov 1994, 229-234.
  • Al-Maliki, S. J., & Al-Rawi, F. (1992). Effect of chronic exposure to a magnetic field on two forms of murine aggression: Behavioural Processes Vol 27(3) Oct 1992, 171-178.
  • Alonso, P., Pujol, J., Cardoner, N., Benlloch, L., Deus, J., Menchon, J. M., et al. (2001). Right prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study: American Journal of Psychiatry Vol 158(7) Jul 2001, 1143-1145.
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  • Amano, K., Kuriki, I., & Takeda, T. (2005). Direction-specific adaptation of magnetic responses to motion onset: Vision Research Vol 45(19) Sep 2005, 2533-2548.
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  • Benhamou, S., Bonadonna, F., & Jouventin, P. (2003). Successful homing of magnet-carrying white-chinned petrels released in the open sea: Animal Behaviour Vol 65(4) Apr 2003, 729-734.
  • Berger, R. E., & Persinger, M. A. (1991). Geophysical variables and behavior: LXVII. Quieter annual geomagnetic activity and larger effect size for experimental psi (ESP) studies over six decades: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 73(3, Pt 2), Spec Issue Dec 1991, 1219-1223.
  • Berman, R. M., Narasimhan, M., Sanacora, G., Miano, A. P., Hoffman, R. E., Hu, X. S., et al. (2000). A randomized clinical trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depression: Biological Psychiatry Vol 47(4) Feb 2000, 332-337.
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  • Bohotin, V., Fumal, A., Vandenheede, M., Gerard, P., Bohotin, C., de Noordhout, A. M., et al. (2002). Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on visual evoked potentials in migraine: Brain: A Journal of Neurology Vol 125(4) Apr 2002, 912-922.
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  • Booth, J. N., Koren, S. A., & Persinger, M. A. (2005). Increased feelings of the sensed presence and increased geomagnetic activity at the time of the experience during exposures to transcerebral weak complex magnetic fields: International Journal of Neuroscience Vol 115(7) Jul 2005, 1053-1079.
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