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Individual differences |
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Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)
Cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3
The M3 muscarinic receptors are located at many places in the body, e.g. smooth muscles, endocrine, in exocrine glands, as well as in the lungs. They are also found in the CNS, where it induces emesis They generally cause smooth muscle contraction and increased glandular secretions.
Like the M1 muscarinic receptor, M3 receptors are G proteins of class Gq which upregulate phospholipase C and therefore inositol trisphosphate and intracellular calcium as a signalling pathway. The calcium function in humans also involves activation of protein kinase C and its effects.
Because the M3 receptor is Gq-coupled and mediates an increase in intracellular calcium, it typically causes constriction of smooth muscle, such as that observed during bronchoconstriction. However, with respect to vasculature, activation of M3 on vascular endothelial cells causes increased synthesis of nitric oxide which diffuses to adjacent vascular smooth muscle cells and causes their relaxation and vasodilation thereby explaining the paradoxical effect of parasympathomimetics on vascular tone and bronchiolar tone. Indeed, direct stimulation of vascular smooth muscle M3 mediates vasoconstriction in pathologies whereby the vascular endothelium is disrupted.
Other effects are:
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Entrez Gene: CHRM3 cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3.
- ↑ Keith Parker; Laurence Brunton; Goodman, Louis Sanford; Lazo, John S.; Gilman, Alfred (2006). Goodman & Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 11th Ed., page 185, New York: McGraw-Hill.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Moore PK (2003). "Ch. 10" Pharmacology, 5th edition, page 139, Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-07145-4.
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