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A lumen (Lat. lūmen, an opening or light) (pl. lumina) in biology is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine. By extension, a lumen can also be the inside space of a cellular component or structure, such as the endoplasmic reticulum.
Examples of lumina
- The interior of a vessel, such as the central space in an artery or vein through which blood flows.
- The interior of the gastrointestinal tract 
- The pathways of the bronchi in the lungs
- The interior of renal tubules and urinary collecting ducts
- The pathways of the female genital tract, starting with a single pathway of the vagina, splitting up in two lumina in the uterus, both which continue through the fallopian tubes
- Within a cell, the inner membrane space of a thylakoid, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria or microtubule.
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