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(New page: {{BioPsy}} {{drugbox | IUPAC_name = | image = | width = 150 | CAS_number = 1977-10-2 | ATC_prefix = N05 | ATC_suffix = AH01 | ATC_supplemental = | PubChem = 3964 | DrugBank = APRD0...)
 
 
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'''Loxapine''' (sold as '''Loxapac'''®, '''Loxitane'''®) is a [[typical antipsychotic]] [[medication]], used primarily in the treatment of [[schizophrenia]]. It is a member of the [[dibenzodiazepine]] family and structurally related to [[clozapine]]. Several researchers have argued that Loxapine may behave as an [[atypical antipsychotic]] (PMID 10340686).
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'''Loxapine''' (sold as '''Loxapac''', '''Loxitane''') is a [[typical antipsychotic]] [[medication]], used primarily in the treatment of [[schizophrenia]]. It is a member of the [[dibenzoxazepine]] class and as a [[dibenzazepine]] [[Derivative (chemistry)|derivative]], it is structurally related to [[clozapine]] (which belongs to the chemically closely akin class of [[dibenzodiazepines]]). Several researchers have argued that Loxapine may behave as an [[atypical antipsychotic]] <ref name="titleDoes loxapine have atypical properties? Clinical...[J Clin Psychiatry. 1999] - PubMed Result">{{cite web |url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10340686 |title=Does loxapine have "atypical" properties? Clinical evidence. [J Clin Psychiatry. 1999] - PubMed Result |accessdate= |format= |work=}}</ref>.
   
Loxapine may be metabolized by N-demethylation to [[amoxapine]], a [[tetracyclic antidepressant]] (PMID 1860915).
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Loxapine may be metabolized by N-demethylation to [[amoxapine]], a [[tricyclic antidepressant]] <ref name="titleSimultaneous quantitation of loxapine, amoxapine a...[J Chromatogr. 1991] - PubMed Result">{{cite web |url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1860915 |title=Simultaneous quantitation of loxapine, amoxapine a...[J Chromatogr. 1991] - PubMed Result |accessdate= |format= |work=}}</ref>.
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==Precautions==
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Care should be taken with consumption. At least 3 cases were reported of loxapine succinate abuse.<ref name="pmid6694719">{{cite journal
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|author=Sperry L, Hudson B, Chan CH
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|title=Loxapine abuse
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|journal=The New England Journal of Medicine
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|volume=310
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|issue=9
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|pages=598
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|year=1984
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|month=March
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|pmid=6694719
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|doi=
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|url=
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|issn=
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|accessdate=2009-06-20
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}}</ref>
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An overdose accident happened with a 8 year old child who swallowed a 375 miligram loxitane pill. 30 minutes later it was treated with activated charcoal. The child became drowsy and was asleep but arousable 1 hour after ingestion. The degree of sedation appeared to peak after 3.75 hours and the child was discharged about 20 hours after ingestion.<ref name="pmid9499203">{{cite journal
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|author=Tarricone NW
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|title=Loxitane overdose
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|journal=Pediatrics
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|volume=101
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|issue=3 Pt 1
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|pages=496
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|year=1998
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|month=March
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|pmid=9499203
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|doi=
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|url=http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9499203
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|issn=
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|accessdate=2009-06-20
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}}</ref>
   
 
== Side effects ==
 
== Side effects ==
[[Adverse drug reaction|Side effects]] include [[tardive dyskinesia]], [[neuroleptic malignant syndrome]], [[extrapyramidal system|extrapyramidal side effects]], [[tremor]] and [[sedation]].
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{{see|Typical antipsychotic}}
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The most significant side-effects of loxapine are excessive salivation and indifference to surroundings. Loxapine, if administered to individuals without schizophrenia, causes emotional quieting and insensitivity. In persons with psychosis, it may control aggressive behaviour and restlessness, and reduce the severity of hallucinations and delusions.
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Other [[Adverse drug reaction|Side effects]] include [[tardive dyskinesia]], [[neuroleptic malignant syndrome]], [[extrapyramidal system|extrapyramidal side effects]], [[tremor]], [[gynecomastia]] and [[sedation]].
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==Dosage==
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The typical starting dosage is 10mg twice daily; usual dose range 30-50mg twice daily; maximum recommended dosage is 250mg per day.
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A brief review of loxapine<ref name="pmid1747161">{{cite journal
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|author=
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|title=Clozapine and loxapine for schizophrenia
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|journal=Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
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|volume=29
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|issue=11
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|pages=41–2
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|year=1991
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|month=May
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|pmid=1747161
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|doi=
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|url=
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|issn=
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|accessdate=2009-06-20
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}}</ref> found no conclusive evidence that it was particularly effective in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. A subsequent systematic review considered that the limited evidence did not indicate a clear difference in its effects from other antipsychotics.<ref name="pmid17943763">{{cite journal
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|author=Chakrabarti A, Bagnall A, Chue P, ''et al.''
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|title=Loxapine for schizophrenia
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|journal=Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online)
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|volume=
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|issue=4
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|pages=CD001943
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|year=2007
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|pmid=17943763
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|doi=10.1002/14651858.CD001943.pub2
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|url=
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|issn=
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|accessdate=2009-06-20
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}}</ref>
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==References==
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{{reflist}}
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==External links==
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*[http://www.medscape.com/druginfo/monograph?cid=med&drugid=14375&drugname=Loxapine+Succinate+Oral&monotype=monograph&secid=3 Product monograph] from Medscape (free registration required).
   
 
{{Antipsychotics}}
 
{{Antipsychotics}}
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{{Serotonergics}}
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{{Dopaminergics}}
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{{Piperazines}}
   
 
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[[Category:Minor tranquilizers]]
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[[Category:Piperazines]]
 
[[Category:Typical antipsychotics]]
 
[[Category:Typical antipsychotics]]
   
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{{enWP|Loxapine}}
 
{{enWP|Loxapine}}

Latest revision as of 23:09, August 9, 2009

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[[Image:|150px|Loxapine chemical structure]]
Loxapine


IUPAC name
CAS number
1977-10-2
ATC code

N05AH01

PubChem
3964
DrugBank
APRD00574
Chemical formula {{{chemical_formula}}}
Molecular weight 327.808 g/mol
Bioavailability
Metabolism
Elimination half-life Oral-4 hours
Excretion {{{excretion}}}
Pregnancy category
Legal status
Routes of administration

Loxapine (sold as Loxapac, Loxitane) is a typical antipsychotic medication, used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia. It is a member of the dibenzoxazepine class and as a dibenzazepine derivative, it is structurally related to clozapine (which belongs to the chemically closely akin class of dibenzodiazepines). Several researchers have argued that Loxapine may behave as an atypical antipsychotic [1].

Loxapine may be metabolized by N-demethylation to amoxapine, a tricyclic antidepressant [2].

PrecautionsEdit

Care should be taken with consumption. At least 3 cases were reported of loxapine succinate abuse.[3]

An overdose accident happened with a 8 year old child who swallowed a 375 miligram loxitane pill. 30 minutes later it was treated with activated charcoal. The child became drowsy and was asleep but arousable 1 hour after ingestion. The degree of sedation appeared to peak after 3.75 hours and the child was discharged about 20 hours after ingestion.[4]

Side effects Edit

Further information: Typical antipsychotic

The most significant side-effects of loxapine are excessive salivation and indifference to surroundings. Loxapine, if administered to individuals without schizophrenia, causes emotional quieting and insensitivity. In persons with psychosis, it may control aggressive behaviour and restlessness, and reduce the severity of hallucinations and delusions. Other Side effects include tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, extrapyramidal side effects, tremor, gynecomastia and sedation.

DosageEdit

The typical starting dosage is 10mg twice daily; usual dose range 30-50mg twice daily; maximum recommended dosage is 250mg per day.

A brief review of loxapine[5] found no conclusive evidence that it was particularly effective in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. A subsequent systematic review considered that the limited evidence did not indicate a clear difference in its effects from other antipsychotics.[6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Does loxapine have "atypical" properties? Clinical evidence. [J Clin Psychiatry. 1999 - PubMed Result].
  2. Simultaneous quantitation of loxapine, amoxapine a...[J Chromatogr. 1991 - PubMed Result].
  3. Sperry L, Hudson B, Chan CH (March 1984). Loxapine abuse. The New England Journal of Medicine 310 (9): 598.
  4. Tarricone NW (March 1998). Loxitane overdose. Pediatrics 101 (3 Pt 1): 496.
  5. (May 1991) Clozapine and loxapine for schizophrenia. Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin 29 (11): 41–2.
  6. Chakrabarti A, Bagnall A, Chue P, et al. (2007). Loxapine for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online) (4): CD001943.

External linksEdit


Template:Piperazines


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