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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Long-Term Orientation is the fifth dimension of Hofstede which was added after the original four to try to distinguish the difference in thinking between the East and West. From the original IBM studies, this difference was something that could not be deduced. Therefore, Hofstede created a Chinese value survey which was distributed across 23 countries. From these results, and with an understanding of the influence of the teaching of Confucius on the East, long term vs. short term orientation became the fifth cultural dimension.
In long term orientation cultures:
- ordering relationships by status and observing this order
- having a sense of shame
In short term orientation cultures:
- personal steadiness and stability
- protecting your ‘face’
- respect for tradition
- reciprocation of greetings, favors, and gifts
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