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- Given α, β, and the rule R1 : α ∴ β
- Deduction is using the rule and its preconditions to make a conclusion (α ∧ R1 ⇒ β).
- Induction is learning R1 after numerous examples of β and α.
- Abduction is using the postcondition and the rule to assume that the precondition could explain the postcondition (β ∧ R1 ⇒ α).
- Logical fallacy
- Deductive reasoning
- Inductive reasoning
- Abductive reasoning
- Defeasible reasoning
 T. Menzies. Applications of Abduction: Knowledge-Level Modeling. November 1996.
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