Wikia

Psychology Wiki

Local anesthesia

Talk0
34,141pages on
this wiki

Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |

Biological: Behavioural genetics · Evolutionary psychology · Neuroanatomy · Neurochemistry · Neuroendocrinology · Neuroscience · Psychoneuroimmunology · Physiological Psychology · Psychopharmacology (Index, Outline)


This article is in need of attention from a psychologist/academic expert on the subject.
Please help recruit one, or improve this page yourself if you are qualified.
This banner appears on articles that are weak and whose contents should be approached with academic caution
.
Local anesthesia
Intervention
{{#invoke:InfoboxImage|InfoboxImage|image=|defaultsize=frameless|upright=1.06|size=|alt=}}
MeSH D000772

In anesthesiology a Local anesthesia is any technique to induce the absence of sensation in part of the body,[1] generally for the aim of inducing local analgesia, that is, local insensitivity to pain, although other local senses may be affected as well. It allows patients to undergo surgical and dental procedures with reduced pain and distress. In many situations, such as cesarean section, it is safer and therefore superior to general anesthesia. It is also used for relief of non-surgical pain and to enable diagnosis of the cause of some chronic pain conditions. Anesthetists sometimes combine both general and local anesthesia techniques.

The following terms are often used interchangeably:

  • Local anesthesia, in a strict sense, is anesthesia of a small part of the body such as a tooth or an area of skin.
  • Regional anesthesia is aimed at anesthetizing a larger part of the body such as a leg or arm.
  • Conduction anesthesia is a comprehensive term, which encompasses a great variety of local and regional anesthetic techniques.

MedicalEdit

Main article: Local anesthetic

A local anesthetic is a drug that causes reversible local anesthesia and a loss of nociception. When it is used on specific nerve pathways (nerve block), effects such as analgesia (loss of pain sensation) and paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved.

Clinical local anesthetics belong to one of two classes: aminoamide and aminoester local anesthetics. Synthetic local anesthetics are structurally related to cocaine. They differ from cocaine mainly in that they have no abuse potential and do not act on the sympathoadrenergic system, i.e. they do not produce hypertension or local vasoconstriction, with the exception of Ropivacaine and Mepivacaine that do produce weak vasoconstriction.

Local anesthetics vary in their pharmacological properties and they are used in various techniques of local anesthesia such as:

Adverse effects depend on the local anesthetic agent, method, and site of administration and is discussed in depth in the local anesthetic sub-article, but overall, adverse effects can be:

  1. localized prolonged anesthesia or paresthesia due to infection, hematoma, excessive fluid pressure in a confined cavity, and severing of nerves & support tissue during injection,
  2. systemic reactions such as depressed CNS syndrome, allergic reaction, vasovagal episode, and cyanosis due to local anesthetic toxicity.
  3. lack of anesthetic effect due to infectious pus such as an abscess.

Non-medical local anesthetic techniquesEdit

Local pain management that uses other techniques than analgesic medication include:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. thefreedictionary.com > local anesthesia In turn citing: Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. Copyright 2009
  2. Dubinsky RM, Miyasaki J (January 2010). Assessment: efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the treatment of pain in neurologic disorders (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 74 (2): 173–6.
  3. Varrassi G, Paladini A, Marinangeli F, Racz G (2006). Neural modulation by blocks and infusions. Pain practice : the official journal of World Institute of Pain 6 (1): 34–8.
  4. Meglio M (2004). Spinal cord stimulation in chronic pain management. Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am. 15 (3): 297–306.
  5. Rasche D, Ruppolt M, Stippich C, Unterberg A, Tronnier VM (2006). Motor cortex stimulation for long-term relief of chronic neuropathic pain: a 10 year experience. Pain 121 (1–2): 43–52.
  6. Boswell MV, Trescot AM, Datta S, Schultz DM, Hansen HC, Abdi S, Sehgal N, Shah RV, Singh V, Benyamin RM, Patel VB, Buenaventura RM, Colson JD, Cordner HJ, Epter RS, Jasper JF, Dunbar EE, Atluri SL, Bowman RC, Deer TR, Swicegood JR, Staats PS, Smith HS, Burton AW, Kloth DS, Giordano J, Manchikanti L (2007). Interventional techniques: evidence-based practice guidelines in the management of chronic spinal pain. Pain physician 10 (1): 7–111.
  7. Romanelli P, Esposito V, Adler J (2004). Ablative procedures for chronic pain. Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am. 15 (3): 335–42.

CitationsEdit

(January 2006)Nerve damage associated with peripheral nerve block. Risks associated with your anaesthetic, Section 12.

External links Edit

Template:Anesthesia


This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki