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{{ExpPsy}}
   
'''Memory biases''' may either enhance or inhibit the recall of memory, or they may alter the content of what we report remembering.
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In [[psychology]] and [[cognitive science]], a '''memory bias''' is a [[cognitive bias]] that either enhances or impairs the recall of a [[memory]] (either the chances that the memory will be recalled at all, or the amount of time it takes for it to be recalled, or both), or that alters the content of a reported memory. There are many types of memory bias, including:
   
Most research into this theory of bias has concluded that, there exists a 'mood congruent memory bias' in some emotional disorders. This particular bias has been further defined as the individual's ability to pick and select information cognitively that is analogous with the patient's mood.
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* [[Beneffectance]]: perceiving oneself as responsible for desirable outcomes but not responsible for undesirable ones. (Term coined by Greenwald, 1980)
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* [[Choice-supportive bias]]: remembering chosen options as having been better than rejected options (Mather, Shafir & Johnson, 2000).
Memory biases are on one [[Daniel Schacter]]'s [[The Seven Sins of Memory|seven sins of memory]]
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* [[Change bias]]: after an investment of effort in producing change, remembering one's past performance as more different than it actually was (Schacter, 1999)
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* [[Consistency bias]]: incorrectly remembering one's past attitudes and behaviour as resembling present attitudes and behaviour.
== List of memory biases ==
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* [[cue-dependent forgetting|Context effect]]: that cognition and memory are dependent on context, such that out-of-context memories are more difficult to retrieve than in-context memories (e.g., recall time and accuracy for a work-related memory will be lower at home, and vice versa).
* [[Choice-supportive bias]] - states that chosen options are remembered as better than rejected options (Mather, Shafir & Johnson, 2000).
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* [[Cryptomnesia]]: a form of ''misattribution'' where a memory is mistaken for imagination, because there is no subjective experience of it being a memory.
* Classroom effect - states that some portion of student performance is explained by the classroom environment and teacher as opposed to purely individual factors.
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* [[Egocentric bias]]: recalling the past in a self-serving manner, e.g. remembering one's exam grades as being better than they were, or remembering a caught fish as being bigger than it really was
* Context effect - states that cognition and memory are dependent on context, such that out-of-context memories are more difficult to retrieve than in-context memories (i.e, recall time and accuracy for a work-related memory will be lower at home, and vice versa).
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* [[Hindsight bias]]: the inclination to see past events as being predictable; also called the "I-knew-it-all-along" effect.
* [[Hindsight bias]] - sometimes called the "I-knew-it-all-along" effect, is the inclination to see past events as being predictable.
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* [[Humor effect]]: that humorous items are more easily remembered than non-humorous ones, which might be explained by the distinctiveness of humor, the increased cognitive processing time to understand the humor, or the emotional arousal caused by the humor.
* Humor effect - states that humorous items are more easily remembered than non-humorous ones, which might be explained by the distinctiveness of humor, the increased cognitive processing time to understand the humor, or the emotional arousal caused by the humor.
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* [[Infantile amnesia]]: the retention of few memories from before the age of two years.
* [[Infantile amnesia]] - states that few memories are retained from before age 2.
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* [[Generation effect]]: that self-generated information is remembered best.
* [[Generation effect]] - states that self-generated information is remembered best.
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* [[Lag effect]]
* Lag effect
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* [[Leveling and Sharpening]]: memory distortions introduced by the loss of details in a recollection over time, often concurrent with sharpening or selective recollection of certain details that take on exaggerated significance in relation to the details or aspects of the experience lost through leveling. Both biases may be reinforced over time, and by repeated recollection or re-telling of a memory. (e.g., Koriat,­ Goldsmith and ­Pansky, 2000)
* [[Levels-of-processing effect]] - states that different methods of encoding information into memory have different levels of effectiveness (Craik & Lockhart, 1972).
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* [[Levels-of-processing effect]]: that different methods of encoding information into memory have different levels of effectiveness (Craik & Lockhart, 1972).
* List-length effect
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* [[List-length effect]]
* [[Mere exposure effect]] - states that familiarity increases liking.
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* [[Mere exposure effect]]: that familiarity increases liking. <!-- how is that a memory bias? -->
* [[Misinformation effect]] - states that misinformation affects people's reports of their own memory.
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* [[Misinformation effect]]: that misinformation affects people's reports of their own memory.
* Modality effect - states that memory recall is higher for the last items of a list when the list items were received auditorily versus visually.
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* Misattribution: when information is retained in memory but the source of the memory is forgotten. One of Schacter's (1999) Seven Sins of Memory, Misattribution was divided into Source Confusion, Cryptomnesia and False Recall/False Recognition
* Mood congruent memory bias - states that information congruent with one's current mood is remembered best.
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* [[Modality effect]]: that memory recall is higher for the last items of a list when the list items were received via speech than when they were received via writing.
* Next-in-line effect
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* [[Mood congruent memory bias]]: the improved recall of information congruent with one's current mood.
* [[Part-list cueing effect]] - being shown some items from a list makes it harder to retrieve the other items (e.g., Slamecka, 1968).
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* [[Next-in-line effect]]
* [[Picture superiority effect]] - states that concepts are much more likely to be remembered experientially if they are presented as pictures rather than as words.
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* [[Part-list cueing effect]]: that being shown some items from a list makes it harder to retrieve the other items (e.g., Slamecka, 1968).
* [[Positivity effect]] - states that older adults favor positive over negative information in their memories.
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* Persistence: the unwanted recurrence of memories of a [[traumatic event]]
* Processing difficulty effect - see Levels-of-processing effect.
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* [[Picture superiority effect]]: that concepts are much more likely to be remembered experientially if they are presented in picture form than if they are presented in word form.
* [[Primacy effect]] - states that the first items on a list show an advantage in memory.
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* [[Positivity effect]]: that older adults favor positive over negative information in their memories.
* [[Recency effect]] - states that the last items on a list show an advantage in memory.
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* [[Processing difficulty effect]] <!-- see Levels-of-processing effect -->
* [[Rosy retrospection]] - states that the past is remembered as better than it really was.
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* [[Primacy effect]]: that the first items on a list show an advantage in memory.
* [[Serial position effect]] - states that items at the beginning of a list are the easiest to recall, followed by the items near the end of a list; items in the middle are the least likely to be remembered.
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* [[Recency effect]]: that the last items on a list show an advantage in memory.
* Self-generation effect - states that people are better able to recall memories of statements that they have generated than similar statements generated by others.
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* [[Reminiscence bump]]: the recalling of more personal events from adolescence and early adulthood than personal events from other lifetime periods (Rubin, Wetzler & Nebes, 1986; Rubin, Rahhal & Poon, 1998).
* Self-relevance effect - states that memories considered self-relevant are better recalled than other, similar information
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* [[Rosy retrospection]]: the remembering of the past as having been better than it really was.
* [[Spacing effect]] - states that while you are more likely to remember material if exposed to it many times, you will be much more likely to remember it if the exposures are repeated over a longer span of time.
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* [[Serial position effect]]: that items near the end of a list are the easiest to recall, followed by the items at the beginning of a list; items in the middle are the least likely to be remembered.
* Suffix effect - states that there is considerable impairment of the Recency effect, if a redundant suffix item is added to a list, which the subject is not required to recall (Morton, Crowder & Prussin, 1972).
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* [[Self-generation effect]]: that people are better able to recall memories of statements that they have generated than similar statements generated by others.
* [[Testing effect]] - states that frequent testing of material that has been committed to memory improves memory recall more than simply study of the material without testing.
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* [[Self-relevance effect]]: that memories considered self-relevant are better recalled than other, similar information. <!-- "self-relevant" warrants definition -->
* Verbatim effect - states that the "gist" of what someone has said is better remembered than the verbatim wording (Poppenk, Walia, Joanisse, Danckert, & Köhler, 2006)
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* Source Confusion: misattributing the source of a memory, e.g. misremembering that one saw an event personally when actually it was seen on television
* [[Von Restorff effect]] - states that an item that "stands out like a sore thumb" is more likely to be remembered than other items (von Restorff, 1933).
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* [[Spacing effect]]: that information is better recalled if exposure to it is repeated over a longer span of time.
* [[Zeigarnik effect]] - states that people remember uncompleted or interrupted tasks better than completed ones.
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* Stereotypical bias: memory distorted towards stereotypes (e.g. racial or gender), e.g. "black-sounding" names being misremembered as names of criminals (Schacter, 1999)
  +
* [[Suffix effect]]: the weakening of the recency effect in the case that an item is appended to the list that the subject is ''not'' required to recall (Morton, Crowder & Prussin, 1972).
  +
* [[Suggestibility]]: a form of misattribution where ideas suggested by a questioner are mistaken for memory.
  +
* [[Telescoping effect]]: the tendency to displace recent events backward in time and remote events forward in time, so that recent events appear to be more remote, and remote events, more recent.
  +
* [[Testing effect]]: that frequent testing of material that has been committed to memory improves memory recall.
  +
* Tip of the Tongue phenomenon: when a subject is able to recall parts of an item, or related information, but is frustratingly unable to recall the whole item. This is thought to be an instance of "blocking" where multiple similar memories are being recalled and interfere with each other (Schacter, 1999)
  +
* [[Verbatim effect]]: that the "gist" of what someone has said is better remembered than the verbatim wording (Poppenk, Walia, Joanisse, Danckert, & Köhler, 2006).
  +
* [[Von Restorff effect]]: that an item that sticks out is more likely to be remembered than other items (von Restorff, 1933).
  +
* [[Zeigarnik effect]]: that uncompleted or interrupted tasks are remembered better than completed ones.
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
Line 49: Line 49:
   
 
===Papers===
 
===Papers===
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* Greenwald, A. (1980). "The Totalitarian Ego: Fabrication and Revision of Personal History" ''American Psychologist'', Vol. 35, No. 7
  +
* Koriat,A., ­ Goldsmith, M., and ­ Pansky, A. (2000). "Toward a Psychology of Memory Accuracy" Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 51: 481-537.
  +
* Schacter, D. L. (1999). "The Seven Sins of Memory: Insights From Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience" ''American Psychologist'' Vol. 54. No. 3, 182-203
  +
* Schacter, D. L., J. Y. Chiao, J. P. Mitchell. (2003). "The Seven Sins of Memory. Implications for Self" ''Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences'' 1001 (1), 226–239.
 
==Additional material==
 
==Additional material==
 
===Books===
 
===Books===
Line 58: Line 58:
 
==External links==
 
==External links==
   
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{{Memory}}
   
   

Latest revision as of 07:25, December 29, 2007

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In psychology and cognitive science, a memory bias is a cognitive bias that either enhances or impairs the recall of a memory (either the chances that the memory will be recalled at all, or the amount of time it takes for it to be recalled, or both), or that alters the content of a reported memory. There are many types of memory bias, including:

  • Beneffectance: perceiving oneself as responsible for desirable outcomes but not responsible for undesirable ones. (Term coined by Greenwald, 1980)
  • Choice-supportive bias: remembering chosen options as having been better than rejected options (Mather, Shafir & Johnson, 2000).
  • Change bias: after an investment of effort in producing change, remembering one's past performance as more different than it actually was (Schacter, 1999)
  • Consistency bias: incorrectly remembering one's past attitudes and behaviour as resembling present attitudes and behaviour.
  • Context effect: that cognition and memory are dependent on context, such that out-of-context memories are more difficult to retrieve than in-context memories (e.g., recall time and accuracy for a work-related memory will be lower at home, and vice versa).
  • Cryptomnesia: a form of misattribution where a memory is mistaken for imagination, because there is no subjective experience of it being a memory.
  • Egocentric bias: recalling the past in a self-serving manner, e.g. remembering one's exam grades as being better than they were, or remembering a caught fish as being bigger than it really was
  • Hindsight bias: the inclination to see past events as being predictable; also called the "I-knew-it-all-along" effect.
  • Humor effect: that humorous items are more easily remembered than non-humorous ones, which might be explained by the distinctiveness of humor, the increased cognitive processing time to understand the humor, or the emotional arousal caused by the humor.
  • Infantile amnesia: the retention of few memories from before the age of two years.
  • Generation effect: that self-generated information is remembered best.
  • Lag effect
  • Leveling and Sharpening: memory distortions introduced by the loss of details in a recollection over time, often concurrent with sharpening or selective recollection of certain details that take on exaggerated significance in relation to the details or aspects of the experience lost through leveling. Both biases may be reinforced over time, and by repeated recollection or re-telling of a memory. (e.g., Koriat,­ Goldsmith and ­Pansky, 2000)
  • Levels-of-processing effect: that different methods of encoding information into memory have different levels of effectiveness (Craik & Lockhart, 1972).
  • List-length effect
  • Mere exposure effect: that familiarity increases liking.
  • Misinformation effect: that misinformation affects people's reports of their own memory.
  • Misattribution: when information is retained in memory but the source of the memory is forgotten. One of Schacter's (1999) Seven Sins of Memory, Misattribution was divided into Source Confusion, Cryptomnesia and False Recall/False Recognition
  • Modality effect: that memory recall is higher for the last items of a list when the list items were received via speech than when they were received via writing.
  • Mood congruent memory bias: the improved recall of information congruent with one's current mood.
  • Next-in-line effect
  • Part-list cueing effect: that being shown some items from a list makes it harder to retrieve the other items (e.g., Slamecka, 1968).
  • Persistence: the unwanted recurrence of memories of a traumatic event
  • Picture superiority effect: that concepts are much more likely to be remembered experientially if they are presented in picture form than if they are presented in word form.
  • Positivity effect: that older adults favor positive over negative information in their memories.
  • Processing difficulty effect
  • Primacy effect: that the first items on a list show an advantage in memory.
  • Recency effect: that the last items on a list show an advantage in memory.
  • Reminiscence bump: the recalling of more personal events from adolescence and early adulthood than personal events from other lifetime periods (Rubin, Wetzler & Nebes, 1986; Rubin, Rahhal & Poon, 1998).
  • Rosy retrospection: the remembering of the past as having been better than it really was.
  • Serial position effect: that items near the end of a list are the easiest to recall, followed by the items at the beginning of a list; items in the middle are the least likely to be remembered.
  • Self-generation effect: that people are better able to recall memories of statements that they have generated than similar statements generated by others.
  • Self-relevance effect: that memories considered self-relevant are better recalled than other, similar information.
  • Source Confusion: misattributing the source of a memory, e.g. misremembering that one saw an event personally when actually it was seen on television
  • Spacing effect: that information is better recalled if exposure to it is repeated over a longer span of time.
  • Stereotypical bias: memory distorted towards stereotypes (e.g. racial or gender), e.g. "black-sounding" names being misremembered as names of criminals (Schacter, 1999)
  • Suffix effect: the weakening of the recency effect in the case that an item is appended to the list that the subject is not required to recall (Morton, Crowder & Prussin, 1972).
  • Suggestibility: a form of misattribution where ideas suggested by a questioner are mistaken for memory.
  • Telescoping effect: the tendency to displace recent events backward in time and remote events forward in time, so that recent events appear to be more remote, and remote events, more recent.
  • Testing effect: that frequent testing of material that has been committed to memory improves memory recall.
  • Tip of the Tongue phenomenon: when a subject is able to recall parts of an item, or related information, but is frustratingly unable to recall the whole item. This is thought to be an instance of "blocking" where multiple similar memories are being recalled and interfere with each other (Schacter, 1999)
  • Verbatim effect: that the "gist" of what someone has said is better remembered than the verbatim wording (Poppenk, Walia, Joanisse, Danckert, & Köhler, 2006).
  • Von Restorff effect: that an item that sticks out is more likely to be remembered than other items (von Restorff, 1933).
  • Zeigarnik effect: that uncompleted or interrupted tasks are remembered better than completed ones.

See alsoEdit

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

  • Greenwald, A. (1980). "The Totalitarian Ego: Fabrication and Revision of Personal History" American Psychologist, Vol. 35, No. 7
  • Koriat,A., ­ Goldsmith, M., and ­ Pansky, A. (2000). "Toward a Psychology of Memory Accuracy" Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 51: 481-537.
  • Schacter, D. L. (1999). "The Seven Sins of Memory: Insights From Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience" American Psychologist Vol. 54. No. 3, 182-203
  • Schacter, D. L., J. Y. Chiao, J. P. Mitchell. (2003). "The Seven Sins of Memory. Implications for Self" Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1001 (1), 226–239.

Additional materialEdit

BooksEdit

PapersEdit

External linksEdit


Memory
Types of memory
Articulatory suppression‎ | Auditory memory | Autobiographical memory | Collective memory | Early memories | Echoic Memory | Eidetic memory | Episodic memory | Episodic-like memory  | Explicit memory  |Exosomatic memory | False memory |Flashbulb memory | Iconic memory | Implicit memory | Institutional memory | Long term memory | Music-related memory | Procedural memory | Prospective memory | Repressed memory | Retrospective memory | Semantic memory | Sensory memory | Short term memory | Spatial memory | State-dependent memory | Tonal memory | Transactive memory | Transsaccadic memory | Verbal memory  | Visual memory  | Visuospatial memory  | Working memory  |
Aspects of memory
Childhood amnesia | Cryptomnesia |Cued recall | Eye-witness testimony | Memory and emotion | Forgetting |Forgetting curve | Free recall | Levels-of-processing effect | Memory consolidation |Memory decay | Memory distrust syndrome |Memory inhibition | Memory and smell | Memory for the future | Memory loss | Memory optimization | Memory trace | Mnemonic | Memory biases  | Modality effect | Tip of the tongue | Lethologica | Memory loss |Priming | Primacy effect | Reconstruction | Proactive interference | Prompting | Recency effect | Recall (learning) | Recognition (learning) | Reminiscence | Retention | Retroactive interference | Serial position effect | Serial recall | Source amnesia |
Memory theory
Atkinson-Shiffrin | Baddeley | CLARION | Decay theory | Dual-coding theory | Interference theory |Memory consolidation | Memory encoding | Memory-prediction framework | Forgetting | Recall | Recognition |
Mnemonics
Method of loci | Mnemonic room system | Mnemonic dominic system | Mnemonic learning | Mnemonic link system |Mnemonic major system | Mnemonic peg system | [[]] |[[]] |
Neuroanatomy of memory
Amygdala | Hippocampus | prefrontal cortex  | Neurobiology of working memory | Neurophysiology of memory | Rhinal cortex | Synapses |[[]] |
Neurochemistry of memory
Glutamatergic system  | of short term memory | [[]] |[[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |[[]] |
Developmental aspects of memory
Prenatal memory | |Childhood memory | Memory and aging | [[]] | [[]] |
Memory in clinical settings
Alcohol amnestic disorder | Amnesia | Dissociative fugue | False memory syndrome | False memory | Hyperthymesia | Memory and aging | Memory disorders | Memory distrust syndrome  Repressed memory  Traumatic memory |
Retention measures
Benton | CAMPROMPT | Implicit memory testing | Indirect tests of memory | MAS | Memory tests for children | MERMER | Rey-15 | Rivermead | TOMM | Wechsler | WMT | WRAML2 |
Treating memory problems
CBT | EMDR | Psychotherapy | Recovered memory therapy |Reminiscence therapy | Memory clinic | Memory training | Rewind technique |
Prominant workers in memory|-
Baddeley | Broadbent |Ebbinghaus  | Kandel |McGaugh | Schacter  | Treisman | Tulving  |
Philosophy and historical views of memory
Aristotle | [[]] |[[]] |[[]] |[[]] | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |
Miscellaneous
Journals | Learning, Memory, and Cognition |Journal of Memory and Language |Memory |Memory and Cognition | [[]] | [[]] | [[]] |
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