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This page lists common abbreviations for grammatical terms that are used in linguistic interlinear glossing.

Abbreviations beginning with TEMPLATE:NOCAPS (a common prefix for non-) or ending with TEMPLATE:NOCAPS (a common suffix for -izer) may not be listed separately. For example, TEMPLATE:NOCAPS non-past and TEMPLATE:NOCAPS transitivizer are not listed, as they are composable from TEMPLATE:NOCAPS non- + TEMPLATE:NOCAPS past and TEMPLATE:NOCAPS transitive + TEMPLATE:NOCAPS -izer.

Gloss Meaning
direction of transitivity or possession
(2›3 may mean 2 acts on 3; 1sg›sg may mean a 1sg possessor and a singular possessum)
0 zero (null), covert form
(such as gender in a language where the word doesn't show it)
1 first person
2 second person
3 third person
A agent-like argument of canonical transitive verb
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS abessive case (TEMPLATE:NOCAPS caritive case or privative case: 'without')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS ablative case ('from')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS absolutive case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS accusative case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS accompanier
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS active voice, actor role
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS adjective
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS adessive case ('at'; more specific than TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS admonitive mood (warning)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS adverb(ial), adverbial case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS affirmative mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS agentive case (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS agreement
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS allative case ('to')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS allocutive agreement
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS alienable possession
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS animate gender (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS andative (going towards: cf venitive)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS anterior tense (used for TEMPLATE:NOCAPS in some traditions)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS antessive case ('before')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS anticausative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS antipassive voice
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS aorist (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS or TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS apposition
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS applicative voice
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS apprehensive mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS approximative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS article
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS associative case (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS), assumptive mood, assertive
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS agent trigger (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS agent voice)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS attenuative; attributive (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS auditory evidential
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS augmentative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS auxiliary verb
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS core benefactive
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS 'be' verb (a conflation of TEMPLATE:NOCAPS and TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS benefactive case ('for')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS common gender; complementizer
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS (cap)ability, modal case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS causative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS centric case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS counterfactual conditional
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS circumfix
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS citation form
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS classifier
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS conjunction (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS consequential
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS collective plural
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS comitative case ('together with')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS comparative; complementizer
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS completive aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS concessive
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS conditional mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS conjunction (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS connective particle
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS continuative aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS contrastive
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS copula
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS coreference
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS crastinal tense ('tomorrow')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS current relevance marker (as in the perfect)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS converb
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS core dative case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS dative case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS different event, change of event (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS declarative mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS definite
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS deixis, deictic
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS delayed imperative (a command to do s.t. later)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS delative case ('off of'), deliberative mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS demonstrative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS deontic mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS dependent (as in TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS desiderative mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS destinative aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS determiner
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS detransitive
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS motion downhill, seaward (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS diminutive
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS direct evidential (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS); directional (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS); direct case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS disjunction
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS distal demonstrative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS distributive case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS ditransitive
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS delimited
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS discourse marker
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS direct object
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS motion downriver (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS different-subject (change of subject) marker (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS dual number
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS dubitative mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS durative aspect, continuous aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS dyadic
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS dynamic aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS epenthetic morpheme
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS (used to form various -essive cases)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS elative case ('out of')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS emphatic
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS epistemic mood, epistemic modality
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS ergative case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS essive case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS evidential
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS evitative case (= aversive case)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS exclusive person
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS exclamative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS excessive duration
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS existential ('there is')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS exocentric case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS experiential, eyewitness, = direct evidential
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS expletive (dummy / meaningless form)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS feminine gender
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS factive evidential
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS familiar register (as the T-V distinction)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS finite verb
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS focus
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS formal register (as the T-V distinction)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS final particle (joshi)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS frequentative aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS former, deceased
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS future tense
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS gender (G4 = the 4th gender)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS genitive case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS gerund
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS gnomic (generic) aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS goal trigger (Austronesian; = TEMPLATE:NOCAPS goal voice)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS habitual aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS humble register
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS hesternal tense ('yesterday')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS historic(al), as in historical present or past historic tense
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS hodiernal tense ('today')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS honorific
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS hortative,
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS hearsay, reported evidential
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS human, anthropic gender (cf. TEMPLATE:NOCAPS; TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS hypothetical mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS inflected
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS identical (~ TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS identifiable
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS ideophone (≈ TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS ignorative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS illative case ('into')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS immediate, as in immediate imperative mood, near future tense
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS imperative mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS imperfect (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS imprecative mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS impersonal verb
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS inclusive person
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS inalienable possession
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS inanimate gender
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS inchoative aspect, inceptive aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS inclusive person (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS indicative mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS indefinite
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS inessive case ('in')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS infinitive
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS inferential evidential
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS inelative case ('from within')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS instrumental case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS intensifier; interrogative (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS intentional
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS intransitive (covers an intransitive case for the S argument)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS inverse
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS indirect object
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS imperfective aspect (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS irrealis mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS indirect speech
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS iterative aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS jussive mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS (used to form various -lative cases)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS second language (code-switching)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS lative case (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS, direction)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS locative case + directional
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS linker
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS locative case (includes essive case)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS logophoric
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS masculine gender
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS manner
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS middle voice
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS mimetic (≈ TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS (ad)mirative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS mood, modal, modal case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS single action verb (not iterative)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS movement
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS neuter gender
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS non- (e.g. TEMPLATE:NOCAPS non-singular, TEMPLATE:NOCAPS non-past, TEMPLATE:NOCAPS non-feminine)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS negation, negative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS non-human
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS nominalizer/nominalization
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS nominative case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS non-subject (Latin 'oblique case')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS intransitive (covers an intransitive case for the S argument)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS numeral
O patient-like argument (object) of canonical transitive verb (= P)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS object
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS oblique case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS obviative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS optative mood
P patient-like argument of canonical transitive verb (= O)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS pre-, post- (TEMPLATE:NOCAPS prehodiernal)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS participle (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS); particle (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS); partitive case (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS passive voice
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS patientive (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS paucal number
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS pegative case (a special case for the giver)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS perlative case ('per', using)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS perfect (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS personal
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS perfective aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS plural
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS pluractional
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS phrase marker, predicate marker
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS pronoun
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS primary object
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS polite register
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS possessive marker
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS postposition, postpositional case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS postessive case ('after')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS potential mood (a possible conditional)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS past / passive participle
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS past passive participle
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS past perfective
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS proper noun
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS predicative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS precative mood (requests)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS preposition, prepositional case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS present tense
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS present participle
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS preterite (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS perfect (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS present tense
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS probability
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS progressive aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS prohibitive mood ('don't!')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS prolative case (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS propositive mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS prospective aspect
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS protasis
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS proximal/proximate
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS past tense
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS patient trigger
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS particle
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS participle
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS partitive case ('some of')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS purposive
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS question word or particle (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS quotative case or mood (marks quoted speech)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS rational gender (thinking beings)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS realis mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS recent past tense
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS reciprocal voice
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS referential
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS reflexive voice
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS relative(izer)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS remote past tense
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS reported evidential (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS); repetitive (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS resultative; resumptive
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS retrospective (synonym for 'perfect' in some traditions)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS referential
S single argument of canonical intransitive verb (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS subject
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS subjunctive mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS same event (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS semelfactive aspect ('once')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS sensory evidential mood (= TEMPLATE:NOCAPS+TEMPLATE:NOCAPS
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS sequential
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS singular (but 1.TEMPLATE:NOCAPS = 1s, 3TEMPLATE:NOCAPS = 3ms)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS singulative number
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS simultaneous aspect; similative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS subjunctive mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS specifier; speculative mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS same-subject (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS stative aspect, stative verb
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS subject
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS subordinator
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS subessive case ('under')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS sublative case ('onto', 'down onto')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS superlative (TEMPLATE:NOCAPS); supine; supplicative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS superessive case ('on')
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS trigger (used for TEMPLATE:NOCAPS, TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS tense, aspect, or mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS telic aspect (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS temporal case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS terminative case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS tense
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS topic
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS transitive verb
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS translative case (becoming)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS trial number
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS trans-numeral (neither TEMPLATE:NOCAPS nor TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS truth-value focus
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS uninflected
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS motion uphill, inland (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS undergoer role (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS motion upriver (cf TEMPLATE:NOCAPS)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS usitative
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS verb(al)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS verbalizer
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS verb, ditransitive
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS venitive (coming towards; cf andative)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS veridical mood (a certain conditional)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS vialis case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS visible, visual
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS verb, intransitive
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS verbal noun
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS vocative case
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS volitive mood
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS verb, transitive
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS wh-question
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS -(al)izer (e.g. TEMPLATE:NOCAPS transitivizer)
TEMPLATE:NOCAPS zoic gender (animals)

References Edit

  • Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition.
  • Leipzig Glossing Rules
  • Payne, Thomas E. 1997. Describing Morphosyntax.
  • Bybee, Perkins, Pagliuca. 1994. The Evolution of Grammar.
  • Blake, Guide to Terminology.
  • Aikhenvald, Alexandra. 2004. Evidentiality.
  • Helasvuo, Marja-Liisa. Argument splits in Finnish grammar and discourse.
  • Bernd Heine, Tania Kuteva. 2006. The changing languages of Europe.
  • Paul Kroeber. 1999. The Salish language family: reconstructing syntax.
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