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Individual differences |
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The following is a list of current and past notable artificial intelligence projects.
- aHuman, hybrid of latest neurobiology data and Numenta findings aimed to implement human personality by means of computer program, started in 2008 as independent research.
- Blue Brain Project, an attempt to create a synthetic brain by reverse-engineering the mammalian brain down to the molecular level.
- HNeT (Holographic Neural Technology), a technology by AND Corporation (Artificial Neural Devices) based on non linear phase coherence/decoherence principles.
- Hierarchical Temporal Memory, a technology by Numenta to capture and replicate the properties of the neocortex.
- Visual Hierarchical Modular Neural Network, a software technology by TinMan Systems to visually construct a flow of human thought and logic to produce autonomous artificial intelligence.
- A.I.L.E.E.N.N. Artificial Intelligence Logic Electronic Emulation Neural Network, an entire new Cloud based PaaS platform as a service and IaaS Infrastructure for AI represented as a ubiquitous entity based on Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic with universal inputs, outputs and actuators aiming to the democratization and human-like interaction as the ultimate resource planner, decision making process and actuator. By the founders of TDVision
- 4CAPS, developed at Carnegie Mellon University under Marcel A. Just
- ACT-R, developed at Carnegie Mellon University under John R. Anderson.
- PreAct, developed under Dr. Norm Geddes at ASI.
- Apex developed under Michael Freed at NASA Ames Research Center.
- CALO, a DARPA-funded, 25-institution effort to integrate many artificial intelligence approaches (natural language processing, speech recognition, machine vision, probabilistic logic, planning, reasoning, many forms of machine learning) into an AI assistant that learns to help manage your office environment.
- CHREST, developed under Fernand Gobet at Brunel University and Peter C. Lane at the University of Hertfordshire.
- CLARION the cognitive architecture, developed under Ron Sun at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and University of Missouri.
- CoJACK, an ACT-R inspired extension to the JACK multi-agent system that adds a cognitive architecture to the agents for eliciting more realistic (human-like) behaviors in virtual environments.
- Copycat, by Douglas Hofstadter and Melanie Mitchell at the Indiana University.
- DUAL, developed at the New Bulgarian University under Boicho Kokinov.
- EPIC, developed under David E. Kieras and David E. Meyer at the University of Michigan.
- The H-Cogaff architecture, which is a special case of the CogAff schema; see Taylor & Sayda, and Sloman refs below.
- FORR developed by Susan L. Epstein at The City University of New York.
- IDA and LIDA, implementing Global Workspace Theory, developed under Stan Franklin at the University of Memphis.
- OpenCog Prime, developed using the OpenCog Framework.
- PRODIGY, by Veloso et al.
- Procedural Reasoning System (PRS), developed by Michael Georgeff and Amy L. Lansky at SRI International.
- Psi-Theory developed under Dietrich Dörner at the Otto-Friedrich University in Bamberg, Germany.
- R-CAST, developed at the Pennsylvania State University.
- Soar, developed under Allen Newell and John Laird at Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Michigan.
- Society of mind and its successor the Emotion machine proposed by Marvin Minsky.
- Subsumption architectures, developed e.g. by Rodney Brooks (though it could be argued whether they are cognitive).
- Chinook, a computer program that plays English draughts; the first to win the world champion title in the competition against humans.
- Deep Blue, a chess-playing computer developed by IBM which beat Garry Kasparov in 1997.
- FreeHAL, a self-learning conversation simulator (chatterbot) which uses semantic nets to organize its knowledge to imitate a very close human behavior within conversations.
- Poki, research into computer poker by the University of Alberta.
- TD-Gammon, a program that learned to play world-class backgammon partly by playing against itself (temporal difference learning with neural networks).
Knowledge and reasoningEdit
- Cyc, an attempt to assemble an ontology and database of everyday knowledge, enabling human-like reasoning.
- Eurisko, a language by Douglas Lenat for solving problems which consists of heuristics, including some for how to use and change its heuristics.
- Mycin, an early medical expert system.
- Open Mind Common Sense, a project based at the MIT Media Lab to build a large common sense knowledge base from online contributions.
- P.A.N., a publicly available text analyzer.
- Questsin, uses Query by Example and features a dictionary, knowledge base, repository, reference, and thesaurus.
- Siri, a voice-interface artificial intelligence program built into the iPhone 4S.
- SNePS, a simultaneously a logic-based, frame-based, and network-based knowledge representation, reasoning, and acting system.
- Watson, a question answering system developed by IBM to play the Jeopardy! gameshow.
- Wolfram Alpha, an online service that answers factual queries directly by computing the answer from structured data, capable of responding to particularly phrased natural-language fact-based questions.
Motion and manipulationEdit
- Cog, a robot developed by MIT to study theories of cognitive science and artificial intelligence, now discontinued.
- Grand Challenge 5 – Architecture of Brain and Mind, a UK attempt to understand and model natural intelligence at various levels of abstraction, demonstrating results in a succession of increasingly sophisticated working robots.
- AIBO, the first robot pet for the home, grew out of Sony's Computer Science Laboratory (CSL). Famed engineer Dr. Toshitada Doi is credited as AIBO’s original progenitor: in 1994 he had started work on robots with artificial intelligence expert Masahiro Fujita within CSL of Sony. Doi's, friend, the artist Hajime Sorayama, was enlisted to create the initial designs for the AIBO's body. Those designs are now part of the permanent collections of Museum of Modern Art and the Smithsonian Institution, with later versions of AIBO being used in studies in Carnegie Mellon University. In 2006, AIBO was added into Carnegie Mellon University's "Robot Hall of Fame".
Natural language processingEdit
- AIML, an XML dialect for creating natural language software agents.
- Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity (A.L.I.C.E.), an award-winning natural language processing chatterbot.
- ELIZA, a famous 1966 computer program by Joseph Weizenbaum, which parodied person-centered therapy.
- InfoTame, a text analysis search engine originally developed by the KGB for sorting communications intercepts.
- Jabberwacky, a chatterbot by Rollo Carpenter, aiming to simulate a natural human chat.
- KAR-Talk, a chatterbot by I.-A.Industrie.
- KAR Intelligent Computer, an artificial intelligence software included in the CEPC 230 KAR's computer from Continental Edison.
- PARRY, another early famous chatterbot, written in 1972 by Kenneth Colby, attempting to simulate a paranoid schizophrenic.
- Proverb, a system that can solve crossword puzzles better than most humans.
- SHRDLU, an early natural language processing computer program developed by Terry Winograd at MIT from 1968 to 1970.
- START, the world's first web-based question answering system, developed at the MIT CSAIL.
- SYSTRAN, a machine translation technology by a company of the same name, used by Yahoo!, AltaVista and Google, among others.
- Texai, an open source project to create artificial intelligence, starting with a bootstrap English dialog system that intelligently acquires knowledge and behaviors.
- O-Plan, a project to provide a modular and flexible planning and control system using AI, at Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute (AIAI), University of Edinburgh.
- Kreator, an optimization problem solving software by Intelligentics that uses A.I. techniques.
- OpenAIR, a routing and communication protocol based on a publish-subscribe architecture, built especially for A.I. research.
- Synthetic Environment for Analysis and Simulations (SEAS), a model of the real world used by Homeland security and the United States Department of Defense that uses simulation and AI to predict and evaluate future events and courses of action.
- dANN, a freely available AI library implemented in Java, implementing graph theory, ANN, GA, Markov Chains, graphical models (bayesian networks, HMM), etc.
- ELKI, a research project and software framework with many data mining algorithms (in particular cluster analysis and outlier detection) and index structures by the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich.
- FRDCSA, an attempt to package and integrate all FOSS AI systems for GNU+Linux-based systems.
- I-X, a systems integration architecture project for the creation of intelligent systems at Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute (AIAI), University of Edinburgh.
- OpenCog, a GPL-licensed framework for machine learning, genetic programming, probabilistic reasoning, natural language processing and virtual world embodiment, written in C++, Python and Scheme.
- RapidMiner, an environment for machine learning and data mining, developed by the Dortmund University of Technology.
- Weka, a free implementation of many machine learning algorithms in Java.
- Pogamut, a free platform for Java AI development in games, developed by the Charles University in Prague
- CILib, a library of different computational intelligence algorithms and supporting APIs, supporting different paradigms: Swarm Intelligence, Evolutionary Computation, Neural Networks, Game Playing (developed by the Computational Intelligence Research Group (CIRG@UP) Department of Computer Science University of Pretoria South Africa).
- Encog, a neural network and artificial intelligence framework available for Java, .Net, and Silverlight.
- Neuroph, a Java neural network framework.
- ↑ Proverb: The probabilistic cruciverbalist (AAAI–99 Outstanding Paper Award). By Greg A. Keim, Noam Shazeer, Michael L. Littman, Sushant Agarwal, Catherine M. Cheves, Joseph Fitzgerald, Jason Grosland, Fan Jiang, Shannon Pollard, and Karl Weinmeister. 1999. In Proceedings of the Sixteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 710-717. Menlo Park, Calif.: AAAI Press.
- ↑ The Register article Sentient world: war games on the grandest scale published 23 June 2007
- ↑ dANN Homepage
- ↑ ELKI Homepage
- ↑ FRDCSA Homepage
- ↑ Pogamut Homepage
- ↑ CILib
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