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Individual differences |
Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology |
Altshuller studied the way technical systems have been invented, developed and improved over time. He discovered several evolution trends that help engineers to predict what are the most likely improvements that can be made to a given product. Ideality is considered by some to be the most important of these laws. There are two concepts of ideality, ideality as a leading pathway of a technical systems evolution. Ideality as synonym of ideal final result is one of the basic TRIZ concepts.
Studying pathes of evolution of technical systems has been a primary research method of TRIZ since its inception. But until the 1970 the discovered recurrent patterns of evolution were not consolidated into a separate section of TRIZ and were scattered amongst other sections. In the 1970s Altshuller consolidated them into a new section of TRIZ that he called "The Laws of Technical Systems Evolution". It included both previously discovered recurrent patterns of evolution and newly discovered ones. Studying "laws of evolution" became an independent research topic in TRIZ. The following authors, besides Altshuller, contributed most to it: Yuri Khotimlyansky (studied patterns of energy conductivity in technical systems), Vladimir Asinovsky (proposed principles of correspondance of various components of technical systems), Yevgeny Karasik (co-authored with Altshuller the law of transition from a macro-level to a micro-level, introduced the notion of dual technical systems and studied the patterns of their evolution).
System of lawsEdit
In his pioneering work of 1975, Altshuller subdivided all laws of technical systems evolution into 3 categories:
- Statics - describes criteria of viability of newly created technical systems.
- Kinematics - define how technical systems evolve regardless conditions.
- Dynamics - define how technical systems evolve under specific conditions.
Static Laws Edit
- The law of the completeness of the parts of the system
- The law of energy conductivity of the system
- The law of harmonizing the rhythms of parts of the system
Kinematic Laws Edit
- Law of increasing ideality
The ideality (TRIZ) of a system is a qualitative ratio between all desirable benefits of the system, and its cost or other harmful effects. When trying to decide how to improve a given invention, one naturally would attempt to increase ideality: either to increase beneficial features, or else to decrease cost or reduce harmful effects. The Ideal Final Result would have all the benefits at zero cost. That cannot be achieved; the law states, however, that successive versions of a technical design usually increase ideality.
Rantanen (2002) mentions a surprising example where the [[ideal] ] ultimate system is about to be achieved. The problem addressed is "improve the muffler of a gasoline engine lawn mower such as it makes less noise". But looking at the system the lawn mower serves, the real problem is "how to get the grass to be short (without making much noise}". The ideal solution thus is "to make lawn mowers unnecessary", for example - by purchasing transgenic seeds that produce short grass which does not grow too much! These seeds have not been invented yet, but given the accelerating pace of transgenic development, they might soon.
- The law of uneven development of parts of a system
- The law of transition to a super-system
Dynamic Laws Edit
- Transition from macro to micro level
The development of working organs proceeds at first on a macro and then a micro level. The transition from macro to micro level is one of the main (if not the main) tendency of the development of medern technical systems. Therefore in studying the solution of inventive problems, special attention should be paid to examingin the "macro to micro transition" and the physical effects which have brought this transition about.
- Increasing the S-Field involvement
Except for #5,6,7,8,9,47,48 all references are in Russian. Reference #5,6,7,8,9,47,48 is in English
- Altshuller G.S., ‘Creativity As an Exact Science. Theory of Inventive Problems Solving’, (Moscow, Sovetskoye Radio, 1979).
- Altshuller G.S., ‘To Find an Idea: Introduction to the Theory of Inventive Problems Solving’, (Novosibirsk, Nauka, 1986)
- Altshuller G.S & Vertkin I., ‘Lines of Voidness Increase’, (Baku, 1987, Manuscript).
- Altshuller G.S., ‘Small Infinite Worlds: Standards For Solving Inventive Problems’, in ‘A Thread in a Labyrinth’, Karelia, 1988, pp 183-185.
- Vladimir Petrov. The Laws of System Evolution 
- Vladimir Petrov. Laws of Dialectics in Technology Evolution. 
- Vladimir Petrov. Laws of Development of Needs. 
- Vladimir Petrov. Logic of ARIZ 
- Vladimir Petrov, Avraam Seredinski. Progress and Ideality. 
- Petrov V.M., ‘A System Analysis for Selection of Technical Problems’, in ‘Methods of Design problem Solving’, Riga, pp.73-75.
- Zukov R.F. & Petrov V.M., ‘Modern Methods of Scientific and Technological Creativity’, (IPK SP, 1980).
- Petrov V.M., ‘Idealization of Technical Systems’. Presented at the conference ‘Problems of Developing Scientific and Technological Creativity of R&D personnel, Gorky, USSR, 1983, pp.60-62.
- Petrov V.M., ‘Regularities of Technical Systems Evolution’, Presented at the Conference ‘Methodology and methods for Technical Creativity’, June 30 - July 2, 1984, Novosibirsk, p. 52-54.
- Petrov V.M., ‘A Technique for Selecting Perspective Directions of Research and Development’,. (Leningrad, VNIIESO, 1985).
- Petrov V.M., 'Principles and Methodology for Selecting Perspective Directions of Research and Development in ship manufacturing’ Ph.D. Thesis, LKI, 1985.
- Petrov V.M., ‘Functional Structure of Informational Base for Predicting Scientific and Technological Progress’, In ‘Forecast of Progress and its Impact on Reducing the Cycle “Research - Manufacturing”, LDNTP, 1987, pp.35-38.
- Petrov V.M., ‘A Technology of Using Resources’, In ‘Theory and Practice of Technical Creativity Education’, Tchelyabinsk, 1988.
- Petrov V.M. & Zlotina E.S., ‘Theory of Inventive Problem Solving: A Basis for Technological Forecast’, (Methodical Developments, Leningrad, CNTTM Kvant, Bratislava: DT CCNTO, 1989).
- Petrov V.M. & Zlotina E.S., 'Theory of Inventive Problem Solving’ Course book, (Leningrad, 1990).
- Petrov V.M. & Zlotina E.S., ‘Laws of System Evolution”, (Leningrad, 1990).
- Petrov V.M. & Zlotina E.S., ‘Increase of the degree of Substance Fragmentation’, (Tel-Aviv, 1991).
- Petrov V.M. & Zlotina E.S., ‘Laws of System Evolution”, (Tel-Aviv, 1992).
- Zlotina E.S & Petrov V.M., ‘A Structure and Principal Concepts of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving’, (Tel-Aviv, 1992).
- Petrov V.M. & Zlotina E.S., ‘Structural Substance-Field Analysis’, A Coursebook, (Tel-Aviv, 1992).
- Altshuller G.S, Zlotin B.L., Zusman A.V. & Philatov V.I., ‘Search For New Ideas: From Insight to Technology. A Practice of inventive Problem Solving’, (Kishinev, Karte Molavenjaske, 1989).
- Proceedings of the Scientic-Practical Conference, June 30 - July 2, 1984, Novosibirsk, pp 70-72.
- Guerassimov V.M & Litvin S.S., ‘Taking into Account the Trends of Technology Evolution During Value Engineering Analysis of Manufacturing Processes’, in ‘Practice of Performing Value Engineering Analysis in Electroengineering Industry’. M.G. Karpunin, ed., Moscow, Energoatomizdat, 1987, pp. 193-210.
- Guerassimov V.M & Litvin S.S., ‘Why the Technology Needs Pluralism’, Journal of TRIZ, 1, 1/90, pp.11-25.
- Ivanov G.I., ‘And Start to Invent’, (Irkutsk, Vostocho-Sibirskoe Kn. Izdatelstvo, 1987), pp. 187-190.
- Fey V.R. ‘In search of an ideal Substance’, Journal of TRIZ, 1/90, pp. 31-40.
- Frenklah G.B. & Ezersky G.A., ‘About Some Regularities of Sypersystem Transitions’, Journal of TRIZ, 1, 1/90, pp. 25-29.
- Zakharov I.S., ‘TRIZ and Marxism: An Experience With Predicting Crises of a Theory’, Journal of TRIZ, 3, 1/92 (5), pp. 13-23.
- Guerassimov V.M & Litvin S.S., ‘Basic Statements of the Technique for Performing VEA. Convolution and Super-effect’. Journal of TRIZ, 3, 2/92, pp. 7-45.
- Dubrov V.E., ‘A Method For Searching For Super-effects’, Journal of TRIZ, 3, 2/92, pp. 46-50.
- Mitrofanov V.V., ‘Several Thoughts About Ideality’, Journal of TRIZ, Angarsk Version, 1993 (Electronic Edition), pp. 45-47.
- Ivanov G.I., ‘The Law of Through Energy Transport’, Journal of TRIZ, Angarsk Version, 1993 (Electronic Edition), pp. 48-52.
- Bystritsky A.A., ‘Systematics of Technical System and Technical Models’, Journal of TRIZ, Angarsk Version, 1993 (Electronic Edition), pp. 35-36.
- Zlotin B.L. & Zusman A.V. ‘General Laws of Evolution’, Journal of TRIZ, 1/94, pp. 24-28.
- Zakharov A.N., ‘Towards Developing a System of Laws of Technology Evolution’, Journal of TRIZ, 1/95, (? 10), pp. 19-29.
- Pinyaev A.M., ‘Union Under the Function Sign (A functional Approach to Amalgamation of Alternative Systems). Journal of TRIZ, 1/95, (? 10), pp. 33-37.
- Zakharov A.N., ‘A Hierarchy of Systems: Upwards the stairs leading up’, Journal of TRIZ, 1/96, (? 11), pp. 34-39.
- Zakharov A.N., ‘About Unity of TRIZ Tools”, Technology of Creativity, ?1, 1999, pp. 19-38.
- Salamatov Yu.P., ‘A System of Laws of Technology Evolution (Basics of The Theory of Technical System Evolution’, http://www.triz.minsk.by/e/21101300.htm, (Second Edition, Krasnoyarsk, INSTITUTE OF INNOVATIVE DESIGN, 1996).
- Rubin M.S. ‘Methods of Prediction on the basis of TRIZ’, http://www.trizminsk.org/e/216002.htm.
- Ivanov G.I. “Questions of Self-organization in Technical Systems’, http://www.trizminsk.org/e/248005.htm
- Zakharov A., "Universal Scheme of Evolution - Theory and Practice", IZOBRETENIA, Journal of Altshuller Institute, April 2004
- Zakharov A., "Universal Scheme of Evolution - Theory and Practice" (updated edition), TRIZ Journal, June 2004, http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2004/06/04.pdf
- Zakharov A., "TRIZ Future Forecast", TRIZ Journal, August 2004, http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2004/08/05.pdf
- lt:Techninių sistemų evoliucijos dėsniai
- ru:Законы развития технических систем
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