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Language and Chimpanzees

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References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit



  • Fouts, R.S. (1972) The use of guidance in reaching sign language to a chimpanzee, Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology 80: 515-22.
  • Fouts, R. S. (1973). Acquisition and testing of gestural signs in four young chimpanzees. Science, 180, 978-80.
  • Gardner, B.T., & Gardner, R.A. (1975). Evidence for sentence constituents in the early utterances of child and chimpanzee. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 244-267.
  • Gardner R. Allen and Gardner Beatrice T. (1980) Comparative psychology and language acquisition. In Thomas A. Sebok and Jean-Umiker-Sebok (eds.): Speaking of Apes: A Critical Anthology of Two-Way Communication with Man. New York: Plenum Press, pp.287-329.
  • Gardner, B.T. and Gardner, R.A. (1971) Two-way communication with an infant chimpanzee. In: A.M.Schrier and F. Stollnitz (eds) Behaviour of Nonhuman Primates, vol. 4, New York: Academic Press.
  • Gardner, R.A. and Gardner, B.T. (1969) Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee, Science 165: 664-72.
  • Gardner, H. (1985) Frames of Mind: the Theory of Intelligences, London: Paladin.
  • Hayes, K.J. (1950) Vocalisation and speech in chimpanzees, American Psychologist 5: 275-6.
  • Matter, P.R. and Hobbett, L. (1975) Individuality in the long range vocalisations of wild chimpanzees, Zeitschrift fiir Tierpsychologie 38: 97-109.
  • Menzel, E.W, and Halperin, S. (1975) Purposive behaviour as a basis for objective communication

between chimpanzees, Science 189: 652-4.

  • Reynolds, V. (1963) Behaviour and social organisation of forest chimpanzees, Folia Primatologica 1: 95-102.

Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S., Pate, J.L., Lawson, J., Smith, T. and Rosenbaum, S. (1983) Can a chimpanzee make a statement? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 112: 457-92. Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S., Rumbaugh, D.M., Smith, S.T. and Lawson, J. (1980) Reference: the linguistic essential, Science 210: 922-5. Waal, F.B.M. de (1984) Sex differences in the formation of coalitions among chimpanzees, Ethology and Sociobiology 5: 239-55.

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