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Individual differences |
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Gardner's Socio-Educational modelEdit
Gardner(1982) identified a number of factor which are interested when learning a second language. Gardner set in a structured classroom rather than a natural environment and focus on the foreign language. This model attempts to interrelate four features of second language acquisition which are the social and cultural milieu, individual learner differences, the setting or context. In the Gardner's model, the most influential in second language acquisition is the four individual differences; intelligence, language aptitude, motivation, and situational anxiety.
Revised Socio-Education ModelEdit
Gardner (2001) presents a schematic representation of this model. There are four sections, External Infludences, Individual Differences, Language Acquisition Contexts, and Outcomes. The interesting thing is the category of Individual Differences. Under this group, there are two variables like as Integrativeness, Attitude toward the Learning Situation and Motivation. In the socio-educational model, motivation to learn the second language include three elements. First, the motivatied individual expends effort to learn the language. Second, the motivated individual wants to achieve the goal. Third, the motivated individual will enjoy the task of learning the language.
Role of motivation in language learningEdit
Two basic motivationsEdit
- Integrative Motivation
- Cookes & Schmidt (1991) identified as the learner's orientation with regard to the goal of learning a second language. It means that learner's positive attitues towards the target language group and the desire to integrate into the target language community.
- Instrumental Motivation
- Hudson (2000) characterized the desire to obtain something practical or concrete from the study of a second language. Instrumental motivation underlies the goal to gain some social or economic reward through L2 achievement.
Integrative Motivation from the Socio-Educational ModelEdit
The one who is integratively motivated to learn the second language has a desire to identify with the other language community, and tends to evaluate learning situation positively.
1) Cookes, G., & Schmidt R. W. (1991). Motivation:Reopening the research agenda. Language Learning, 41(4), 469-512.
2) Gardner, R.C. (1982). Language attuitudes and language learning. In E. Boudhard Ryan & H. Giles, Attitudes towards language bariation (pp. 132-147). Edward Arnold.
3) Gardner, R.C. (2001). Language Learning Motivation: the Student, the Teacher, and the Researche. Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education, 6, 1-18.
4) Hudson, G. (2000). Essential introductory linguistics. Blackwell Publishers.