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Main article: Introduction to language & communication

Language, the transmitter of culture, and with it, much of our psychological make up. Vygotsky called language a 'Tool of Intellectual Adaptation'. Our language allows us to have verbal thoughts, and with our thoughts we make the world.

References & BibliographyEdit

Key textsEdit


  • Boas, F. (1911) Handbook of American Indian Languages, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute.
  • Braine. M.D.S. (1963) The ontogeny of English phrase structure: the first phase, Language 39: 1-13.
  • Dixon, R.M.W. (1980) The Languages of Australia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ellis, A. and Beattie, G. (1986) The Psychology of Language and Communication, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson
  • Greene, J. (1975) Thinking and Language, London: Methuen.

Haugen, E. (1972) The Ecology of Language, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

  • Labov, W. (1972) The logic of nonstandard English. In: V. Lee (ed.) (1979) Language Development, London: Croom Helm/Open University.
  • Labov, W. (1973) The boundaries of words and their meanings. In: R.P. Stockwell and R.K.S. Mackauley (eds) Linguistic Change and Generative Theory, Bloomington, Ind.: University of Indiana Press.
  • Lenneberg, G.H. (1967) Biological Foundations of Language, New York: John Wiley.
  • Lieberman, P_ (1984) The Biology and Evolution of Language, London: Academic Press.
  • Lyons, J. (1981) Language and Linguistics: an Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Martyna, W. (1980) The psychology of generic masculine. In: S. McConnell-Ginet, R. Barker and N. Furman (eds) Women and Language in Literature and Society, New York: Praeger
  • Miller, C, and Swift, K. (1976) Words and Women: New Language in New Times, New York: Doubleday.
  • Opie, L. and Opie, P. (1959) The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Sapir, E. (1947) Selected Writings in Language, Culture and Personality, Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Schultz, M. (1975) The semantic derogation of woman. ln: B. Thorne and N. Henley (eds) Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance, Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House
  • Smith, P.M. (1985) Language, the Sexes and Society, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Spender, D. (1980) Man Made Language, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Stanley, J. (1977) Gender marking in American English. In: A.P. Nilsen et a!. (eds) Sexism and Language, Urbana, IT! NCTE.
  • Whorf, B.L. (1956) Language, Thought and Reality, New York: MIT Press.


  • Bernstein, B. (1973) Social class, language and socialisation. In: V. Lee (ed.) (1979) Language Development, London: Croom Helm/Open University.
  • Maslow, C., Yoselson, K. and London, M. (1971) Persuasiveness of confidence expressed via language and body language, British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 10: 234-40.
  • Olson, D. (1977) Prom utterance to text: the bias of language in speech and writing, Harvard Educational Review 47: 257-82.
  • Raugh, MR. and Atkinson, RC. (1975) A mnemonic method for learning a second language vocabulary, Journal of Educational Psychology 67: 1-16.

Additional materialEdit



Gazzaniga, M.S. and Sperry, R.W. (1967) Language after section of the cerebral commissures, Brain 90: 131-48. Morton, J. (1979) Facilitation in word recognition: experiments causing change in the logogen model. In: P.A. Kolers et al. (eds) Processing of Visible Language, Vol. 1, New York: Plenum Press. Clark, H. H. (1973). The language-as-fixed-effect fallacy: A critique of language statistics in psychological research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 335-359. Wike, E. L., and Church, J. D. (1976). Comments on Clark's "The language-as-fixed-effect fallacy." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 15, 249-255.


Language & communication: Academic support materials


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